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ENCYCLOPJEDIA AMERICANA. 



A .' 

POPULAR DICTIOIVARY 

• OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND 

BIOGRAPHY, 

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME; 

INCLUDING 

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES 

IN 

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY; 

ON 

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAll 



EOITBD BY 

FRANCIS LIEBEB, 

ASSISTED BT 

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD. 



VoL-vn. 



NEW EDITION. 



PiOaVelirtiUi: 

THOMAS, COWPERTHWAIT, & CO. 



1838. 



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- i 



Kf ^^■^ 




* EASTBMS IMBTRICT OF FENMBZLVAlllA, f» lettr 

Bb it bbmsmbbbbo, that on the tenth day of Aogost, in the fiftT-Toarth foer of the Independen c e of the 
United Statee of Amenoa, A. D. liB9, Oarer, Lea & Gbray, of the nid dirtriet, have deiMeitad in this oflloe 
ths title of a book, the rifht wiioreof they claim as propnelora, in the words f<riiowiDg, to wit : 

*' EnCTolopndia Americana. A Popular DictionaxT of Arts, Bcienoes, Literature, Hiatorr, Falitiea and 
Biography, broocht down to the preeent Time ; inclodinf a eopioos Collection of Original ArUeles in American 
Biofraphy ; 9B.the tBseisof .the sovonth Edition of theOerman Gonvenatione-Lexicon. iBditad: byTraocis Lieber, 
asritod by E. Wigglesworth.*' 

In eoofrnnity to the act of the Googrees of the United States, eaUtled, " An Act fbr the i 




and pwpcie t me of soch e*psB% daring the tioee tfaevin nentuiiedj 

Cbrik ^tk» Eaatmm DiMriu ff PenuflMnte. 



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ENCYCLOPiBDIA AMERICANA. 



LmucnoHy in logic ; a ooDclinon from 
the particular to the cenenJ. Strict coi> 
cknioQB an made fiom the general to 
the poiticuJar. The genenJ premise be- 
ing true, the (4>plJcation to the particular 
ease which is included in it ibliows with 
logical certainty. Induction gives only 
probalnlity. I^ for instance, we conclude, 
mm the earth being habitable, that the 
other planets are so, the conclusion is 
only probable. Induction reslB upon the 
bdbef that fleneFal laws and rules are ex- 
pRSMd in Uie particular case ; but a pos- 
ability always remains, that these general 
laws and nues are not perfectly known. 
An induction may be perfect or imperfect 
To make it perfect, the premises must in- 
elude all the grounds that can affect the 
resnte. If this is not the case, it is imper- 
fect For instance, every terrestrial ani- 
mal lives, eveiT aerial animal lives, every 
aquatic animal lives, every reptile lives ; 
therefore, every animal lives. If we now 
aDow that there exists no animal notin- 
efauled in the four enumerated classes, the 
induction is perfect 

Lmoi^oKHCB, in the Roman Catholic 
system ; the remisBion of sin, which the 
church has power to grant (We shall 
first me the Protestant, and then the 
CatbNic views on this subject) The vis- 
ible head of the church, the pope, distrib- 
oies indulgences in various ways. They 
are ifivided into temporary and plenary. 
The principle of indulgences rests on that 
of good works ; for the Catholic theologi- 
ans prove the authority of the church to 
iaaue indulgences in this way : — many 
wnts and pious men have done more 
good works, and sufiered more than was 
required for the remission of their sins, 
and the sum of this surplus constitutes a 



treasure for the church, of which the 
pope has the keys, and is authorized to 
distribute as much or little as he pleases, 
in exchange for pious gifbs. The histor- 
ical origin of indulgences is traced to the 
public penances and the canonical pun- 
ishments, which the old Christian church 
imposed on the community, especially 
on those who did not remain firm unto 
mar^rdom. When ecclesiastic discipline 
became milder, and the clergy more cov- 
etous, it was allowed to commute thef>e 
punishments into fines, for the benefit of 
the church. At first, the only source of 
indulgences was in Rome, and they could 
be obtained only by going there. At 
Rome, this treasure of the church was di- 
vided among many churches, cf which 
seven principal ones were gifled the most 
largely by the popes. Tliese churches 
were termed stationes indulgentiarum. 
One of the richest was the church in the 
Lateran, on which were l)e8towed, at its 
renewed consecration, as many days of in- 
dulgence as the drops which fall in a rain 
continuing three days and three niffhts. 
The whole treasure of indulgences of the 
churches in Rome was accordingly inex- 
haustible. When the popes were m want 
of money, and the number of pilgrims 
who resorted to Rome to obtain the re- 
mission of their sins began to decrease, 
indulgences were put into the hands of 
the foreign archbishops and bishops ; and, 
finally, agents were sent about, who made 
them an object of the meanest traffic. 
During the period of jubilee (see JuiUee), 
the people were taught to believe that the 
efficacy of indulgences was doubled, and 
the richest harvests were always reaped at 
this time. Leo X, famous for his k>ve of 
ipiendor, commenced his reign in 1513; 



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INDULGENCE. 



and, 88 the building of St. Peter's church 
had exhausted his finances, he began the 
sale of indulgences in Germany, without 
waiting for toe jubilee of 1525, in con- 
junction with the elector of Mentz, who 
was to receive half the profit ; and the lat- 
ter found an excellent agent for the sale in 
TetzeL This flagrant abuse inflamed the 
zeal of Luther, and the Protestant theo- 
logians have always found indulgences 
one of the most vulnerable points of the 
Roman Catholic system; and even the 
Cathofic states of Gferraany represented to 
the emperor, in 1530, that he ought to 
previfil upon the l)ope, to omit sending 
any Aiore letters of indulgence to Germa- 
ny, -lest the whole Catholic religion should 
become an object of scorn and mockery. 
Nevertheless, the right to remit sins was 
received, in the council of Trent, among 
the articles of faith. (We shall now pro- 
ceed to give the Catholic views, as taken 
from the article Indidgenct, written by a 
Catholic, in the German Conversations' 
Lexicon.) The penances of tlie ancient 
church (see Penance) were never so strict- 
ly binding as to preclude the presbyters 
m>m relaxing them in some degree, in 
paiticular instances, where their object 
seemed more easily attained in some oth- 
er way. But this never was done, except 
in single cases, and afler the circumstances 
of* the petitioners had been closely ex- 
amined ; nor was tlie whole punishment 
ever remitted, but merely a part of it, ac- 
cording as the case of the individual re- 
quired, and his rcpentance justified it. 
The council of Nice, in their 12tli canon, 
i-equire, for such a dispensation, proof of 
true repentance. In the 11th centur}^, an- 
other land of indulgences was introduced, 
— absolution. This was granted to those 
who undertook some difficult enterprise 
for the benefit of the church. This was 
usually bearing arms in her cause, of 
which the crusades are the most fa- 
mous example. In the council of Cler- 
mont (1095 — 1096), it was decreed (canon 
12), tliat every one, who, actuated solely 
by devout zeal, and not by love of gloiy 
or by avarice, went on the expedition to 
Jerusalem for the deliverance of the holy 
sepulchre, should receive a full remission 
of liis sins. In later times, this indulgence 
was extended to those who were not able 
to go themselves, and sent a champion in 
their stead. By degrees, the exemption 
was extended still farther, and soon ple- 
nary and paitial indulgences were grant- 
ed to those who gave alms for effecting 
some good work (e. g., the restoration of a 
church, &C.), or performed some prescrib- 



ed labor of piety (the mitins of a churchy 
for instance) at the time of the jubilee, 
which was established by Boniface VIII, 
in 1300. This gave the death-blow to the 
public penaace of the church. Consider- 
able abuses, however, stole into the sys- 
tem of indulgences, and the scandal be- 
came veiy great Under pretext of alms 
for the benefit of good works, indulgences 
were made the means of indirectly taxing 
the whole of Christendom. It was pro- 
posed several times in the diets of the 
German empire (e. g., at Nuremberg, in 
1466), to make use of them for supplying 
the expenses of the war against the Turks. 
The popes, bishops and civil rulers usual- 
ly divided the proceeds, though the latter 
sometimes appropriated them entirely ; as, 
for instance, in 1500, when the govern- 
ment of the empire took possession of 
the money collected for the pope on the 
occasion of the jubilee, and allowed only 
a third part to the legate of the i)ope, 
for his subsistence. Under such circum- 
stances, when holy institutions were abus- 
ed for vile gain, it was natural that wrong 
notions respecting indulgences and their 
power, should spring up among the peo- 
ple, and be spread by the preachers em- 
ployed to distribute them. (See TetzeL) It 
is a well known fact, that the indulgences 
proclaimed by Leo X, gave the first 
spring to the reformation. It was the ob- 
ject of the fathers assembled at Trent, to 
make a public disavowal of the erroneous 
doctrines which had been preached by 
mdividuals respecting indulgences, that 
they might not appear to be sanctioned 
by the church. The council first requir- 
ed (in sess. 24, cap. 8, De Ileformatione)^ 
the restoration of public penance, in tlie 
following words : "The holy apostle 
(Paul to Timothy) onlains, that those who 
sin publicly, should be publicly rebuked. 
I^ therefore, a crime has been committed 
publicly, and in the sight of many, so as 
not to leave any doubt of its giving a bad 
example to others, a public penance is to 
be imposed on the giulty person, suited to 
the crime, tliat tiie sight of his repentance 
may recall those to the right way, whom 
his example has led astray. The bishop 
may, however, substitute a private for the 
public penance, if he tliinks it more suita 
ble." Respecting absolution itself^ tlie 
chiu*ch has established no dogma, because 
such dogmas are expressed only in the 
canants, of which there exist none on this 
subject. She has given only a decree, 
and this in her last session, which literally 
says : Since the power of confemng in- 
dulgences has been given to tbe churcli 



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INDULGENCE— INES DE CASTRO. 



by Chiwt, and she has exercised it from 
the eailiest times, the holy council teaches 
and oniauM, that this usage, so beneficial 
to Chiistiaiifl, and confirmed by the au- 
thority of many holy councib, is to be re- 
tained in the church ; and she inflicts the 
anathema upon such as either declare in- 
dulgences unnecessary, or dispute the 
power of the church to grant them. It is 
her wish, however, that in the grant of 
indulgences, according to the custom long 
existing in the church, proper limits 
should be obserred, lest the discipUne of 
the church become injuriously relaxed. 
But as the church desires that the abuses 
which have crept in, and have g^ven occa- 
sion to heretical preachers to heap reproach 
npon this venerable usage, should be cor- 
rected, she ordains by the present decree, 
that the shameful bartering of indulgences 
fiir money, which has been so fruitful a 
source of abuse, shall be entirely abol- 
iebed. As the corruptions which have 
sprung ih>ni superstition, ignorance, ir- 
rererence, or from any other causes, can- 
not here be enumerated and individually 
censured, on account of the variety of the 
kinds prevailing in different places and 
provinces, the synod commands eveiy 
oiahop to search out with diligence the 
abuses of bis own church, and to lay them 
before the first provincial synod, that they 
may be bn&nded as errors by the judgment 
of the other bishops, and be submitted to 
the authority of the supreme bishop at 
Rome, whose wisdom will provide for the 
universal good of the church, that the 
sacred indulgences may in future be dis- 
tributed with piuity and holiness. The 
selling of indiilgences has accordingly 
ceased. la regiml to the absolution stiU 
practised in the church (continues the 
Catholic writer), the spirit of the church 
V- the same as in ancient times. The old 
disdpline of penance never has been for- 
mally abolished. On the contrary, the 
principle has rather been confirmed by 
the council of Trent, as has just been 
shown. The church still commissions 
her lervantB to impose penances upon an- 
nera, in proportion to their guilt, — even 
heavier penances than the ordinary ones. 
Why, then (he atdks), should she not be 
authorized to remit port of the sentence, 
if the penitent is found worthy of favor? 
Whether such remission be deserved by 
the penitent, is to be judged by those min- 
isten of the church who are in immedi- 
ate intercourse with them. To make ab- 
solution efl^tual, Bellarmin requires that 
the end attuned should be more agreea- 
ble m CM tiian the performance of the 
1* 



penance remitted. The labor itself shoujid 
be in proportion to its aim. We Iiave 
seen that there exists no dogma on abso- 
lution ; it is therefore by no means a doc- 
trine of the church, but it is left to the 
private views of the uidividuals, whether 
and how fiur the absolution and the idea 
of purgatoiy (see PtargaUnrv), are con- 
nected with each other. It is fidsely be- 
lieved by many Protestants, that absolu- 
tion is esteemed by the Catholic church 
equivalent to conversion, and os effectual 
to remit the punishment of sins. Eveiy 
popular catechism proves the contrary. 

Indus, or Siin>H* ; a large river in the 
western part of Hindooetan, rising on the 
north of the Himalaya mountains ; it flows 
first north-west, then west, penetrates the 
chain of mountains in the 96th parallel, 
then takes a winding course to the south, 
and empties by several mouths into the 
sea of Arabia, between lat 23° 2Xy and 
24° 4(y N. Its chief tributaries are from 
the east ; they were known to the Greeks. 
One of them is the Behat or Jelam (£fo- 
daspcsV fix>m Cashmere; it joins the 
Chenab (j^cMtne*), which also receives 
the Ravy (IfydraoUs) ; below the conflu- 
ence of the Chenab is that of the Kiiah 
(H^has%8\ formed by the junction of the 
Setledje or Satadrou {Hesidrus) and the 
Bevah. The country traversed by the 
Indus and its tributaries is called the 
Penjab or Ptnyab. The water of the In- 
dus is wholesome, and resembles that of 
the Ganges. Its course, including its 
windings, is estimated at 1700 miles, and 
is generally W. of S. The Delta of the 
Indus is about 150 miles in length along 
the coast, and 115 in depth. The river is 
navi^ble, for vessels of 200 tons, to the 
province of Lahore, a distance of 760 ge- 
ographical miles. From Attack to Uie 
Delta, a distance of about 800 miles, its 
breadth is generally about a mile, and its 
deptli from two to five fathoms. The tide 
sets in with great violence. Chving to the 
barbarous manners of the tribes which 
inhabit its banks, little commerce takes 
place on this river. The bed of the In- 
dus is sand, with a small quantity of 
mud. 

. IwEs DE Castro. Pedro, son of Al- 
pbonso IV, king of Portugal, af\er the 
death of his wife Constantia (1344), se- 
cretly married his mistress, Ines de Cas- 
tro, who was descended firom the royal 
line of Castile, from which Podro was 

* The Qaine is very aocieat. hutus is firom the 
Greek, wbich borrowed it from Oie Persiao. The 
Persians seem to have derived it from the Indiaa 

SKmPhUf ocean. 



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6 



INES DE CASTRO— INFALLIBILITY. 



a]^ descended on his motlier's side. As 
he steadily rejected all propositions for a 
new marriage, his secret was suspected, 
and the envious rivals of the beautiful 
Ines were fearilil tliat her brodiers and 
family would gain a complete ascendency 
over t|ie future king. The old kmg was 
easily blinded* by the intrigues of liis art- 
ful copnsellors, Diego Lopez Pacheco, 
Pedro Coelho and Alvarez Gonsalvez. 
They persuaded him that this marriage 
would be prejudicial to the interests of 
his young grand-son Ferdinand (the son 
of Pedro by his de^^^ised wife). Alphon- 
so asked his son if he was married to 
Ines. Pedro dared not confess the truth 
to his father, much less would he comply 
with the command of the king, to re- 
nounce his mistress and unite himself to 
another. Alphouso again consulted his 
favorites, and it was rosolved to put the 
unhappy Ines to death. The queen Bea- 
trice, mother of the Infant, obtained intel- 
ligence of this cruel design, and gave^her 
son notice of it. But Pedro neglected'not 
only this infonnation, but even the warn- 
ing of the archbishop of Bi-aga, as a ru- 
mor intended merely to tenify him. The 
first time that Pedro lefl Ines* to be alwent 
several days, on a hunting ex|>edition, the 
king hastened to Coimbra, where she was 
living in die convent of St. Clara witli her 
chiliS^n. The anival of Alphonso filled 
the unhappy lady with terror ; but, sup- 
pressing her feelings, she appeared before 
the kuig, threw herself with her children 
at his feet, and begged for mercy with 
tears. Alphonso, softened by this sight, 
had not the heart to perpetrate the uitend- 
ed crime- But after he had retired, his 
evil counsellors succeeded in obliterating 
the impression which had been made on 
him, and obtained from him pennissiou 
to commit the murder which had b:jeu 
resolved on. It was executed tliat very 
hour ; Ines expired under the daggers of 
her enemies. She was buried in the con- 
vent where she was murdered (1355). Pe- 
dro, frantic with grief and rage, took arms 
against his father, but the queen and the 
archbishop of Braga succeeded in recon- 
cihngthe father and son. Pedro obtained 
many privileges ; in return for which, he 
promised, on oath, not to take vengeance 
on the murderers. Two years afler, king 
Alphonso died ; the three assassins had 
ah^ady lefl the kingdom, by his advice, 
and taken refuge in Castile, where Peter 
the Cniel then reigned, whose tyranny 
had driven some noble Castilians into 
Portugal Pedro agreed to exchange these 
fugitives for the murderers of Ines. Hav- 



ing delivered them to their master, he re« 
ceived, in return, the persons of Pedru 
Coelho and Alvarez Gonsalvez ^ the third, 
Pacheco, escaped to Arragon. The two 
were then tortured in tlie presence of the 
king, in order to make them disclose their ^ 
accomplices ; their hearts were torn out, ' 
their bodies bm*nt, and their ashes scat- 
tered to die winds (1360). Two years af- 
ter, he assembled the chief men of the 
kingdom, at Cataneda, and solemnly de- 
clared on oatli, tliat, after the death of his 
wife Constantia, he had obtained the con- 
sent of the pope to his union with Ines 
de Castro, and that he had been mairied 
to her in the presence of the archbisliop 
of Guarda and of an officer of his court, 
Stephen Lobato. He then went to Coim- 
bra. The archbishop and Lobato con- 
firmed the assertions of die king ; and the 
papal document, to which the king refer- 
red, was publicly exhibited. The king 
caused the body of his beloved fnes to be 
disintenxjd, and placed on a du-one, adorn- 
ed with the diadem and royal robes, and 
required all the nobility of the kingdom 
to approach and kiss the hem of her gar- 
ment, rendering her when dead that hom- 
age which she had not received in her 
life. The bwly was then carried in a 
funeral car to Alcobaga. The king, the 
bishops, the nobles and knights of the 
kingdom, followed the carriage on foot ; 
and the whole distance, from Coimbra to 
Alcoba^a, was lined on both sides by ma- 
ny thousands of people, bearing burning 
torches. In Alcoba^a, a splendid monu- 
ment of white marble was erected, on 
which was placed her statue, with a royal 
crown on her head. The history of the 
unhappy lues has furnished many poets, 
of different nations, with materials for 
tragedies, — Lamothe, count von Soden, 
&c. ; but the Portuguese muse has immor- 
talized her dirough the lips of Camoeus, 
in whose celebrated Lusiade, the histoiy 
of her love is one of the finest e[»i- 
sodes. 

. Infallibility ; exemption from the 
possibility of eiTor. God, of course, is 
infallible, because the idea of divinity ex- 
cludes that of error ; Christ was infe'Uible, 
and, accortling to the belief of the Greek 
and Catholic church, and of most Protes- 
tant sects, die aposdes were also infallible, 
after the descent of the Holy Ghost. Here, 
however, the Protestants and Catholics 
divide. The latter, founding then* creed 
on tradition (q. v.) as well as on the BibU, 
maintain that the tradition, that is, the 
general doctrine and belief, handed down 
from age to age, and taught by the great 



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INFALLIBILITY-INFANT. 



body of the pastors, is above the possibili- 
ty of error ; consequently, abo, the coun- 
cils are infiilfible, because the councils, 
according to a Catholic writer, "do not 
make truths or dogmas, as some Protes- 
tants maintain, but merely express the 
belief of the church on certain points in 
question :" the truth pronounced, there- 
fore, always existed, but had not been pre- 
viously declared by the church. From 
seTeral passages in the Bible, the Catholic 
infers that tlie above-mentioned tradition 
and the councils are under the continual 
guidance and influence of the Holy Ghost : 
hence the formula so often repeated by 
the council of Trent, the last eeneral 
council of the Catholic church — "the holy 
council lawfully assembled under the 
^ndance of the Holy Ghost." It is clear, 
that, if the councils are infallible, it is of 
the utmost importance for the Catholic to 
know what are lawful councils. This is a 
point which, as may be easily conceived, 
has created great discussions in the Cath- 
ofic church, because the popes claimed 
the sole right to convoke councils. (See 
CouneU.) So far all Roman Catholics 
agree respecting in&llibility, namely, that 
Christ, the apostles, the body of the pas- 
tors, the traditions of the chm*ch, and the 
councils, are infallible ; but they disagree 
respecting the infallibility of the pope. 
The ultramontane theolo^ans maintain 
that the pope is infallible, whenever he 
]Roaounces do^naticaUy on a point of 
doctrine, to settie the faith of the whole 
Ostholic church. These theologians are 
therefore called infaaMeista, The theolo- 
gians of the Gallican church do not ad- 
mit this infallibility. The assembly of 
the Firench clergy, in 1682, laid down the 
rnaxim, ** that in questions of faith, the sov- 
erdgn pontiff has the chief part, and that 
his decrees concern the whole church ; 
but that his judgment is not irreformable, 
until it be confirmed by the acquiescence 
of the chiurcb." Bossuet, in his Defensio 
Ikdarai. QUri Gcdlic., 2d pait, 1. 12 seq. 
has treated this point at length. He main- 
tans, that the {K>pe is by no means infalli- 
ble, and that a papal decision is not to be 
conadered infallible until the church ac- 
qaiesces in it, which, he admits, may be 
done, in general, silently. — In politics, tiie 
word infaUibU is used in a different sense. 
Tlie position that anv political person, or 
body, is infidlible, only means, that there 
is no appeal from such person orl)ody. 
When the English public law declares 
that the king can do no wrong, every one 
kaawB that this is merely a political fic- 
tion. But the genuine supporters of di- 



vine rifht believe m a somewhat more 
real pohtical infallibility of kings. 

IrwANT, in law. By the English, and 
generally by the American, and so by the 
French law, persons come to majority at 
the age of twenty-one years, until which 
time they are called in law infanb, and 
are under guardianship or tutelage. The 
laws of some of the U. States, however, 
make a distinction between males and fe- 
males, the age of eighteen being that of 
majority in females. Infants cannot, in 
general, bind themselves by contracts, as 
they are supposed not to have sufficient 
discretion for tiiis purpose. But this is 
their privilege, and their contracts are ac- 
cordingly held m general not to be void, 
but only voidable at their election ; and • 
they may elect to avoid their contracts 
during their minority, but they cannot con- 
fuTn them so as to be bound by them, 
until their majority. Infants may possess 
property, but it must be under the man- 
agement and control of a guardian. They 
have not the right of citizens as to voting, 
and discharging other political function?. 
But in regara to crimes and punishments, 
and trespasses and private wrongs, their 
conduct is regulated by the same laws as 
that of the omer members of the commu- 
nity, in case of their being of sufficient 
age and discretion to understand their 
duties and obligations. And for this pur- 
pose no general lunit can be assigned, as 
some children are much more intelligent 
than others of the same age ;. and it will 
again depend, in some degree, upon the 
nature ot the oflfence committed, or the 
wTong done, whetiiera child of any given 
age can be considered legally guilty of it, 
since some offences and wrongs can be 
more easily understood to be such than 
others. The law, in general, has a ten- 
der regard to youth, and docs not permit 
them to be convicted and punished for 
offences and trespasses, unless it appears 
clearly that they have sufficient knowledge 
and discretion to distinguish them to be 
such. — ^There are exceptions to the inca- 
[lacities of minors as to contracting, and 
these exceptions are made for their oene- 
fit. Thus an infant not sufficiently fur- 
nished with necessary clothes, food or in- 
struction, by his parent or guardian, and 
not being under the immediate superiu- 
tendence of the parent or guardian, may 
make a valid contract, in respect to djos'e 
subjects, and sucli contract may be en- 
forced ogainst him. Another exception 
to die general incapacity of infants to 
contract, relates to the contract of mar- 
riage, which, by the law of England and 

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INFANT— INFANTE. 



die U. States, may be made by a male 
at the age of fourteen, and by a female 
at that of twelve. The French code 
fizea die age for making a valid marriage 
contract, in the case of the male, at 
eighteen, and in that of the female at fif- 
teen. ' And as the law gives validity to 
the principal contract, tlie prevalent doc- 
trine, though subject to some doubt as to 
the extent of its application, is, that all 
contracts collateral and incidental to that 
of marriage, such as making marriage 
settlements by the husband, and accepting 
them instead of dower by the wifb, are 
equally binding on both of the parties, 
being of age to contract marriage, and, 
accordingly, not subject to be revoked 
either before or after coming to the age 
of minority. I^ however, one party be 
under the age at which a contract of mar- 
riase may be made, he or she may, on ar- 
rivmg at such age, either ratify or annul 
any such contract previously made. The 
jurisdiction in i-espect to infants is gen- 
erally vested in eitncr probate or orphans' 
courts, in the U. States. These courts ap- 
point eniardians to take charge of the prop- 
erty of in&nts, and, in case of the decease 
of the father, to take charge of their per- 
sons; but, -during the life of the father, he 
has the guardianship and control of the 
persons of his sons until they are twenty- 
one years of age, and of his daugfatets 
until they are either eighteen or twenty- 
one. At a certain age, however, that is, 
twelve or fourteen, tte child, in case of 
the decease of the father, may choose his 
own guardian, who, being approved by 
the proper judge, is appointed accord- 
ingly. (See bjfante.) 

iNPArrr Schools. (See Schools.) 
Infantado, duke of, a Spanish grandee 
of the first class, bom 1773, was educr.ted 
in Fi'ance, under tlie eye of his mother, a 
princess of Salm-Salm. In the war of 
1793, he raised a regiaient in Catalonia at 
his own expense. The prince of the Astu- 
rias formed an intimate union witli him, be- 
cause the duke showed an avei^ion to €ro- 
doy, the king's fevorite. Godoy therefore 
obtained an order, in 1806, for the duke 
to leave Madrid. He became, in conse- 
quence (1807), still more intimately con- 
nected vrith the prince (see Fh'dinand Vn\ 
who appointed him, in case of the deatn 
of the king, captain-general of New Cas- 
tile. This appointment involved him in 
the affiur of the Escurial ; the attorney- 
general of the king demanded sentence 
of death against the duke and Escoiquiz; 
but the popular favor towardls him, and 



the intcrcesBion of die French arabacBador 
Beauhaznais, prevented the sentence. In 
1806, the duke accompanied Ferdinand 
VII to Bayonne. July 7, 1808, he signed 
the constitution prepared by Napoleon, at 
Bayonne, for Spain, and became colonel 
in the guards of king Joseph; but he 
soonafler resigned his post, and summon- 
ed the nation to arm against the French, 
and was consequendy denounced as a 
traitor by Napoleon, Nov. 12, 1808. In 
1809, he commanded a Spanish division, 
but was twice defeated by Sebastiani ; and, 
notwithstandm? his courage, he lost the 
confidence of the supreme junta, who de- 
prived him of his command. He then 
retired to Seville. In 1811, the cortes 
appointed him president of the council of 
Spain and the Indies, and ambassador ex- 
traordinaiy to England. In June, 1812, 
he returned to C»liz. From hence he 
went to Madrid, afler the French had 
been driven from that capital, in 1813, but 
was obliged to withdraw from that city, 
by the command of the junta, as one of 
the chiefs of the Servile party (los s^tvUm), 
Ferdinand VII, however, recalled the 
duke, made him premdent of the council 
of Castile, and treated him with distin- 
guished favor. On the establishment of 
the constitution in 1820, he resigned his 
place, and retired to his estate near Ma- 
drid, but was banished to Majorca. In 
1^23, he vras appointed president of the 
regency which was established by the 
French at Madrid during the war. In 
August, he went with Victor Saez to 
Puerto Santa Maria, to resign the govern- 
ment into the hands of me king, who 
made him a member of the. council of 
state. The duke formed the plan for the 
organization of the re^ments of guards, 
and obtained for the km^ (1824) the sum 
of 100,000 florins, for his journey to Aran- 
juez. In October, 1825, he succeeded Zea 
as first minister, and changed Zea's de- 
liberative junta into a council of state ; bu^ 
the machine of state, which the apostolic 
party checked in its course, could not b« 
put effectually in motion. The duke con- 
tributed 500,000 francs, the amount of his 
income for one year, to the necesnties of 
the state, and in October, 1826, obtained 
his discharge. 

Inpapcte, or Iwfant (a word derived 
from the Latin, signiMne chUdS ; the tide 
given, particulariy in Spam ana Portugal, 
to the princes of the royal house, the el- 
dest being also called d ffrmdpt. The , 
princesses at diese courts are called m- 
faarda^ the eldest also la prmceatk 



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INFANTRY. 



9 



I>FASTRr.* If cavalry (q. v.) are to 
Ik called Carme du ijiomeni, the great 
sTork c^ the battle is to be peiformed by 
„3^ infaniiy, which composea tlie greatest 
part of an army, and is, in point of chai^ 
o^cter, the most important part, because it 
ran be used every where — in mountains, 
'fii plains, in woods, on rivers, and at sea, 
iri the redoubt, in the breach, in cities and 
5<^lds, and, depending 'only on itself, has a 
sji^'di advantace over the two other classes 
i'l* troops, who, depending, in a great 
ifttasure, for their efficiency on the 
strength and the will of brutes, are far 
k->s fitted to endure deprivation, and a 
Doxious climate, to contend ^ith the 
tiiows of Russia, or the deserts of Egypt. 
The infantry are preeminently the moral 
fpower of annies; and on no class of 
'pjops has a general, who knows how to 
'• t on his solcuers, such influence. Foot- 
i-..)..liers were anned, in old times, with a 
>fttar, sometimes with a sword, arrows. 
Luce and shng; at present, with a gun 
ihd bayonet, which is generally accom- 
. inied " with a sword. Sometimes, but 
-n.!y, they are armed with pikes. Some 
''• t-«>kiier8, in most armies, have rifles, 
^•'Lf rally so constructed that the rifle- 
•i.~ji may put his short sword on the lifle, 
'-* Xat used as a bayonet, though this lias 

rived of no great service. The sword 
^iv o 10 foot-soldiers, in almost all annies, 
^^ of hut little advantage, and is generally 
ii.'.ftudeti principally for ornament, to 
x'Uiplete tlie soldierlike look, rather than 
: ' t>e used in fighting. It serves, hoW- 
• ^er, for cutting branches, to be used in 
i; '/king and building huts; but swords 
•.n'lfiUi be given to foot-soldiers, similar to 
riie' sailors' cutlasses, which woidd answer 
a^} these purposes, and also the chief end — 
lo nght. (See Cutlass.) They ought al- 
ways to have a sufficient guard for the 
h?iiuL The foot-soldier has no defensive 
'"(ivanng^ or very little. The greatest is 
i> mantle, rolled up, and worn on one 
'houlder by the Pni^an and Russian 
uoops. The helmet or cap protects the 
lie:i(l, and epaulettes (q. v.) are sometimes 



• T}ioagfa the word is immediately derived 
t'.Tm the Italian in/anteria and fuiUeria, it is pri- 
'Ar.nly of German origin. We find still, in the di- 
i.; -r'/of Lower Saxony, Fant and Vent, sipiify- 

j [i yoong. uomarrie^ inan, and, in a more cx- 
> jvlfti meaning, a seryeni, a soldier on foM. 
T '.*• Icelandic /ant, Italian /ani€y Danish . frant. 
.* ^-i'iiWaj'aute, have the same meaning with ihe 
1. •* -Saxon V(nt^ and are, no doubt, conneetod 
«^ h the Latin infans. With the prefixed sihilanl, 
1^5 rooi became, in Anglo-Saxon, stcein, in 
L;.j^!j-h swain, in Danish suefid (a youth cmploy- 
eii .n country service, a young lover). 



used to protect the shoulders. The thick 
cue, with wire in it, has sometimes been 
considered a defence to the neck. Infiin- 
try is divided into light infentry and that 
of the line. The liSter forms the great 
mass, which is intended to fight in lin^ to 
decide attacks b^ the bayonet, to make 
assaults, and is itself again divided into 
grenadiei-8 (q. v.) and musketeers. The 
light infantry is particularly intended to 
serve in the outposts, to act as sharp- 
shooters, to make bold expeditious, and 
harass and disquiet the enemy. It in- 
cludes the riflemen. The light infimtry 
form fit>m the 30th to the 60th part of an 
army. The character of military opera- 
tions, however, has changed of late so 
much, that, in a good army, it is necessary 
that the infantry of the line shoidd take 
pait readily in the light service, and the 
tight infantry be ready to fiffht in the line, 
from which the riflemen only are excepted. 
These are only used as shari)shooter8. 
In some annies, thei-e are, besides the 
riflemen, whole re^ments of light infan- 
try; in othei-s, as m the Prussian army, 
each regiment has two battalions of infan- 
try of the hue, and one battalion of light 
infantry ; in others, as in the French, each 
battalion has its grenadiers and tirailleurs 
(sharpshooters). Infantry is divided into 
battalions (q. v.), these into companies, 
tliese into platoons. Several battalions, 
two or three, sometimes four and five, 
fonn a regiment The tactics of infantry 
admit three different modes of arranging 
tliis species of troops in battle — 1. in fine, 
when they are drawn up in line two or 
three men deep, an order very rarely, if 
ever, used at present ; 2. in column, when 
several lines, three or two men deep, are 
drawn up one behind the other (see Col- 
vmn^ in Tactics, and Square) ; 3. in dis- 
persed order. (See Sharpshooters,) The 
excellence of uifantry depends on their 
good order in advancing and retreating, 
perfect acquaintance wiui their exercises 
and duties, in a just application of then- 
fire, and great calmness both in assaulting 
and when assaulted in the square, which 
is acquired by ex|>erience. As long as 
the infantiy remain calm, the general 
need not lose hope ; but all is to be feared 
when ' they are disordered, whether 
through ai-dor or fear. In countries af- 
fording horses, men always prefer, in the 
early periods of society, to fight on 
horseback, and civilization only gives 
more importance to infantry. Wliere 
foot-soldiers exist, at this early period, to- 
gether >vith cavahy, they are considered 
of mferior consequence. The Hebrew 



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10 



INFANTRY— INFINITESIMALS. 



tany, however, consisted, for a long time, 
of infantry only. (See Ccnalry.) The 
Egyptians, likewise, seem to have used 
ct^alry little. With the Asiatics, besides 
^e use of in&ntry and cavaliy, princes 
and noblemen fought on chariots. The 
infadtiy was the fmrt least esteemed, and, 
with 'the Peraans, consisted of the lieavy- 
armed, the stingers and archeis. Proba- 
bly this waa one reason of the yictories 
of the Greeks over the Persians, as they 
)iad cultivated in&ntry more, and had given 
up the chariots, described by Homer as 
common in the Trojan war. E^ven their 
kings and generals fought on foot They 
had both heavy and light infantry. The 
Greeks were conquered, in their turn, by 
an improved fbnn of infimtry, the col- 
umns of Philip of Macedon, which also 
enabled his son Alexander to conquer the 
Persians. With the Romans, inftinuy was 
the strength of the armies. Then* le- 
gions, consisting mostly of infantry, con- 
quered the world. With the ancient 
Germans and Gauls, also, infantry was 
considered very important ; but when, in 
the great migration of nations, the Huns, 
and other Mongolic tribes, arrived in Eu- 
rope, on small and fleet horses, and car- 
ried victory with them, spreading the 
terror of their arms far and wide, and 
when the Franks in Northern Spain be- 
came acquainted with the Moors, who 
came from Arabia, and the plateau of 
Asia, on beautiful horses, cavalry was con- 
sidered as more important When the 
feudal system was developed, the horse, of 
course, was more agreeable to the adven- 
turous knight, than the foot service. The 
crusades, where the Eiiropoaus were 
obliged to fight with the fine cavalry of 
tlie Seljooks, favored this tendency still 
more. Infantry fell into total disrepute, 
and consisted of the poorer people, who 
cared little in whose service they fought, 
in those times of violence and oppression^ 
when a change of rulers made no change 
in their sufferings ; and no reliauce could 
be placed upon them. Among those peo- 
ple who were not in feudal bondage, and 
fought for the defence of their own lilier- 
ty, infiintiy maintained its old importance, 
as witli the Swiss, on several occasions in 
the 14tli and 15th century ; and the pene- 
trating Machiavelli, who burned to free 
his country from its numberless foreign 
and native tyrants, saw the great value of 
infantry, and urged its establishment upon 
a respectable footing. The invention of 
gunpowder changed the whole art of war, 
and brought infantry again into repute. 
'See ^my.) The Swedish infantry, in 



tlie thirty years' war, was excellent The 
arrangement became, in the course of 
time, more judicious, and all unneces- 
sary manoeuvring was avoided. The 
Austrians, at this time, employed soldiers 
from their Turkish frontiers — ^the Croats 
and Pandoors, semi-ravages — as a sort of 
irregular light infantry ; and other armies 
had troops of a similar character; but they 
were so rude and 'disorganized, because 
their warfare was little ^tter than legal- 
ized robbery, that Gustavus Adolphus 
would not admit them into his forces; 
but Frederic the Great again established 
free corps (q. v.) during the seven yetus' 
war. Infantry remained without much 
change in the 18th century. Prince Leo- 
pold of Dessau, during tliis time, first in- 
troduced, in the Prussian army, tlie iron 
ramrod, the lock-step, and several other 
improvements. The bayonet having been 
invented already in the middle of the 17th 
century, came more and more into use, 
and enabled the squares to resist the cav- 
alry; but a great change in the use of 
in&ntry took place towards the end of the 
18th century,, when, in the American war 
of independence, the people, being obliged 
to contend, without discipline, against 
well trained troops, adopted the irregular 
mo<le of fighting, protected by ti'ccs or 
other objects, being, at the same time, 
mosdy skilful marksmen. The efHcicucy 
of tliis mctliod of fighting was evident ; 
and when, in 1791, the French revolu- 
tionary war began, the French sent 
swarms of tiraiUeurs against the allies, 
and iniured them exceedingly. In the 
wars from 1791 to 1802, the French 
greatly improved this way of fighting, 
which, in the interval of p(3ace that 
followed, was reduced to a system, the 
consequences of which were seen in 
1805, 1806, and 1807, against the Aus- 
trians, Pnissiaus, and Russians. These 
nations, aflcr the disastere . which they 
suffered, adopted the same system, as well 
as the greater use of columns, particularly 
as the ordinary mode of arranging the 
troops before they came into the fire. 
Under equtU circumstances, well trained 
infantry is almost uniformly successful 
against any other kind of troops. 

Inferia, in Roman antiquities; sacri- 
fices ofTe^red to the infernal deities for the 
souls of the departed. Some writers 
have thought that they are the origin of 
the exequies of the Catholic church. 

Inferno (Italian forhdl); the name of 
tlie first part of Dante's grand poem. (See 
Dante.) 

Infinitesimals. (See Calculus,) 



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INFINITIVE— INFORMER. 



11 



IifriNiTiTE; the indefinite mode, in 
wiiich tlie verb is represented without a 
subfect As tlie verb expresses an aetkm, 
or a state, it generally belongs to a subject 
whose action or state is expressed ; but if 
we wi^ to express the mere idea of this 
ai^on or state, we use the infinitiye, 
which therefore, in many ' languages, is 
employed without finther change, as a 
substantive — for instance, in Greek and 
German — only preceded by the neuter ar- 
ticle ; but, as the verb expresses an action 
or state, under certain conditions of time, 
the infinitive can also express the action 
or state in tlie present, past or fiiture, 
though these conditions are not expressed 
in all languages by peculiar forms ; nay, 
some ian^iages have not even a peculiar 
form for the infinitive present, and must 
express it by some grammatical contri- 
vance, as is the case in English. (See 

Inflammation of the Intestines. 
[See EnieHHs,) 

Inflexion, Point of, in the theory of 
carves ; that point in which the direction 
of ihe curve changes fix>m concaviQr to 
eaaveidtYy and vice versa. It is particular- 
ly called pundium inifUxumis, at the first 
taming, and punctum regresnoms when 
the curve j^^ums. These points are of 
much interest in the theory of the func- 



Influenza (Italian, ir^uence) ; a term 
used in medicine to denote an epidemic 
catarrh which has, at various times, 
spread more rapidly and extensively than 
any other disorder. It has seldom occur- 
red in any countiy of Europe, without 
appearing successively in every other part 
of iL It has sometimes apparently trav- 
ersed the whole of the Eastern continent, 
and, in some instances, has been transfer- 
red to America, and has spread over this 
continent likewise. The French call it 
la grippe. In all the known instances of 
lis occurrence, from the 14th centunr, its 
phenomena have been pretty uniform, 
and have differed little, except in severity, 
from those of the common febrile catarrh. 
In 180Q> such nn influenza attracted uni- 
versal attention. In February, it set out 
fiom the fiv>ntierB of China, traversed all 
Rnsoa, extended along the Baltic, to Po- 
land fuid Deimiark; reached Grennany 
and Holland in April and May, and 
France and Spain in June. It could 
even be followed to Gibraltar. No sex, 
age ar state of health was exempted. It 
a&fwed itself chiefly as a severe cold, at- 
tended with a catarrhal fever of a more or 
leas inflammatory or bilious character. 



Generally, it passed over witlun a few 
days, yet, in some places, it cave a check 
to business. Few persons died of it, ex- 
cept those who were afflicted at the same 
time with other diseases, but almost every 
one was attacked. G. F. Mort, a German 
physician, attempted to prove that £u> 
rope suffered periodically from the influ- 
enza. He maintained that, during the 
greater part of the period which had 
elapsed since 1712, this epidemic had 
visited Europe, at intervals of about 30 
years, and Aill more fifequentiy in the 
early part of the period. Accordingly, he 
prophesied a new one for 1820, which, 
however, did not happen. 

Informee. To encourage the appre- 
hending of certain felons, £vers English 
statutes of 1692, 1694, 1G99, 1707, 1720, 
1741 and 1742, eranted rewards of from 
10 to 50 pouncu steriing, to such as 
should prosecute to conviction highnvay- 
men, counterfeiters, and thieves. These 
acts were passed at the time of the trou- 
bles in Great Britain, occasioned by die 
risings of the Jacobites, when, with the 
increase of political criminals, the num- 
ber of private oflenders was thought to be 
increasing also. By the law of 1699, be- 
sides the jC40, an immunity from all par- 
ish offices (overseer of the poor, church- 
warden, &C.) was allowed to any person 
who shouldt prosecute to conviction a 
felon guilQr of burelaiy, horse-stealiiM;, 
&ic. The Tjfbwm tMM$ (as the certifi- 
cates of exemption were called) could be 
sokl, as the first was of no use to a man 
who received a second, and were actually 
soki in large cities, like Manchester, at 
high prices (from 250 to 900 pounds 
sterling). The amount of the rewards 
(without including the Tyburn tickets), in 
the 40 counties of England, for 1798, was 
£7700, and, m 1813, it had risen to 
£18^000. The abuses which originated 
from this system were horrible. The po- 
lice officers made a trade of it, by seduc- 
ing poor, ignorant persons, chiefly foreign- 
ers, to crimes (principally the issuing of 
counterfeit money), in order to gain the 
reward by prosecuting them for the 
oflfence. A certain McDaniel confessed 
(1756) that he had caused, by his testimo- 
ny, 70 men to be condemned to death.% 
He was brought to the bar with two oth- 
* ers, but the people, fearing they were to 
be acquitted, treated them with such vio- 
lence, that they were killed on the spot 
In 1792, a similar case happened, in 
which 20 men had become the victims of 
an informer. A more recent case, in 
1817, excited greater indignation. Four 



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INFORMER— INGENHOUSS. 



police officers, who had entered into a 
conspiracy against the life of poor men, 
were condemned to death, but, on ac- 
count of some judicial formalities, were 
released by the 12 judges (the united 
meml>er8 of the three chief tribunals in 
Westminster hall), and escaped without 
punishment They had induced several 
poor women to pass counterfeit money, 
and seized them in the act. In other 
cases', such men endeavored to change a 
small offence into a capital crime ; Tor in- 
stance, if one had stolen the work-bag of 
another, they swore that it had been tied 
with a string or ribbon to the arm, and torn 
from it by violence, by which theft was 
transformed into robbery, and, instead of 
imprisonment, the punishment was death, 
and the informer received the price of 
blood (£50). A revolting case of this 
kind happened (1817) when two soldiers, 
who were wrestUng with another, in 
sport, for a wager of one shilling, were 
condemned for robbery by the artifice of 
a police officer, and escaped with the 
greatest difficulty from an undeserved 
punishment Small offences were kept 
secret by the police officers, and the per- 
petrators watched, until, as thejr termed 
it, they toeigked 40 pounds sterhng. For 
prosecution to conviction of any person 
attempting to pass counterfeit bank notes 
(which is a capital crime), the bank pays 
£30, and, for the prosecution of a person is- 
suing counterfeit coin, £7. Several persons 
have become the victims of this provision. 
The police officers very well knew the 
counterfeiters, and those who made it a 
trade to induce women and children to 
change their false notes, and deliver them 
into the hands of the police; but they 
spared the true authors of the crime, as 
good customers, and denounced the poor 
wretches employed by them, who were 
condemned by the jury upon the slightest 
suspicion, and executed without mercy. 
Alderman Wood asserted, in parliament, 
that, in the year 1818, at a visitation 
of the prison, he had found 13 men, 
mostly Irishmen and Germans, who had 
received counterfeit money fi'om others, 
to buy bread, had been seized in tlie act, 
and condemned, %vithout any regard to 
their assertions that they we're ignorant . 
of the character of the money. These, 
rewards were- abolished in 1818, by an* 
act of parliament (58 Georffe III, c. 70), 
but the abuse in respect to the beuak notes 
remained as before. The desire of ob- 
taininff the rewards for the conviction of 
oflenckrs has recently tempted the police 
officers to prosecute unhappy individuals, 



who, during^ the hard limes, complained 
loudly against the government, and ac- 
cused it of injustice and hostility to the 
middling class of citizens. 

Infula was, with the Romans, the 
wide, white woollen ornament of llie 
head of priests, vestals, and even of ani- 
mals offered* for sacrifice, the hiding of 
the head being considered a mark of 
humiliation. At later periods, the impe- 
rial governors wore tlie infida as a sign of 
dignity, and, as such, it was adopted, in 
the 7lh centur}', by the bishops of the 
Catholic church, who continue to wear it 
on solenni occasions, and have it, instead 
of a crown or helmet, in tlieir coat of 
arms. It consists of two pieces, turning 
upward, of a pointed fonn, one before 
and one behind, so that ui the middle 
there is a hollow. They are of pasteboard, 
or tin, and covered with white silk, the 
one in front being ornamented with a 
cross. The bishops of the church of Eng- 
land have an infida still in their coat of 
arms, but never wear it on the head. 
With them, however, it is generally called 
rmtrt^ frem mtfro, w^hich, according to 
Von Hammer, originally meant the globu- 
lar part of the head-dress of Persian 
kings, indicating, ori^ally, the ball of the 
sun, wliich the Persian kings wore on the 
crown, and the Egyptian on tlie head. 
Mithra was tlie genius of the sun, with 
the Persians* (See JMSAm.) 

Inge; a Saxon word signifying /Wti, 
appearing ui many GJerman geographical 
names, as Tkiiringcix^ Tiihingen, Zophing- 
en, &c.; also in Dutch names, as GrS- 
ningen. 

iNGEMANX, Bernhard Severin, bom in 
1789; one of the most distinguished 
Danish poets. The works of his coun- 
tr)^nan (Ehlenschl&ger had great influ- 
ence upon his productions. His patriotic 
odes, particularly that to the Danebrog; 
(the Danish Flag), shows ffreat poeticm 
spirit; but kis epic, the Black Knights 
(Copenhagen, 1814), an allegoric poem, in 
nine cantos, like S|>enser's Fair}' Queen, 
often suffers from the length to which the 
allegorj- is protracted, though it contains 
real beauties, Masaniello and Blanca arc 
Ingemann's most celebrated tragedies. 
He has also \vritten much in prose. 

Inoexhocss, John, a naturalist, bom at 
Breda, in 1730, practised physic in his na- 
tive city, and aflerwards went to London, 
where he was well received by Pringle, 
the president of the royal societ}\ The 
empress Maria Theresa, having lost two 
children by the small-pox, oi9ercd her 
ambassador at Loudon to send her an 



Digitized by V^OO^ Ikl 



INOENHOU88— INJUNCTION. 



18 



BiglWi pjjjfwnnp^ to 'WMscJite tbe othen. 
PnD|^ re c ou M i i epded IngeniiouBBy wbo 
raeeived hoaon and fKBoaUB, at Viennai 
fiir the eaqr operetioii, which was not 
fhea modi pnctifled. He then tmvelled^ 
and finals settled near London, where he 
£ed 1799. He was the author of several 
ireatiaes on subjects of natural histoiy, 
which he ennched by several important 



f HGOTy in the aitB, is a small bar of 
metal made of a certain form and aze, 
bjr casting it in moulds. The tenn is 
chiefly appBed to the small ban of gold 
and iilv^ intended either for coining or 
eipoitation to foreign ooimtries. 

ihobja; a former province of Swe- 
den, on the bay of Finland. It be- 
loDgedy as eaiiy as the Idth century, to 
Runia, was inhabited b^ the Ingrians or 
Ishofiaiifl, and received its name from the 
liver Ing^, the iRmner name for Ishora, 
when tbe Swedes took posBesaion of it in 
1617. In 170Q, the Russians reconquered 
iL It fi>nnfl, at present, a part of the 
govenunoat of St. Petersburg, in which 
the capita], Sl Petersbunr, is situated. 

IifGuuBiTa, abbot of Croyland, and 
author of the history of that abbey, was 
bora in London about 1030. He received 
in early education at Westminster, and 
aficfwarda went to Oxford, where he ap- 
plied to the study of Aristode, and,a8 he 
e^a^'^clofted himself down to tbe heel 
in the firat and second ibetoric of TuUy." 
Id the year 1051, WiDiam, duke of Nor- 
mandy, then a visitor at the court of Ed- 
ward tbe Confessor, made Ingulphus, 
(hen of tbe age of 21, his secretaiy. He 
accompanied the duke to Normandy, af- 
terwaroB went on a pilgrinuige to the 
Holy Land, and, upon his return, entered 
into the order of the Benedictines, at the 
abbey of Fontenelte, in Normandy, of 
which he became prior. On the acquire- 
ment of the crown of England by Wil- 
liam, Ingulphus was created abbot of tbe 
lieh monaAery of Croyland. He died in 
llOa His histoiy of the monastery of 
Ciovlaiid 18 interepened with many por- 
tiealaia of the English kiligs. It was 
pufaGsfaed by tar Henry Sanle, in 1586, 
among the Scrip U nr ts fosl Bedamj and has 
been reprinted both at Frankfort and at 
Ozfoffd, the latter of these editions, dated 
16B4, being the most complete. The his- 
iny 'of C^famd coxngyjses from 664 to 

iHaaarTAiicT. 

ImncmrrAifcs. 



^) 



(See DomieSf voL iv, p. 
(See Detceniy and Eg- 



vouvn. 



IiuxcTioiis balang partly to suigeiy 
and paidpr to anatomy. In surgeiy, 
fluids^ difierant, according to the diflferent 
e^cts desued to be produced, are thrown, 
by means of a small syringe, into the nat- 
ural cavities of the body, or those occa« 
Mned by disease, pai% to remove un- 
healthy matter, and pardy to bring the 
remedy immediately to the seat of the 
disorder, and thus effect a core. Wounds 
and sores are usually cleansed in this 
way, when they extend for below the 
skin, or an excitement and cure are pro- 
duced by the same method. Cato the 
Censor had one applied to himself when 
he suffered from a nsmla. In diseases of 
the nose and the cavities connected with 
it, in those which have their seat ii^the 
neck, in disorden of the ears, the bladder 
and urethra, the uterus and vagina, and 
for the radical cure of faydrocde, injec- 
tions are often used, and with impcwtant 
advantages. Pure warm water is injected, 
with the highest success, for the removal 
of pus, blood, or even foreign bodies. 
Sometimes astringent medicines, to re- 
strain excessive evacuations, sometimes 
stimulating ones, to excite inflammation, 
as in hydrocde, or even to increase and 
improve evacuations, sometimes soothing 
medicaments, to mitigate pain, &C., are 
added to the water. In diseases of the 
throat which binder the patient from 
swaUowing, and thus tend to produce 
death by starvation, nourishing fluids are 
injected into the stomach. The blood of 
beasts, or <^ men, has been sometimes 
injected into the veins, v^ich is called 
froaf/iinon. In the same way, medicines 
are introduced immediately to the blood ; 
for instance, tartar emetic to excite vom- 
iting, if a foreign body is fixed in the 
throat so firmly as to restrain the patient 
fit>m swaUowmg, and can neither be 
moved op nor down. According to the 
place where the injection is to be made, 
the instrument must be either longer or 
shorter, a straight or a curved tube. The 
sise is regulated bv the Quantity of the 
liquid to be injected, and the force which 
is to be applied, v Anatomists inject into 
the vessels of bodies various colored fluids, 
which are liquid when hot, and coagulate 
when cold, to make the smaller ones visi- 
ble. < Thus -the arteries, veins and lym- 
phatic vessels are injected. Anatomy has 
carried this art so for as to make very 
minute vessels viable to the naked eye. 

ItfjuircTioN is a prohibitoiy writ, issu- 
ing by the order of a court of equity, re- 
straining a person &om doing some act 
wluch appears to be agamst equiQr, and 

Digitized by ^UOyii:! 



14 



INJUNCTION— INK. 



the eomininon of which is not {iiiniflha- 
bie by the crimiDal law. An iojunctton 
may be obtained to auiy waste, as where 
a tenant for life, or vears, is proceeding to 
cut down timber which he has no ri^ht to 
cut ; to prevent vexatious litigation m tiie 
courts of common law, as where a man 
persists in briuginff actions to recover an 
estate, notwithstanding repeated fiiilures ; 
to enable a man to make a just defence, 
which he could not make at common 
law, as where the legal defence to a 
claim rests exclusively, or to a great de- 
gree, in the knowledge of the partjr ad- 
va icing the claim ; to prevent infringe- 
ment of a copyright, or a, patent, &c 

LfjURiA {iaUn), in law ; properly, eve- 
ry ^ict by which some one suffers un- 
lawfully. In the Roman law, the obliga- 
tions arisioff from such violations formed 
a class by ttiemselves, which were regu- 
latod by the fex ^quilia, so called because 
the tribune Aquilius (in the sixth century, 
between the destruction of Carthage and 
Corinth, and during the beg'mning of the 
civil wars) had caused the law to be enact- 
ed. At a later period, the right to ask le- 
gal redress was also extended to a mere 
violation of the honor of a person ; and, 
in the laws of modern nations, this has 
been retained, though with a great variety 
of views. In the middle ages, the duel 
was authorized by law; and, when the 
laws took from individuals the right of 
redressing their own wrongs, it was deem- 
ed necessary to offer some other niode of 
redressing injuries to honor, which had 
been one of the most fruitful sources of 
duels. The common law of England pun- 
ishes injuries to honor only when they 
amount to maUcious attempts to blacken a 
man^ reputation (see Lt6e2, and Slander) ; 
but according to the Prussian code, a per- 
son may be sued for having used insulting 
language, or even insulting gestures^ on 
the mere ground of violation of honor, 
and not of any other damage inflicted 
thereby. But, of late, the right hss been 
considerably restricted; for instance, the 
complaint must be entered within a short 
period fixed by law, &c According to 
the laws of the German states, tlie petition 
of the complainant may be to have the 
aaienJe honorable made him, as by an 
afiology for the insult, &r., or to have the 
offender punished. Legislation and adju- 
dication on injuries to honor ore uuittera of 
much delicacy, beyond the limits of the 
English law, which mukes reparation only 
in casjs where the oflence has produced, 
or is directly calculated to produce injury, 
to a man, in his ctmracier or busiueas. 



Irk, WaiTiiro. This material can be 
[wepared of various ooiorB^ but bUck is 
the most common. Doctor Lewis gives 
the following recdpt: — In three pints of 
white wine, or vinegar, let three ounces of 
gall-nuts, one ounce powdered logwood 
and one ounce green vitriol be steeped 
half an hour; then add 1^^ oimco gum 
Arabic, and, when the gum is dissolved, 
pass the whole mixture through a hair- 
sieve. Van Mons recommended the fol- 
lowing preparodon : — Let four ounces {[all- 
nuts^ 2^ ounces sulphate of iron, calcmed 
to whiteness, and two pints water, stand 
in a cool place 24 hours; then add 1^ 
ounce gum Arabic, and keep it in a vessel 
open, or slig^htlv stopped with paper. An- 
ther recipe is this : — ^Take one pound gall- 
nuts, nx ounces gum Arabic, six ounces 
sulphate of iron, and four pints beer, or 
water; the gall-nuts are broken, and stand 
as an infusion 24 hours; then coarsely- 
pounded gum b added, and suflered to 
dissolve ; lasdy, a quantity of vitriol is in- 
troduced, and the whole passed through a 
hair-sieve. It is generally observed, that 
unboiled inks are Teas likely to fade than 
others. A good red ink is obtained as fol- 
lows:— A quarter of a pound of the best 
logwood is boiled with an ounce of pound- 
ed alum and the same quantity of creain 
of tarbur, with half the quantity of water, 
and, while the preparodon is still warm, 
sugar and good gum Arabic, of each one 
ounce, ore dissolved in it. Solutions of 
indigo with pieces of alumina, and mixed 
with gum, form a blue ink. Green ink is 
obtained from verdigris, disdlled with vin- 
egar and mixed with alitde gum. Saffron, 
alum, and gum water, form a yellow. — It 
is not well ascertained how soon the pree- 
ent kind of wridog ink came into use. It 
has certainly been employed for many 
centuries in most European countries; but 
the ancient Roman inks were, for the most 
part, of a totally diflerentcomposidon, be- 
mg made of some vegetalile carbonaceoua 
matter, like lamp-black, diffused in a liquor. 
The Chinese, atid many of the inks used 
by the Oriental nations, are sdll of Uiis 
kmd. Somedmes the ink ot very old 
wridngs is so much fiuled by dme as to be 
illegibfe. Doctor Blagden (Philosophical 
Transacdons, vol. 77), in his experiments 
on this subject, found that, in most of 
these, the color might be restore, or, rath- 
er, a new body of color given, by pencil- 
ling them over with a solution of prussiate 
of potash, and then with a dilute acid, 
either sulphuric or muriatic ; or else,^ vice 
versa^ first with the acid, and then with 
the prussiate. The acid dissolves the oxide 



Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



INK. 



15 



of iron of the fiided ink, and the pnmiKte 
jaeeipitBleB it Mun of a blue color, which 
reatoreB the le^Dilitjr of the wridng; If 
tUa be done noitly, and blotdng paper laid 
ofer tlie letten as fast aa they become na- 
ible, their form will be retained Teiy di»- 
tinetlT. Pencilling over the lettera with 
an inliiaion of ^alla abo reaiorea the black- 
neaa^ to a eertam degreey butnot ao apeedi- 
ly, norao completely. 

Ckma or IndUm JUL The well known 
and much admired Indian, or China ink, 
ia brought over in amell oblong cakei^ 
which rBacUly become difiuaed in water 
by rubbing, and the blackneaBremainaaus- 
pended in it for aconnderable time, owing 
lo the ezlienie anbtiltv of diviaion of the 
■ubatance that givea the color, and the in- 
timacy with which it ia united to tlie mu- 
dhfinoua mntler that keepa h auapended* 
Indian ink doea, however, depoait the 
whole of its color by aftanding, when it la 
difiuaed in a conaderable quantijCy of wa- 
ter. Doctor Lewia, on examining thia 
aidManoe, found that the ink connated of 
a bhefc aediment, totally inaoluble in water, 
which aiipeared to be of the nature of the 
fineat lamp-black, and of another aub- 
aance Bolunte in water, and which putre- 
fied by keeping, and, when evaporated, 
left a tenacioua jelly, exactly like glu& or 
inngiafla. Itappeara probable, therefore, 
dial it ccuinalB of nothmg more than theae 
two ingredienta, and probably may be im- 
ilaled with perfect accuracy by ufling a 
voy fine jelly, like iBJnglawi, or aize, and 
tfae fineat faunp-black, and incorporating 
them thoroughly. The fineat bunp-black 
known ia ni«le fiom ivmy ahavings, and 
dMnce called taoty UodL 

PfinienP JUL Thia ia a veiy aingukff 
eompoeition, partaking much of the na- 
ture of an oil vainiah, but differing from 
it in the quality of adhering firmly to 
mniatetned paper, and in beings to a con- 
■denble degree, aoluble m aoap-water. 
Itii^ when uaed by theprinten, of the con- 
■MenoB of father thin jelly, ao that it may 
be amearod over the typee readilv and 
tUnly, when applied by leather cuahiona ; 
and it dries very speedily on the paper, 
without running through to the other aide, 
or jaMwiug the limits of the letter. It b 
made of nut-oil, boiled, and afterwarda 
nixed with lamp-block, of which about 
two ounees and a half are sufficient for 
16 ounoea of the prepared oiL Other ad- 
ditiooB are made Dy mk-makers, of which 
ifae moat important ia generally tmderBtood 
to be a Bitle fine indi0> in powder, to im- 
prove the beauty of thecofer. Red print- 
en^ ink is made by adding to the vaniiah 



about half its weight of vemiBoo. Alit- 
tie carmine aho improvea the color. ( JS^ 
ofcto^die, AU d MHAen^ veLiii, page 

Colortd tnka. Few of these are uaed, 
except red ink. The preparation of these 
ia veiy aimpie, conaiating either of decoc- 
tiona of the different coloring or dyeing 
materiala in water, and thickened vrith 
gum Arabic, or of colored metallic oxkie% 
or inaoluble powden, merely difiliaed in 
gum- water. The proportion of gum Ara- 
mc to be uaed may be the aame aafor 
black vniting ink. . All that ap|Aes to the 
fixed or fiigitive nature of the aeveral ar- 
ticles uaed in dyeing, may be applied, in 
general, to the use of the aame aubatanco 
as uika. Moat of tlie common vrater-color 
cakes^ difibsed in water, will make sufii- 
dendy good ccrfored inks fi>r most pur- 



SjfmpMdic Mta ; fiqolds without any 
observable color; any thing may be writ- 
ten with them inviaUy, aid apade viaible 
at will by certain meanai Even Ovid in- 
Ibnned maidena who were cloaely vratch- 
ed, that they mi^t write to their loven 
whatever they ^eaaed with fineah milk, 
and when diy aprinkle over it ooal-duat, 
or soot In modem timea, chemistry has 
taught the preparation of many improved 
inks of tliis nature : — Form a aolutioa of 
green vitriol in water, and add a litde al- 
um, to prevent the vellow iron precipitate 
fiom sinking, which alwavs riaea in caae 
the acid doea not^ prevail ; thia solution 
forms a fljmpathetic ink, which ^)pean 
extremely black when it ia moistened with 
a aaturated infusion of gall-nuts. A enrm- 
pathetic ink may likevriae be formed nom 
common black ink. For thia purpoee, the 
color must be deatroyed by a mixture of 
nitric add. Any thing written with it bo- 
comea viaible on moiatening it with asolu- 
tionof some volatile alkdL The famous ink, 
invisible in the cold, and virible at a mod- 
erate temperature, may be prepared vrith- 
out much difficulty. (See . Cb6ott .) Any 
writing with thia ink ia inviaible ; but, on 
the application of a certain degree of heat, 
it becomes a beautifiil greenieh blue. Aa 
soon aa it coob again, the color vaniahea ; 
and thua, by alternately heating and cod- 
ing it, the writing can be made visible or 
inviaible. Care must be taken not to heat 
it more than is required to make it plain, 
for otherwiae it always continues visible. 
With this sympathetic ink landscapes may 
be drawn, in which the trees and the earth 
loae their verdant appearance in the whi- 
ter, but may be changed again into aepring 
landacape, at will, by expoaing them to a 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



16 



INK— INLAND NAVIGATION. 



gentle heat This has been already tried 
on scrsens. 

Ini^nd Navioatiow.— Aiicricaw Ca- 
nals. An account of canals, except those 
of America, is given under the article 
Canals, An account of river navigation 
will be found under the article Rivers^ 
navigable. In the present article, a view 
will be ffiveu of American canal naviga- 
tion, as It presents itself in 1831 ; be^- 
ning at the northerly part of the conti- 
nent, and proceeding soutlierly. It is dif- 
ficult to obtain exact information relalLng 
to the works of this description in Ameri- 
ca. The publications on the subject con- 
tain immense masses of matter, of very 
little interest or practical utilitv, and, at 
the same time, omit a definite description 
of the works themselves, and give a very 
imperfect account of the obstacles over- 
come in their construction, or the amount 
of bunness done upon them. Some of 
the works mentioned in the fdlowing list, 
as ¥nll be seen in the account of tnem, 
are merely projected, and others are not 
yet completed ; and it is not easy, at the 
time of making this article, to ascertain, • 
precisely, what degree of progress has : 
been made in some of them; nor is it very « 
important to do so, since the state of ' 
things is rapidly changing in this respect ; 
insomuch, that what would be an exact 
account of some of them at the time of 
making this article, would cease to be such 
at the time of its publication. 

Canals of C Ait ABj^.-r-ffieUand canal was 
constructed fiom 1824 ta 18S29. Its length 
is 411 miles ; its breadth at the surfiice 58 
feet, at the bottom 26 feet, and its depth 
8 feet This line of navigation passes 
fix>m the mouth of Ouse nver, on lake 
Ti^rie, north-eastward, to strike at a point 
of the Welland or Chippe way river ; and, 
taking the course of that river downwards, 
11 miles, proceeds from thence northward, 
across the mountain ridjre, and down to 
the mouth of Twelve-Mue creek, on lake 
Ontario. The distance from lake to lake 
is 43 miles. Tlie deepest cutting, near 
the summit, is 56 feet It has ^ locks, 
135 to 100 feet long, 32 to 22 feet wide. 
The capital stock of the company is 
200,000 pounds; the number of shares, 
16,000. This canal admits of sloop navi- 
gation, and opens a communication be- 
tween lake Erie and lake Ontario, in the 
same vessels which navigate those lakes, 
and saves dischai'ging and reloading car- 
goes. One of the purposes of its con- 
stniction was, to prevent the trade of that 
part of Upper Canada which communi- 
eates with the great western lakes, firom 



being diverted to New York, by the route 
of i& Elrie canaL It was an arduous ami 
stupendous work, as appears sufficient^ 
firom the dimenaioiis and length of tM 
canal. Its execution was, however, fii 
cilitated by taking advantage of natund 
channels of sJaok-water.— i2ideisi» easud 
is a projected navigation for 122 miles, 
fiom Hull, on the great Ottawa, by the 
course of the river Kideau and a chain of 
lakes, to the diannanoquj, on the St Law- 
rence, at the Kingston mills, five miles 
fiom the city of Kmgston. The plan of 
communication is calculated fi>r sloop 
navigation. The expense, it is supposed, 
may amount to £l,000,00a— I<a C/vme 
canal is 10 miles in length, from Montreal, 
on the St Lawrence, directiy to Upoer 
La Clune, on lake St Louis, cutting off a 
bend in the river, and avoiding the rapids 
of St Louis. Cost, £220,000 ; for skM^ 
navigation. — L'JUe Perraidi canal is a 
projected work of five miles in length, 
th>m St Louis lake, at the fi>ot of St 
Anne's rapids, to the head thereof by a 
canal passing either at the back of St 
Anne's, or else across the Isle Peirault — 
GrenmUe canal is a projected work of 19 
miles in length, fifom the head of Low 
Sauk or Ottawa ftlls, at the village of 
Gronville, by a lateral canal, to the foot of 
Carillon rapids, opposite Point Fortune ; 
for sk>op navi^tion. EsCimateii cost, 
£250,000.— La PeUte MOion canal is a 
projected artificial channel of navieatioii, 
of 50 miles in length, from the &o| w 
Carillon rapids, at Hawkesbury, on the 
Ottawa, across the peninsula, to the Sc 
Lawrence, at Prescott 

Canals of thb United States. Im- 
mense improvements have been made in 
inland navigation, both by riveis and ca- 
nals, during the 15 years fiom 1816 to 
1831. More than 1000 miles of canal 
have been made during that time, besides 
vast improvements in river navigation ; 
and, in 1831, the numerous woiks of this 
sort, already commenced, are prosecuted 
with unremitted activitjr. Only a very 
l^eral outline of these im|»ovements, so 
important, both in a political and econom- 
ical view, can be given in this woric 

Ccmeds in Nho England. — CumbeHand 
and Oxford canaL This navisation, part- 
ly natural and pardy artificial, extends 
about 50 miles, mm Portland to Sebago 
pond, in Maine. The head of the ca^ 
is in the town of Bridgeton, at the ter- 
nunation of Long pond, which is 10 miles 
in length. This pond, together with 
Brandy pond and Sebago pond, with tiieir 
outlets, constitutes 27 miles of tiie ea- 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



INLAND NAVIOATION. 



17 



Btl ; di lodB only are necenaiy. Tolln 
•rasper mUe, ftr pfeiik8|6eenlBperlOOO 
fiMC; ahiD|^eB^2eeiilB« thouBand; wood^ 
6 oenlB a eord, per mile ; timber, 6 ceDte 
atoDfpermOe; goods in boats, 6 cents a 
ton ; bQoi% rails, &c^ 6 eento additional 
for each kick. — Midkaa emual was com- 
pleted in 1806. It opensa commanication 
oetweeD Boston harbor and the Merrimack 
river, a distance of 37 milesL It has but 
one summit level, 104 feet above Boston 
harbor, and 32 above the leveled the Mer- 
rimack, at the place of its junction with 
thai river in Chelmsford, above Pawtucket 
faOs ; Ml which fells are atuated the great 
manufecturing estaWiehmentB of Lowell. 
Its breadth at the suifece is 90 feet, at the 
bottom 20 feet, and its depth of water 3 
feec It makes part of a line of water 
eommnnication between Boston and the 
ceatral part of New Hampshire. There 
are on this canal 20 loocs of diflferent 
fiOa, of which the highest is 12 feet The 
lo^ are 75 feet long in the clear, 10 feet 
wide at the bottom, uid 11 feet at the top. 
The number of aqueducts, over rivers and 
fltreams, is 7 ; and there are 50 bridges, 
having stone abutments 20 feet apart. 
Cost, tSQ8,O0O; constructed by the Mid- 
dieaex canal company, incorporated in 
1780. The tolls, in 1^ were, fer boats, 
$14^84; rafts, $5770; in the whole, 
•1:^964.— BOio cannd was made in 1812, 
and is the continuation of a line of navi- 
of which the Middlesex canal 
a part Its length is \ mile ; 
the lockace 25 feet Its dimensions, and 
die size m the locks, correspond to those 
of the Bliddlesex canal, being designed to 
pass the same boats. It passes a fall in 
die Merrimack of 25 feet, with 4 locks. 
A dam is constructed across the river, at 
the head of the fells. Expense of the whole 
work, $19,000.— IfeofcMtt eantd, another 
woric on the Merrimack, 50 rods in len^, 
is abo a part of the same line of navi^- 
tion, and passes Hookwtt fells, in that nv- 
er, fay a lockage of 16 feet. Thesefelbare 
lower down the river than the Bow ca- 
oaL It has three locks. Cost of the whole 
woiks, 913^000^ — Amotktagcmud^ one mile 
JQ iei^^i, is another part of the same 
oavigation, being eisht miles ferther down 
the Merrimack, at Amoekea^ fella, which 
are passed by diis canal with a lockage 
of 45 f&eSL It has 9 locks, and several 



Cost, $00,000. — Umon cantdj a 
part of the same navigation, having 7 
ticks in 9 miles, is inunedtately below 
the Amoskeag canal, and comprehends 6 
MS of fells. Cost, $35,000. CromwelTs 
felb, which are below, on the same river, 
2» 



are k)cked at an expense of $8000 ; and 
15 miles lower down ere the Wiccaasee 
falk, wluch have been kicked at an ex- 
pense of about $12,000. The line of 
navigation above described, commenced 
at a veiy early period in the histoiy of 
canal navigation m the U. States ; ana the 
undertaking evinced great puUic spuit 
and enterprise on the part of^the persons 
who engaged in it, whose inadequate pe- 
cuniary remuneration has, however, ope- 
rated as a discouragement fh>m similar 
enterprises in New England.— Potoludfcef 
coRiiI, a branch of the navigation above 
described, is a channel of uwut a mile 
and a half in length, passing Pawtucket 
fells on the Menimack, and fecilitating 
the navigation of that river from Chehns- 
fbrd, where the Middlesex canal ntoeCs 
the river, to Newbuiyport, situated near 
its mouth. It is in the town of Lowell. 
A dam is made across the Merrimack, 
above those fells, a short distance below 
the termination of the Middlesex canal, 
for the purpose of regulating the height 
of water for supplying the Pawtucket ca- 
nal, which viras originally made merely for 
the passage of rans and boats, and cor- 
responded in dimensions to the othw 
worin on the same river above, and to 
the Middlesex canal. About the year 
1820, the proprietors of the manufacturing 
establishments, which have, during the 
short subsequent period of about 10 yeara, 
grown to 80 surprising a magnitude, and 
which are still rapidly mcreasing, purchas- 
ed the Pawtucket canal, and enlarged its 
channel to the dimensions of 90 %et in 
breadth, and 4 in depth, which not on- 
ly serves for the original purpose of this ca- 
nal, in passing these falls, which are in the 
whole about 32 feet in height, but also 
supplies immense hydraulic works, used 
for the purposes of manufiicturiDg.— 
Foarmmgton canal was commenced in 
1825, upon the plan of connecting, by a 
line of 78 miles of entirely artificial navi- 
gation, Connecticut river at Northampton, 
m Massachusetts, with New Haven hai- 
bor. It is 96 feet in breadth at the surface 
of the water, 20 at the bottom, and 4 fecc 
in depth ; and passes from New Haven to 
Farmuigton, in Connecticut, and from 
thence to Colebrook. The locks are 80 
feet in the clear, and 12 feet wide. Its 
commencement at New Haven is from a 
barin of 20 acres capacitv. It is (in 1831) 
nearly completed, and wholly under con- 
tract, from New Haven to Southwick 
ponds, in Massachusetts, a distance, by sur- 
vey, of 58 miles ; lockage, 218 ft.—Ha$np' 
shre and Hanipd^^^^^^^^^fgf^ 



18 



INLAND navigation: 



woik, of aO miles in lenjKth, in MaasBchu- 
setts, in continuation of the Fannington 
canal, fix>m Southwick ponds to North- 
ampton ; lockofle, 296 ^et-^Erf/idd ca- 
naif and the Uiree others next men- 
tioned, are short cuts at the different fiUb 
on Connecticut river. This was the latest 
of these improvements, having been com- 
menced by a company, under a charter 
granted in 1824. It is Similes in length, and 
passes the Enfield fiJls, in the state of Con- 
necticut' It has three stone locks, each 
10 feet lift, 90 feet by 20. Thiscanaladds 
40 miles to the steamboat navigation up 
the Connecticut Befi»e the construction 
of this work, these rapids were navigated 
by the boats passing along the river, but 
they were a great impediment to the nav- 
igation. This canal, like the Pawtucket 
at Lowell, on the Merrimack, is intended 
both to facilitate navigation and supply 
hydraulic works. ~ It is an important im- 
provement, and does mat credit to the 
undertaken. — South nadUy amaly the 
next artificial channel of navijnition up. 
the Connecticut, is in South Badley, m 
Massachusetts. It is 2 miles in length, 
and overcomes the rapids in the Con- 
necticut at the place, amounting to about 
40 feet There is a cut in this canal, 40 
feet deep, 300 feet long, in solid rock. 
This improvement, and aLaotheone next 
mentioned, were undertaken by a compa- 
ny which was chartered in 1792. — Mm- 
kigue ceuudj in the town of Montague, al- 
so in Massachusetts, is the next in oider, 
higher up the Connecticut It is 3 
mues in length, 25 feet broad and 3 deep. 
Bv this canal the navigation passes the - 
Montague falls, which commence above 
Miller's river; it terminates above the 
mouth of Deerfield river; lockage, 75 
feet — BeUows Falls ca?uil is a short aiti- 
ficial chatmel, higher up the Connecticut, 
'in the state of ^^rmont, for the purpose 
of passing Bellows falls. — BlackJUme ear 
nal (see tnat article for a description of 
this canaJ]^ A few miles above Providence 
harbor, tliis canal meets the Blackstone or 
Pawtucket river, and passes up along its 
western bank a great part of its route, and 
is wholly supplied by the waters of this 
river and its tributary streams and ponds, 
some of the latter lieing made use of as 
extensive reservoirs, whereby, in the dry 
season, all the water used by the canal, 
and so taken away from the various man- 
u&cturing wori(s established at the differ-, 
ent falls on the river, is replaced, and sup- 
posed, indeed, to be more than compen- 
sated for. This canal fSicilitates and 
greatly increases the trade from the 



northern part of the state of Rhode Id- 
and, and &e interior central part of Maa- 
sachusetts, to the market of Providence, 
that of New York, and the ports of the 
Middle and Southern States. 

Aho York Cmab. The state of Nov 
Yoik has an eztenaive system of artificial 
inland navisation, coimecting the naviga- 
tion of Hudson river with thai of lake 
Champlain, lake Ontario, lake Erie, and 
Ddaware river. — Ctonploin camd is 83| 
miles in length, 40 feet wide at the sur- 
face, 28 feet at the bottom, and 4 feet 
in depth. This, and the Elrie, Osweco 
and Cayuga canals, were made by the 
state, at the public expense, and remain 
under the administration of the govern- 
ment, as public property. The Chunphua 
canal passes fifom Albany to Whitehall, on 
lake Champlain, connecting Hudson river 
with that lake. This canalcommenoes at 
WhitehaU, at the head of sloop naviga- 
tion on lake Champlain, and, immediately 
rising, by 3 locks, 26 feet, proceeds on 
a level 5| miles up the valley of Wood 
creek^ enters that stream, and follows its 
channel for 3 miies, to a lock of 4 
feet lifl, which extends the navigation up 
the creek 3^ miles farther, to Fort Anne 
village, where, after rising by 3 locks 
24 feet, it leaves the creek, and proceeds 
12 miles <m a summit level, through the 
towns of Fort Anne and Kingsbury, to 
Fort Edwaid. Here it receives the wa- 
ters of the Hudson, above the great dam 
in that river, by a feeder of half a mile in 
length, and soon afier descends 30 feet 
by 3 locks, into the Hudson, below the 
dam. The great dam is 900 feet long, 27 
feet high, and throws back an ample sup- 
ply of water for the summit level. From 
Fort Edward, the navigation is continued, 
for the present, down the channel of the 
Hudson, 8 miles, to the head of -Fort Mil- 
ler falls ; around which it is carried bv a 
canal on the east bonk of the river, half a 
mile long, and having 2 locks of 18 
feet descent From Fort Miller, the river 
is made navigable fer near three miles 
fiirther, by a dam at the head of Saratoga 
&lls, iust above which the canal leaves 
the nver on the western side, and pro- 
ceeds on a level fer 17 miles, through 
Saratoga and Stillwater, Schuyler's ws, 
and over Fish creek, by an aqueduct, to a 
point two miles below Stillwater village. 
From this point to Waterferd, where ttM 
canal enters the Mohawk, and meets the 
Erie canal, a distance of 9 miles, it 
descends 86 feet by 9 locks, 6 of which 
are in the town of Waterferd. From Wa- 
terferd, the Hudson is now made navigti- 

Digitized by ^OO^ l^ 



UPLAND NAVIGATION. 



19 



Ue for siobps to Trojr, 31 inileB below, by a 
dam acroBB the mer at the latter phbce, 
1100 feet m tengtb, 9 feet high, and hav- 
mg a doop lock^ at its eastern extremity, 
114 feet tonff, 30 feet wide, 9 feet lift. 
The cost of this lock and dam was 
892^0.— JBrie eantd, extandkiff fiom Al- 
bany oo the HudaoDf to Buflnlo on lake 
Erie, is 363 miles m length, 40 feet wide 
at the Biufece of the water, 28 feet at the 
bottom, widi a depth of 4 feet of wa- 
ter. It has 2 sammit levels in this dis- 
tanoe, and the whole lockage is698 feet 
It was completed in 1825. The locks are 
83 in number, all of stcme masoniy, each 
90 feef lonff in the clear, and 15 feet wide. 
From Bufttlo, the canal proceeds 10 miles 
to Tocmewanta creek. The Tonnewanta 
is then used for 12 miles; thence bv a deep 
cut7| nulee to Lockport, where it descencb 
GO feet by 5 locks ; thence on a uniform 
level 63 miles to Rochester, where it crosa> 
es the Gennesee, by an aqaeduct of 9 
arches, each 50 feet span. Here it is sup-* 
idied by a navipd>le feeder, 2 miles 
long, connecting it with the Gennesee; 
thence easteriy to Montezuma, 67i| miles, 
m which distance it descends 126 feet, 
and crosses Mud creek twice byaque- 
dueti. At Montezuma, the level of the 
eanal ascends, and, in a distance of 27 
miles, to Safins, rises 67 feet In Salina 
commences the 'long level,' a distance of 
69 miles, to Frankfort From Frankfort, 
the canal descends, in 12 miles, 49 feet, to 
the head of Little FaDs, where are 5 
locks, and an aqueduct over the Mohawk, 
of 3 arches. From the foot of Little 
FaDs, the canal continues for 70 miles 
down the valley of the Mohawk, on the 
south ade of the river, to Niakayuna, 4 
miles below Schenectady, where it crosses 
the Mohawk by an aqueduct 748 feet 
loog. The descent fiom the foot of Little 
Fab to Niskayuna is 86 feet After cross^ 
ing the Mohawk, the canal proceeds alonff 
the north bank thereof for 12 miles, and 
dien recrosses by an aqueduct 1188 feet 
kMig, and passes by uie Cohoes fells, 
wbm, in the Apace of 2 miles, it de- 
fcends 132 feet, by 16 locks. A tittle be- 
low the Cohoes fiub, a feeder enters fiom 
the Mohawk, and ccmnects the Erie with 
the Champlain canal ; and the united work 
then proceeds to Albany, 8^ miles, in 
«Uch distance it descends 44 feet, and 
terminates in the tide waters of the 
Hudson. Cost, $7,602,000.— -Omm^ ca- 
nal is a branch of the Erie. This naviga- 
tion passes fiom Oswego to Syracuse, 
connecting lake Ontario with the Elrie ca- 
dbL . It has 123 feet of bckage, ail de- 



scending towards lake Ontario. One half 
of the distance, is a canal connected vrith 
Oswego river by locks and duns; the 
other half is a dack- water navigation on 
the river. Its structures consist <^ 22 
bridges, 1 aqueduct, 7 culverts, 2 waste 
weirs, 8 dams across the liver, 13 locks of 
stone, and 1 of stone and timber. Cost^ 
$525,115. It has been made since the 
Erie canaL— Cc^uM and Sauca canals 
another branch of the J5rie, made in 
1828, extends fiom Geneva to Montezu- 
ma, connecting Seneca and Cayuga lakes 
with the Erie canaL The work consistB 
of 10 miles of independent canal, and 10 
miles 24 chains of slack- water navigation. 
There are 7 locks, embracing 73i feet of 
lockage, 19 bridges, 5 saferv-gates, 5 dami^ 
and 6 culverts. Cost, $211,000.— Z>e2a- 
foare and Hudmm camd is not, like the 
preceding, a work of the slate, having 
been made by a private company. It is 
64 miles in length, 32feet wide at the wa- 
tei^s surfece, 20 feet at the bottom, 4 feet 
in depth, and has 615 feet of lockage. It 
commences on the western side of the 
ihrer Delaware, at Carpenter^ point, and 
passes across to the Hudson, which it en- 
teis 4 miles below Kingston, and thus 
connects those two rivers. It also unites, 
in Pennsvlvania, with the Lackawaxen 
canal. These canals, when united, ex- 
tend 117 miles. L^igth fiom the tide 
water of the Rondout, to the summit level 
between the Hudson and Delaware, 38 
miles, with a rise of 535 feet From the 
summit level to the Delaware, is 26 miles, 
and a descent of 80 feet Up the Deb- 
ware to the month of the Lackawaxen, is 
17 miles, and a rise of 148 feet Up the 
Lackawaxen to head water, at Kean's 
pond, is 36 miles, and a rise of 668 feet 
Toud lockage, 1431 feet Cost, $16,000 
per mile. The Delaware and Hudson 
canal company were incorporated in 
1823. Tolls not to exceed S cents per 
mile per ton of coal, and 4 cents for otner 
merchandise ; the same for eveiy 100 
feet, cubic measure, of timber, and every 
1000 feet boaSrds, and every 5000 shingles. 
/^ew Jeng^. — Mania caned was com- 
menced in VSXS^ and is (1831) much ad- 
v-anced. It is 101 miles in length, fiom 30 
to 32 feet wide at the surfiuse, 16 to 18 feet 
at the bottom, and 4 feet in depth ; tiie 
whole lockage is 1657 feet It extends 
from Jersey city, on the Hudson, across 
tlie state ox New Jersey, to the Delaware, 
opposite Easton, where it connects with 
the Lehigh canal. The summit level is 
near lake Hopatcunf. On the western di- 
vision, fiom uie feeder at the summit level 

Digitized by ^OO^ Vkl 



90 



INLAND NAVIGATION. 



to the Delaware, are to be seven locks, 
oyercoRung a difference in level of 67 feet, 
and 11 incluied planes, overcoming 691 
feet On the eastern diviaon, between the 
summit level and the Passaic, there are to 
be 17 locks, overcoming a difierence of 156 
feet, and 12 inclined planes, overcoming 
743 feet. There will be, within these lim- 
its, 4 ffuard-locks, 5 dams, SO culverts, 12 
aquemicts, 200 bridges ^d upwards. The 
aqueduct across the Passaic, at Little Falls, 
is of cut stone, the duct resting on a sin- 
gle arch of 80 feet, with 50 feet radius, and 
measuring 52 feet perpendicular above the 
water level, that is, to the coping of the 
aide- walls ; extent, from wing-wall to wing- 
wall, 215 feet — Delaware and RarUan ca- 
nal is a projected woik in the same state. 
PmMjflvamia Canals, The state of 
Pennsylvania has a very extensive system 
of canal navigation, a very large part of 
which has been undertaken b^ the state, at 
the public expense. — Schw^kiU canal and 
namgation was commenced in 1816, and 
has been in operation a number of years. 
Its length is 110 miles; lockage, €20 feet, 
or only 5.64 feet per mile ; is §5 feet wide 
at the surfiice of the water, 24 feet at the 
bottom, and 4 feet deep, and extends from 
Philadelphia to Reading, and from thence 
to mount Caifoon. It is sometimes called 
the Sshm^kiU namgation. It comprises 31 
dams, commencing at Fair Mount \vater- 
works, near Philadelphia, by which is 
produced a slack-water navigation of 45 
miles; also 23 canals, extending 65 miles ; 
125 locks, 17 feet wide, 80 feet long, of 
which 28 are guard-locks. There are 17 
arched aqueducts ; a tunnel of 450 feet, 
cut throuffh and under solid rock ; 65 toll 
andsate-houses. The dams vary from 3 
to 27 feet in height Total cost of the im- 
provements, January 1, 1830, $2,236,937. 
Tolls, for 1826, $43,109; 1827, $58,149; 
1828, $87,171 ; 1829, $120,039. It was 
constructed by the Schuylkill navigation 
company, incorporated in 1815. The 
company may declare a dividend not ex- 
ceeding 25 per cent per annum, and the 
tolls are to be regulated accordingly. — 
Union canal and namgation, constructed 
in 1827; lenffth, 82 miles, exclusive of a 
navigation of 7^ miles ; lockage, 520 feet; 
36 feet wide at the surface, and 24 feet at 
the bottom, and 4 feet deep. It extends 
from 4 miles below Reading to Middle- 
town, connecting the Susquehanna and 
SchuyltiU rivers, and uniting at Reading 
with the Schuylkill canal, and at Middle* 
town with the great Pennsylvania canal ; 
the summit level is at Lebanon. The ca- 
u;d begins, at its eastern end, in the Schuyl- 



kill works, and ascends along the wesleni 
bank of the Schuylkill to the valley of the 
Tulpehocken, and passes up that valley to 
the east end of the summit level, within 
five miles of Lebanon, rising 311 feet by 
54 locks, of various lifls of fiom 8 to 4 
feet The summit extends 6 miles, TB 
chains, part whereof is a tunnel of 850 
feet, Is feet wide, 14 high, opening into 
Clark's creek valley, along which the ca- 
nal descends to the Swatars, and, continu- 
ing along the valley of this river, termi- 
nates at Middletown. Descent firom sum- 
mit, 208i feet, overcome by 39 locks. It 
has 43 waste weirs, 49 culverts, 135 road 
and farm bridges, 12 aqueducts, one of 
which is 276 feet in lengtli. On this canal 
are extensive water-woncs for raising the 
water of the Swatara to the summit Cost, 
$20,000 per mile. Rates of toll to be regu- 
lated so as not to give more than 12 per 
cent — Lackawaxen canal is 36 miles in 
length, 32 feet wide at the surface, 20 feet 
at me bottom, and 4 feet in depth. It com- 
mences at the termination of the Delaware 
and Hudson canal, near Carpenter's point, 
and unites with a rail-road atHon^dale. 
fSee Ddaware and Hudson cemaL) In 
1825, the Lackawaxen canal and coal 
company were authorized to act in union 
with the Delaware and Hudson canal com- 
pany. The tolls are not to exceed 1 i cents 
per ton per mile on boats transporting stone, 
coal, A&c. Great quantities of Lackawana 
coal are transported along this canal. — Le- 
high canal and naoigaium was completed 
about 1829, is 46| miles in length, 60 to 65 
feet wide at the surface, 45 feet at the bot- 
tom, and 5 feet deep ; the lockag^ is 360 
feet It extends from Evasion on the Dela- 
ware to Stoddartsville, connectinff the 
Morris canal with the Mauch Chunk rail- 
road ; cost, $1,558,000. It consists of 37 
miles of canal, and 9| of slack-water pools. 
The ponds connecting the several lengths 
of canal are all cleared out in the channel 
to the width of 50 feet The canals are 
furnished with 43 locks, from 6 feet lift to 
9, whereof 2 are guard-locks, besides 5 
other guard-locks at the pools respective- 
ly; dimensions, 22 feet wide, 100 feet long. 
There are 8 dams, varyinff in height from 
6 to 16 feet. The lock waUs are construct- 
ed of rough stone. There are 4 aque- 
ducts ; 22 culverts ; cost, $25,000 per mile. 
The Lehigh coal and navigation company 
were incorporated in 18lS. Tolls not to 
exceed three cents per mile, per ton, for 
boats, and every ton of shingles in 
rafls, from the Great Falls to the mouth 
of Nescbponing creek; and from thence to 
the mouth of the Lehigh, one cent per 

Digitized by VjOO^ l^ 



INLAND NAVIGATION. 



mile ; and the nme toll is paid for 1000 
feet homxds.-^CmtaUiga namgMm, 18 



milfiB In length, with a lockage of 70 
feet, paaaea from Safe Harbor, on Bus- 
quehanna river, at the mouth of Coneato- 
n cieek, up die courae of the creek, to 
Lancaster. The navigation is eflected by 
a series of locks and dams, the pools never 
afibfding lees than 4 feet depth of water; 
the locks are 100 feet by 23, in the chambeia; 
the towing-path is on the south side of the 
river. Coatj $4,000 per mile. The conn 
pany were incorporated in 18S25 ; they are 
authorized to receive to the amount of 15 
per cent, on the sum expended, and the le- 
^Blature may regulate the rate of tolls, pro- 
vided they do not reduce them below that 
tate. — Ckmtuago canal ia^i miles in length, 
with a lockage of 21 feet, and passes m>m 
tbe foot to Die head of Conewago feUs, 
west Side of Susquehanna river, York 
county, Penneyivanm; and the same, east 
Bde, Dauphin oounw. Two damsy c«e 
of 800, the other of 500 feet, are oonneot- 
ed with the works. There are 1 guard 
and 3 lift kHsks, each 110 feet k>ng, by 
18 wide.— PcNMjylMmMi emial was com- 
BMsnced in 1826, by the state of Penn- 
sylvania, and great prosiess has been made 
in constructing the di&reni hnnches, and 
the work is now (1831) prosecuted with 
great activi^. It inchidea. a number of 
canals, running in different directions, and 
known b^ dimrent names : it consislB (^ 
five divisions : — ^1. The transverse division 
eoDuneiiceB at Columbia, where the Phila* 
debhia and Columbia mU-road tsrminatei^ 
and runs on the Susquehanna lo Duncan's 
island, 44A^ miles> at tbe mouth of the 
Juniata, tnenoe on the Juniata to Hun- 
tington, 89 miles; thence fiom Huntington 
to near Holidaysbuig^ 39 miles. The di- 
Tiaion of rail- way proposed from Holidays- 
buig to the head of the basin at Johns- 
town, is 37 miles ; this road crosses the 
Ailei^iany, and at its lowest crossuig-place 
ii 1%4 feet 7 inchea above the bann at 
HoUdaysburg, and 1141 above that of 
Johnstown. The canal then runs from 
Johnstown to Pittsbuig, 104| miles, down 
tbe Ki^imenitas and Alleghany. 2. The 
middle diviaon is from the mouth of the 
Juniata up the Susquehanna to the boun- 
daiy fine ofNewYcHik, 204 miles, a The 
West Branch division, from Northumber- 
hnd, by canal, up the West Branch valley, 
on the east aide of that river, to a dam 
above the mouth of the Bald Eagle creek, 
and thence, across the small peninsula 
there formed, to a dam on the Bald Eagle, 
near Dunnsto wn. Ascent, by 14 locks, 101 
feet ; distance, 681 uoifea 4. The easteni 



division is in the valley of the Delavms 
commencing at Bristol, 18 miles above 
PhikMlelphiis and running to Easton, 60 
miles. From Easlon it is to be continued, 
under the name of thelMaioare coaof, to 
meet the Delaware and Hudson canal, aft 
Carpenter's pomt, 66i miles. Begun ia 
1827. 5. The western, or Ohio and lake 
Erie division, is to extend fioro the mouth 
of the Kiskimenitas up tbe AJ^hany and 
French creeks, and thence to the town of 
Erie, uniting the Ohio and lake Erie, 213 
miles. — F\rmch creek feederrmB fyum Se- 
mis's mill, on French creek, along the 
eastern side, nine miles, down to a pc^t op- 
posite the Conneau^t outlet, and thenoe 
pasnng across by an aqueduct westward 
12i miles, to Conneaught lake, 21i milea. 
Delaware amd Maryland, — Cknapeake 
and Ddawart canal was commenced in 
1824, and opened for navigation in 18MK 
It is 131 miles fong, 66 fbet wide at the 
surfece of the water, and 10feetdeep,heiag 
ititended for sloop navigatioii between the 
river Delaware and Chesapeake bay« It 
leaves the Delaware 45 miles below Phila- 
delphia, and passes across the peninsiJa 
to the Chesapeake. This canal has two 
tkie and two M looks, of 100 feet m length 
by 22 in breadth, withm the chamber ; it is 
navigable for v e ss el s usually employed in 
the bay and coasting trade. Attheeesleni 
termination of the canal, at Delaware city, 
a harbor extends 500 feet afeng the shose, 
feom which two pieiB, that distance apart, 
protect SSO feet mto the river, neaiiy op- 
poeite to Fort Delaware. Betweesi the 
narfoor and the canal, the Delaware tide- 
lock opens the communication. In this 
canal is adeep cut of di miles, 764 feet in 
depth, at the place where the greatest ex- 
cavation was made. The sununh level is 
12 feet above tide water«— JRoH Dep^ 
canal is a public woik of die state <^ Ma- 
rvhmd, of 10 miles in length, fiom Poit 
Deposit, on the east bank of the Suaque- 
hanIU^ along a line of repidsnoithward to 
the boundaiv line of Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania.— Polomoc ruwrconob. At Little, 
or Lower Falls, three miles above Wash- 
iiiffton, is a canal 2i miles long ; difference 
of^level, 37 feet 1 inch, overcome by a se- 
ries of 4 sets of locks, of solid mason- 
ry, 80 feet long, 12 wide. At Great Falls, 
nine miles above, is a canal 1200 yards 
long, lined with walls of stone ; difference 
of level, 76 feet 9 inches, surmounted by 
5 sets of locks, of solid masonry, 100 
feet long, 10 to 14 wide ; lifb fit>m 10 to 
18 feet Bodi here and at Little Falk^die 
canal dimenaons are 25 feet wide at sur- 
face» 20 at bottom, 4 feet deep. Canal 



Digitized by V^OO^ Ikl 



as 



INLAND NAVIGATION. 



woiici, on a tmaUer scale, are conatructed 
at Seneca fails, Shenandoah falls. Housed 
ftU& These works were executed by the 
Potomac company, incorporated, in 1784, 
by Maryland and Virginia ; but they are to 
be surrendered to the Chesapeake and 
Ohio canal ccflnpany. — Chesaptakt mnd 
OJUbeonof, commenced in 1828. The pro- 
posed leneth is 341^ miles ; the breadth, 
at the suirace of the water, 60 to 80 feet ; 
at the bottt>m, 50 feet ; the depth of water, 
6 to 7 feet According to the plan of 
this canal, it will pass from tide-water of 
the Potomac river above Georgetown, in 
the District, of Columbia, and terminate 
near Pittsburg, in Pennsylvania. The first 
2 miles of tins canal above Georgetown 
are 70 feet wide on the surface, and 7 feet 
deep ; the next 2 miles are 80 feet wide, 
6 feet deep. Five miles from George- 
town, the canal is so planned that a branch 
may be constructed to Alexandria, another 
to Baltimore, and another tothe navy-yard 
in Washington. The remaining distance 
to the Point of Rocks (44 miles), is to be 
60 feet wide, 6 deep. The locks are to be 
of stone, 100 feet by 15 feet in the clear. 
The eastern section of this canal, from 
one mile below Cumberland to tide-water ' 
at Georgetown, is 186 miles 1353 yards ; 
descent, 638 feet The middle section is 
from. Cumbeiland to the mouth of Cassel- 
man's river, 70 miles 1010 yards ; this sec- 
tion includes the summit level, where a 
tunnel, 4 miles 80 yanls long, passing un- 
der a ridge of the Alleghany of 856 feet 
elevation, is necessary, with a deep cut of 
1060 yards long at the western end, and an- 
other deep cut of 140 yards at the eastern 
end, — eacn of these cuts opening into a 
basin, of 880 yards in lenath and 64 in 
width. Lensth of summit level is 5 miles 
1280 yards ; lockage of the whole middle 
section is 1961 feet The western section 
is from the mouth of Casselman's river to 
Pittsburg, 85 miles 348 yards, embracing a 
descent of 619 feet ; lockage on the whole 
canal, 3215 feet The first estimate of the 
cost was (22,375,000, but it is maintained 
that the cost will not exceed $10,000,000. 
The U. States have authorized a subsoip- 
tion of 1,000,000 dollars to the stock of 
this company. To be constructed by 
the Chesapeake and Ohio canal company. 
Charter granted by Virginia in 1824, con- 
firmed by Maryland and congress in 1825. 
Tolls not to exceed 15 per cent dividend. 
Ohio, The state of Ohio has com- 
menced the construction of canals, as 
public works, on a very liberal scale. — 
Ohio SiaU canal, from Cleveland, on lake 
Erie, to the Ohio, at the mouth of the 



Scioto; locloue, 1185 feet; lengdi of die 
main line is dBS mfles ; feeders^ 15 miles ; 
total, 322 milesL EMmated expenses, 
$2,801,000. The route is finom Portsmouth, 
on the Ohio (where it is 474 feet above 
tide level, and 94 below lake Erie), up the 
valley of the Scioto, to Pikestown ; thence 
crossing the river to near ChiUicothe; 
thence again croeang the river, it contin- 
ues alonff the eastern bank to the Big Belly 
creek, where it receives a feeder, 10 miles 
long, from the Scioto at Columbus; it 
then pae»es up the vallev of Walnut creek 
to the Licking and Walnut creek summit, 
between the head vniters of those streams. 
From the summit it continues down the 
valley of Licking creek to Rocky Fork, 
and Uience across the valley to theToma- 
ka, and down it to near its iunction widi 
the Muskingum. From this point the 
ascent commences, and the line passes up 
the Muskingum valley to White Woman^ 
creek; crossing this, it proceeds up the 
valley of the Tuscaiavras Fork, first on the 
western, then on the eastern bank, to a 
point where its two head waters unite 
near tlie south-west angle of Portage 
county. This is the centre of the Portace 
summit, extending 10 miles. From the 
north of the Portage or Akron summit 
ifS9 fe&t above the Ohio at Portsmouth, 
973 feet above the Adantic, 405 above 
lake EIrie), it passes down the Cuyahosa 
valley, first on the west, afterward on the 
east side of the river, to within 6 miles of 
&e mouth at Cleveland, for which 6 miles 
the river channel with a towing-path is to 
be used. — Miomi canalj 40 feet wide at the 
snr&ce, and 4 feet in depth, from Cindn- 
nad on the Ohio to the Maumee, near tho 
head of lake Erie, was commenced in 
1825. Length of main line, 265 miles ; 
feeders, 25 miles; total, 290; lockage,889; 
estimated expense, $2^929,957. The en- 
tire line from Cincinnati to Dayton is 
(1831 ) completed. This division embraces 
22 locks; ascent from the Ohio, at low 
water, 108 feet ; length of canal, 65 ; 
feeders, 2; total, 67 miles ; cost, $746,352. 
From Dayton the line is to be extended 
to lake Erie. The summit level, com- 
mencing 18 miles north of Dayton, ex- 
tends 60 miles within a nn^e lock ; and 
this level, together with 75 miles of the 
line north of it, must receive all its waters 
firom feeders fit>m theMad and Miami rivers. 
To aid the state in extending this canal to 
lake Erie, there is assigned by congress, 
of the public lands which the same shall 
pass through, a quantity equal to one half 
of five sections in width, on each side of 
the canal, between Dayton and the Mau- 



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INLAND NAVIGATION. 



iseerifWy ^ ^^ mouth of the Angbiae, 
Ae U. StHtBB reBerviog each alteniate sec- 
iiod; pnmded this eztenflion be com- 
meneed within five yean from May, 1828, 
and finished within twenty ; the canal to 
beahighway fiir the U. States, free finom 
toO. 

Vvrgima and Abrft Coroltnik— h^ppo- 
■otfor rkftr amaU, Theae caneb aie 
for the poipofle of improving the naviga- 
tion of the Upper and Lower Appomattox. 
— Jamea rwar canaia. The river is navi- 
gaUe, ibr vesBeb of 125 tons buithen, fo a 
ietle bdow Richmond. At the city, there 
are 12 locks, overcoming an ascent of 80 
fee^ and connecting the tide water with a 
basn on Shockoe liilL From this bann 
noeeedn a canal, 35 feet wide, 3 deep, for 
ik miles^ where it enters the stream; at 
3 miles farther are 3 locks, overcom- 
ing an ascent of 34 feet, and a short canal 
leading to Westham, at the upper end of 
Great FaSks.^-Jamea and Jaman rwer 
eanad and navigation, from Richmond ba- 
■D, by canal, up the James river valiev, 
K> the head of Maiden Adventure's ftlls, 
Goochland county. IMstance, 30^ miles ; 
width of canal, 40 feet; deptli, 3i ; fin- 
iriied in 1825; cost, $023^295. Alsofiom 
the lower end of Irish fells, or Piney island, 
by canal, along the nuuron of James river 
to the mouth of North Braoch, in Rock- 
inid county. Distance, 7 miles. The fall 
ii overcome by lockage 96 feet; cost, 
$340,000^— SSIeiuindoa& canott , for the im- 
provement of the Shenandoah. They are 
flbiated near Port Republic A fell 
of 50 feet is overcome by six short canals 
with stone locks. — Dismal Swamp canaL is 
234 miles in lei^, 40 feet wide and 6h 
deep, panea from Deep creek to Joyce's 
enik^ at the head of Pasquotank river, 
eoonecting the waters of the Chesapeake 
md Albemarle sound; partly in Vii^^ia 
and partly in North Carolina. This canal 
was finished, upon a circumscribed 
IB 18291 Its dimensions have since 
ailarged. EveiY quarter of -a mile, the 
eanal is widened €0 feet, for turn-out sta- 
tiona. The locks newly constructed cor- 
respond in dimensions with those of the 
Cheaspeake and Delaware canal ; and the 
M ones may be so altered when necessa- 
IV. The summit level is 164 feet above 
tie Atlantic at mid-tide, and is sunplied 
by a feeder of five miles, from lake Dnim- 
mond. The basin, at Deep creek, is half 
a mile m length, and 15 feet above the 
lev^ of tide water. The North- west canal 

North-west river (which emptieB 

Conitnck sound in North Carolina) 
widi the main canal, requiring a cut of 



6 miles. This canal » 94 feet wide, 
4 feet deep.->-IFe2flbn eanal is 12 milea in 
lenath, along the Wekion or Great Falls 
in Roanoke river, in which dtstance the 
river descends 100 feet^ — DamriUe and 
Dan river canali are a series of improve- 
mentB on the upper branches of Roanoke 
river. The expenditure of the Roanoke 
navigation company, fer these purposes^ 
has been about $350,000.— CiqM I^ 
rwer conob, fix>m New Inlet, at Smiths 
island, at the mouth of Cape Fear river, 
up the stream to WilmingtOD, and thence, 
by acouiseof lock and dam improvements^ 
up to the head thereof formed bv the 
union of Deep and Haw rivers, below 
Haywoodsboroush in Chatham coimty; 
distance, 200 mues. These canals, Slc^ 
are fer the purpose of improving the navi- 
gation of the river. This work is prose- 
cuting by the state of North CaroIuuL — 
Waltru river and CaknAa rvotr cantdg^ 
fiom the confluence of the Congaree and 
Waieree rivers, up the course of the latter, 
as also of the Catawba river, across North 
Carolina, to near the source thereof. Dis- 
tance, by the river channel improvements 
and lateral canals together, 275 miles. — 
jSomiee, CoUaMa and Saluda canid»j fiom 
Columbia, through the Columbia canal, 
into Broad river, and throueh the Saluda 
canal, from Broad into Suuda river, up 
which and through Drehr and LorH^w 
canals, on to the Abbeville county line, 
near Cambridge ; also from Santee river, 
by the Santee canal, into Cooper's river, and 
down this river to the port of Charleston. 
Distance, by mixed navigation, 150 miles. 
These comprise five canals, with 28 locks, 
overcoming falls of 217 feet The Santee 
and Cooper's river canal is 22 miles long^ 
tmiting Santee river to the head of Coop- 
er's river. The ground rises, by an ascent 
of 35 feet, to the summit level, by four 
locks. Towards Cooper's river, the descent 
is 68 feet, overcome by nine locks. The 
locks are 60 feet Ions by 10 feet wide. 
The canal is 32 feet wide at top, and 20 feet 
at the bottom ; 4 feet deep. It was com- 
pleted in 1802, at an expense of $650^. 
— fFimfow canal is 10 miles in length. It 
unites the Santee river with Winyaw 
bay. 

Kentucky. — LouiemUe and Portland tn- 
wA is about two miles in length, 50 feet 
wide at the bottom, with a lockage of 23| 
feet It is not fiiUy completed in 1831. 
It passes from the Ohio, at Louisville, to a 
pomt of the same below the rapids, near 
Portland. Distance, by the bend of the riv- 
er, three miles; corwrnicted by the Louia- 
ville and Portland canal company, whkh 



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naAND NAVIGATION— INNOCENT. 



ma ineorpomtad in 1835. The canal is 
ibr the paasage of laige vessela It eom- 
mencea from the lower end of a basin or 
estuaiy, which extends along the shore 
of the river for the whole len^ of Louis- 
ville, and is connected with the river at its 
upper end. FVooi the lower part of this 
bean, the canal tmvenes the point formed 
by the bend of the river at the falls, and 
reenters the river at Shippingsport. The 
bottom is to be 50 feet wide, sunk four 
foet below the level of the basin at Louis- 
ville, at time of low water ; the banks to be 
elevateds feet above the highest water 
marie known at Louisville, which makes 
43 foet from the bottom of the canal, and 
to be sloped as 1} base to 1, so for as 
respects the upper or earthen portion; 
Underneath there is a solid bed of stone 
for a foundation, the whole length of the 
canal, and this is to be cut perpendicu- 
lariy, to the requisite depth, varying from 
1 to 10 foet ; the slope above which, to the 
top of each bank, is to be faced with stone. 
There are to be 3 lift-locks, of 7 feet 
lift each, and a guard-lock at the lower 
end of the canal; dimenaons, IdO feet 
long by 50 foet wide, in the chamber. The 
U. States have contributed towards this 
important woric. 

Oeorgia, — Sawmnah and Ogatdiee co- 
ital is 16 miles in length, 33 foet wide at the 
bottom, and 5 foet in depth, passing from 
fiavannah river, commencing at Savannah, 
to the Ogatchee river ; lockage, 29 foet ; 
estimate of cost, $1623^6; locks to be 
18 foet wide, 90 long. This is to be con- 
tinued from the Ogatchee to the Alata- 



Loulsiana, — J^Tew Orleans and TVcAe 
river eancd is a projected and partly exe- 
cuted navigation, of 100 miles in length, 
from a point on the Mississippi, opposite 
New Orleans, to the waters which unite 
whh the Teche river, at Berwick's bay. 
A portion of this canal, from Lafourche 
■to Terrebozme, has been (1831) nearly 
completed by individual enterprise. — Ca- 
ronidd eanm is 1 <! miles long, 30 feet vride, 
and 4 foet deep, and extends from bayou 
St John to a basin in the rear of the city 
of New Orleans. This canal is without 
locks. Through it the tide flows into the 
boBin. — Lftfounhe canal passes from the 
river Lafourche, 16 miles below its efflux 
from the Missiarappi. It is opened from 
die riffht bank into a small creek, uniting 
with kike Vwret. It is through this chan- 
nel^ at high water, that boats are taken to 
and from the lower port of Attacapas 
into the MiaaisBippi, or from the latter 
«&9am ; navigable only in times of high 



flood.— PtojpMswie cmuU paMes fivm the 
MiasisBipiH mto bayou Pla^uemine, at its 
efflua; from the lussiaBippi. The mouth 
of the Plaquemine is ctosed by a raft of 
timber, and the canal (a short cut of about 
400 yards) was made aoroai the pointy 
below the bayou. It is only navigable 
in times of hi^ flood. 

Inn, a river in the south of Germany, 
rises in the Orisons, flows through Tyrol 
and Bavaria, and emptiea into the Danube 
at Passau. It is navigable fifom Telfi. 
Innspruck (q. v.) is situated on this river. 

Innate Ideas ; certain primary notions, 
or impressions, supposed by many phitos- 
ophers to be given to the mind of man 
when it flist receives its being, and to be 
brought into the world with it Their ex- 
istence has aflbrded ground for much dis- 
pute among philosopners. 

Innocent ; the name of thirteen popes, 
among whom are the following: — Ana- 
cent I, saint, a native of Albano, succeeded 
Anastasius I as bishop of Rome, in 408. 
He was in great fovor vrith the emperor 
Honorius, and induced him to take se- 
vere measures against the Donatists. He 
supported St. Chiysostom (q. v.), and re- 
nounced the communion with the Eastern 
churches, on account of their treatment 
of that eminent man. In 409, he was sent 
to obtain terms of peace from Alaric, but 
without success, in consequence of the op- 
position of the pretMian prefect Joviua. 
(q. V.) Rome vras taken and pillaged, in 
410, while Innocent was still in Ravenna. 
He condemned the Pelagians os -heretics, 
in a letter to the Aflican churches, butex- 
dted their opposition bv his arrogant tone. 
He died in 417 ; according to some, in 416. 
He is one of the most distinguished among 
the saints; his day is July 28. His de- 
crees (in the Collection of Dionysnus Exi- 
ginus) and letters (most oom)>lete in Schd- 
nemann's PonHf. Rawu E»igL gemdmB) 
TOOve his zeal for the establishment of the 
Roman supremacy ; but part of them are 
considered^ by many ciitios, spurious. 
Zosimus was his successor. — hmocent II; 
a Roman of noble birth, elected pope, in 
1130, by a part of the cardinals, whilst the 
others elected Peter of Leon, who took 
the name of Jnaddm. Innocent fled to 
France, where, by the mediation of Peter 
of Clairvaux, he was acknowledged by 
the council of Etampes, by Louis VI, and, 
soon after, by Henry H of England, also 
by the German king Lotfaaire, who con- 
ducted him, in 1133, to Rome, where he 
occupied the Lateiran, whilst AnadeOis 
occupied the castle of Crescentius, the 
church of St Peter, and a large part of 



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INNOCENT. 



% 



the city. Innocent was soon obfiged to 
redie to Pisa, and, though the emperor re- 
iBBtBted Mm, in 1137, Anacletus maintain- 
ed himself until his death, in 1 138. Hay- 
ing proTailed against another anti-pope, 
he held the second edcumenical council in 
the Literan, where neariv 1000 bishops 
condemned Arnold of Brescia and his 
heresy, declared all the decreesof Anaele- 
toanult, and excommunicated Roger of 
Hicily, who had supported the latter. But 
Roger waged war against the pope, made 
him prisoner, and obliged Innocent to ac- 
knowledge bJm as king, absolve him from 
excommunication, and invest him and bis 
heire with Apulia, Calabria and Capua. 
Towards the end of his pontificate, be put 
Prance under an interdict, and had to 
snuggle with constant disturiiances in 
Rome and Hvoli. He died in 114a Ce- 
lestine II succeeded him. His letters are 
to he fbund in Beluze, Mart^ne and oth- 
ers. — bmocent lU^ Lothaire, count of 
Segni, bom at Anagni, in 1161, studied 
hi Rome, Padua and Bologna. On the 
death of Celestlne III (1198) caidkial 
John of Salerno declined the pontificate, 
which had been offered to him, and pro- 
posed Lothaire, who wos unanimously 
deeied, at the age of 37. The death of 
the emperor Henir VI, in 1197, had 
thrown the imperial af&iis in Italy into 
the greatest confusion. Innocent, m die 
vigor of manhood, endowed by nature 
whb all tl^e talents of a ruler, possessed of 
an erudition uncommon at that time, and 
iavored l^ circumstances, was better qual- 
ified dian any of his predecessors to ele- 
vate die papal power, iniiich he consider- 
ed as the source of all secular power. By 
his clemency and prudence, he gained over 
the inhabitants of Rome, obliged the im- 
perial prefect to take the oath of allegi- 
ance to him, and directed his attention to 
every quarter where he believed, or pre- 
tended to believe, that a papal claim of 
property, or of feudal rights, existed. 
rmn the imperial seneschal, duke Mar- 
qnanl of Romagna, he required honuu;e 
fer the Mark of Ancona, and, on his refu- 
sal to comply, took possession of the Mark, 
with the assistance of die inhabitants, who 
were diaeatisfied with the imperial gov- 
ernment, and excommunicated Marquard ; 
obliged the duke Conrad of Spoleto to 
resign diat duchy, and would also have 
taken Ravenna, it the archbishop had not 
prevented him. He concluded treaties 
with many cities of Tuscany for the mu- 
tual protection of their liberties and those 
of tlMs church. Thus he soon obtained 
po sB CJgi on of the ecclenastical states, m 
voIm VII. 3 



then" vridest extent He conferred Na- 
]4e8 on the widowed empress Constantia 
and her minor son, afterwiuds the emper- 
or Frederic II, afler having abolished all 
the nrivileges conceded by Adrian IV, in 
1156, assumed the guardianship of the 
young prince, after die decease of the em- 
press, and fivstrated all the machinations 
of Marquard to deprive him of his inhei^ 
itance. In Grermany, Innocent favored 
the election of Otho IV against Philip of 
Suabia, crowned him, in 1209, at Rome, 
but soon became involved in deputes with 
him, on account of his violations of the 
promises which he had made to the 
church. He excommunicated PhUip Au- 
gustus, king of France, laid the kingdom 
under an interdict, in 1200, because rhiKp 
had repudiated his wife, Ingelburge, and 
obliged the kin^ to subrnit. He was still 
more decided in his treatment of John 
(q. v.), king of England, who refused to 
confirm the election of Stephen Langton 
as archbishop of Canterbury. Innocent 
laid the kingaom under an interdict, and, 
in 1212^ formally deposed him, and insti- 

£ted the king of France to attack En^- 
id. John was finally obliged to submit, 
resigned his territories to ^me, and re- 
ceived them, as a papal ^ef, from Inno- 
cent, from whom he was unable to obtain 
absolution until he had paid large sums of 
money. Almost all Ch ristendom vtras now 
subject to the pope; two crusades were 
undertaken at Ins order, and his influence 
extended even to Constantinople. Inno- 
cent was one of the greatest or popes and 
rulers ; he acted in accordance with the 
principles laid down in his writings; he 
enforced purity of morals in the clergy, 
and was himself irreproachable in private 
life ; yet the cruel persecution of the Albi- 
genses in the soutn of France, which he 
encouraged, though without approving of 
all its rigors, and the inquisitorial tribunals 
established by him in 1198, fi^m which 
the inquisition itself originated, are stains 
on his pontificate, but partially efilaced by a 
consideration of the spirit of the times 
and the disordered stale of the Christian 
worid. It may be said of his rule, as of 
that of Gregory VII, whom he most re- 
sembles, that, in those times, the power of 
the pope was salutaiy, as a bond of union 
for Europe, in which the still firmer bond 
of a common civilization and knowledge 
did not, as at present, exist His attacks 
on the secular power are to be considered 
as the struggle between the ecclesiastical 
and secular power, which was natural and 
necessary in the developement of Euro- 
pean eivDization. If he had not subdued 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



m 



INNOCENT— INNS OF COURT. 



the monarchfl^ they would have crushed 
the papal power, ui 1215, he held a coun- 
cil of more than 1300 archbi8hopS|biBhop6» 
prelates and ambaasBdora of £ufopean 
princes, by which transubetantiation in the 
Lord's supper and auricular confession 
were estabUshed as doffmas, Frederic II 
was acknowledged as German emperor, 
and the Franciscan and Dominican orders 
were confirmed. Innocent died soon af- 
ter, on the 16th of July, 1216. Some of 
his works on 1^^ and tibeological subjects 
were published in Cologne, 1575, folio. 
The best edition of his letters, important 
for the history of the time (11 books), is 
that of Baluze (Paris, 1682). The Stabat 
MiUer and Fern Sonde Sjinrihu, and other 
sacred hymns, are sud to have been writ- 
ten by him. Honorius III succeeded him. 
— hmoeent XI (Benedict Odescalchi) was 
bom at Como, in 1611, served, in his vouth, 
as a soldier, in Germany and Poland, took 
orders, at a later period, and rose through 
many important posts, until he was elect- 
ed pope in 1676, on the death of Clement 
X. He was eminent for his probity and 
austerity ; he zealously opposed nepotism 
(q. V.) and simony, restnuned luxury and 
excess, and even prohibited women from 
learning muse. Though hostile to the 
Jesuits, whose doctrine of probabilities he 
pubUcly disapproved, and attacked 65 of 
their opinions in the decree Super quibus- 
dam axiomoL moraUbus, yet he was obliged 
to condemn Molinus and the Quietiscs. 
He determined to abolish the privileged 
quarters (the ground ibr a considerable dis- 
tance around the palaces of certain ambas- 
sadors in Rome, which was considered as 
ibreifn territorv, in which criminals were 
out of reach of die authorities) ; but Louis 
XIV, the vainest of monarchs, would not 
yield to so just a claim, occupied Avignon, 
and imprisoned the papal nuncio in 
France ; in consequence of wliich the au- 
thority, and particularly the acknowledg- 
ment of the infidlibility of the pope, re- 
ceived a severe blow, by the IV Proposi- 
tUmes CUri GaflicoRi, in 1682. (See i^aln 
Wnlihff and GaUican Ckureh,) These dis- 
putes were highly favoiable to the English 
revolution, as it induced the pope, in 1689, 
to unite with ^e allies aeainst James II, 
in order to lower the influence of Louis 
XIV. His conduct in this respect has led 
many Catholics to assert that he sacrificed 
die Catholic religion to his personal re- 
sentment; and it was pointedly said, that 
''to put an end to the troubles of Europe, 
it was only necessaiy for James II to be- 
come a Protestant, and the pope a Catho- 
fic." Bayle, however, judiciously ob- 



serves^ that the extreme predomiDance of 
any great Catholic sovereign is iniurious 
to the interests of the papacy, and men- 
tions the similar conduct of Sixtus V, an- 
other able pope, in relation to Philip II of 
Spain and queen Elizabeth of England. 
Innocent died August 12, 1689, at the age 
of 78, leaving behind him the character of 
an able and economical pcmtifl^ and of an 
honest and moral man. Had he not died, 
an open rupture with France might have 
ensued. Alexander VIII succeeded him. 
Inns or Court. The colleges of uie 
English professors and students of com- 
mon law are called tmis, the old Elnglidi 
word for the houses of noblemen, bishops 
and others of extraordinaiy note, being of 
the same signification as the French MUi* 
It is npt poflsiUe to detennine precisely the 
antiquity of the establishment of inns of 
court The received opinion is, that so- 
cieties of lawyers, which, before the con- 
quest, held their chief abodes for study in 
ecclesiastical houses, began to be collected 
into permanent residences, soon after the 
court of common frfeas was directed to be 
held in a fixed place,— a stipulation which 
occurs in the great charters both of king 
John and Heniy IIL In these houses ex- 
ercises were oerformed, lectures read, and 
degrees conrerred; that of barristers, or, 
as they were first styled, apprentices (fit>m 
apprendrey to learn), answering to bache- 
lors ; that of sergeants (aememUs adlegem) 
to doctors. The inns of court were much 
celebrated for the magnificence of their 
revels. The last of these took place in 
1733, in the Inner Temple, in houor of Mr. 
Talbot, when he took leave of that house, 
of which he was a bencher, on having the 
great seal delivered to him. Fortescue, 
lord chancellor of England in the reign of 
Henry VI, says, in his treatise De iMudi' 
bu8 LegumAfMeCf that, in his time, there 
were aoout 2000 students in the inns of 
court and chancy, all of whom were 
gentlemen bom. In the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, su- Edward Coke did not reck- 
on above a thousand students, and tlie 
number at present is very considerably 
less. The inns of court are governed by 
masters, principals, beqchers, stewards and 
other ofiocera, and have public halls far 
exercises, readings, &c^ which the stu- 
dents are obliged to attend and perform 
for a certain number of years, before they 
can be admitted to plead at the bar. These 
societies have not any judicial authority 
over their membero; but, instead of this^ 
they have certain orden amonff them- 
selves, which have, by consent, the force 
of laws. For light ofifences, persons are 



Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



INNS OF COURT.* 



only excommoned, or put out of eom- 
moiiB ; for greats, they loee their cham- 
ben^ and are expeUed the college ; and, 
ythea once expelled fiom one aociety, they 
are nercr received into any of the others. 
The gentlemen in these societies may be 
divided into bencheis, outer berrislen, in- 
ner banisterB and students. Thefourprin- 
cipal iiuifl of court are the Inner Temide 
and ADddk Temple (formeriy the dwelhnr 
of the knights Tempkra, and purchased 
by some professoiB of the common law, 
more than three centuries since) ; Lincoln^ 
Inn and €rny*s Inn (anciently belonnng 
to the earis of Lincoln and Uray). The 
other inns are the two Seraeants' Inns. — 
bma of dumcmi were probably so called 
because andenUy inhabited by such cleiks 
as chiefly studied the forming of writs, 
which regularly belonged to the cunitors, 
who are officen of chancery. These sre 
Thavie^ Inn, the New Inn, Symond^ Inn, 
Clement^ Inn, Gliffiml's Inn (formerly the 
mansion of lord Cliflbrd), Staple's Inn 
(which belonged to the merchants of the 
Staple), Uon^ Inn (anciently a conmion 
inn, with the sign of the lion), Fumival^ 
Inn, and BemainfB Inn. These were for- 
merly prr^paratoiy colleges for younger 
stodeniB, and many were entered here be- 
fore diey were admitted into the inns of 
court : now they are mostly taken up by 
attoroeya, aoUcitors, &c. At the present 
day, previously lo being called to the ban 
kis necessary to be admitted a member of 
one of the inns of court. The regulations 
of Lincoln^ Inn, to which those of the 
o^er inns bear a strong resemblance, are 
akoe given in the following account: — 
The applicant for admission need not be 
present, but the appKcation may be made 
through the meoiura of a third persim ; 
the appficant must be recommended to the 
sodety by one of its membm, or by two 
housekeepers^ who are required to certify 
Aat they know the applicant to be aprop- 
er penon for admisBion. A bond mustal- 
80 ne entered into by the appbcant himself 
and the reoommenmng member, or house- 
keepers, in the sum of £100^ conditioned 
for the due payment of his fees to the so- 
ciety. The foes are generally more than 
£6 and less than £8 a year ; the expense 
of admission, in the year 1837, amounted 
10 £31 16s. Before the studftnt com- 
mences keeping his terms for the Eni^ish 
law, he must depoat with the socie^ the 
sum of £100, wnich is returned, without 
interest, if the student dies, or quits the 
society, or is called to the bar. No deposit 
is required from those who can produce 
a oeroficate oi* having kept two years' terms 



in the univernties of Oxford, Cambridge 
or Dublin, or of being of the foculty of 
advocates in Scotland, nor from those who 
are admitted mere^ for the purpose of 
bein;^ called to the Irish bar. Persons re- 
moving from one inn to another are aUo w- 
ed the terms which they have kept in their 
original inns. A term is kept by the stu- 
dent being present at &ve dinnerB during 
the term ; tnree dinnera suffice for three 
quartera of a term ; one dinner, during the 
grand week, for half a term. The stu- 
dent must keep 13 terms (60 dinners^ be- 
fore he can be called to the bar, and his 
name must have been Ave years on the 
books, unless he produces a certificate of 
having taken the degree of master of art% 
or hadielor of law, at Oxford, Cambridge, 
or Dublin, in which case three years will 
suffice. He must also have gone nine 
times through a certain ceremony, which 
is called jMi^orswi^imezermfe. Exercises 
are performed thus :— The student is iur- 
niriied, by the steward of the society, with 
a piece of paper, on which is supposed to 
be written an argument on some point of 
law, but, owing to the negligence of suc- 
cessive copyists, the writing now consists 
of a piece of legal jargon, wholly unintel- 
ligible. When, ailer dinner, grace has 
been said, the student advances to the bar- 
rister's table, and commences reading from 
this paper ; upon which one of the senior 
bamsters present makes him a slight bow, 
takes the paper from him, and tells him 
that it is quite sufficienL Students intend- 
ed for the Irish bar keep ei^t temos m 
England, and tibe remainder in Ireland. 
yf&n the 12 terms have been kept, and 
the nine exercises peiformed, the student 
may petition the benchera to call him to the 
bar. Except under very peculiar circum- 
stances, the petition is gnmted, asa matter 
of course. After dinner, on the day ap- 
pointed for the can, the student is required 
to take certain oaths. He then retires with 
die benchers to the council chamber, 
which adjoins the hall, to sign the register 
of his eaiL There are certain oaths to be 
taken in the courts of Westminster haU. 
These should be taken within six months 
after the call. No attorney, solicitor, clerk 
in chancery or the exchequir, unless he 
has discontinued practice for two years in 
such branches of his profession, and no 
person who is in deacon's orders, or under 
21 years of age, can be called. The ex- 
pense of beinff called is between £90 and 
£100. The three years, during which a 
student is keeinng terms, are spent by him 
in the chambers of a conveyancer, an 
equity draftsman, or a special pleader. 

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INNSPRUCK— INQUISITION. 



Innspruck, Inspruck, Innsbruck, or 
Insbrugg ; the capital of Tyrol, on the Inn, 
over which there is a bridge; lat 47° 16' 
18" N. ; Ion. IF 23^ 53^' E. The city, 1754 
feet above the level of the sea, has consid- 
erable suburbs, soooe &ic churches, 10,200 
inhabitants, and 574 houses. It contains 
a upiveraity, and a sfeiieral serninaxr for 
Tyrol connected >vith it, and manufacto- 
ries of several kinds. The works of art 
in one of the churches, particularly the 
statues in bronze of the members of the 
house of Hapsburg, are celebrated. Not 
&r fiom Innspruck is the casde of Am- 
brasw (q. v.) Innspruck is the seat of the 
Austrian provuicial government for Tyrol, 
and of the assembly of the estates estab- 
lished in 1816. (^eQ Austria.) 

Innubndo. In an action for a written 
libel, or for verbal slander, if the offensive 
wondsare not in themselves sufficiently 
intelhgibie, or if, without explanation, tlieir 
alanderous tendency does not appear, it is 
usual for the plaintiff in his aeclaration, 
which is the written statement of his com- 
plidnt,to insert parenthetically into tlie body 
of the libel the necessary explanation : as, 
for instance — He (meaning tlie plaintiff) is 
forsworn (meaning that he had petiured 
himself in prosecuting the said defendant). 
These comments have the Latin name in- 
fiueiuio^ngnifying meaning, because innuen- 
do, in former times, was always used instead 
of the word meaning, in these explanations. 
The general rule with regard to innuen- 
does is, that they must be merely explanato- 
ly, introducing no new matter, but only re- 
ferring to somethinj^ previously mentioned. 

Ino, daughter of Cadmus and Harmo- 
nia, second wife of Athamas, king of 
Thebes, drew upon herself the anger of 
Juno by nursing the young Bacchus, thje 
Bon of i)er sister, Semele. In order to fii^ 
Torher own children, she projected the 
murder of her step-children, Phryxus and 
Helle. Being warned by their mother, 
Nephele, who appeared to them in a 
dream, they saved themselves by flight. 
Juno was sdll more highly incensed agamst 
Ino by tliis attempt ; she made Athamas, 
the husband of Ino, mad, and, in his fren- 
zv, he dashed his eldest son by Ino, Lear- 
chus, against a rock. Ino fled with her 
youngest son, Melicerta, and tlirew her- 
self with him into the sea. The body of 
the boy was carried by a dolphin to the 
shore, where king Sisyphus caused it to 
be buried, and instituted in honor of 
him the well-known Isthmian games 
(q. v.), as Ino and Melicerta were made 
se^-deities, at tlie prayer of Venus. Ino 
was worshipped under the name of Leu- 



coOua. According to aoother account, the 
body of MeUcerta was at first left unbu- 
ried, and caused a dreadful pesitilejicey 
whereupon the oracle, beinc consulted, or- 
dered that the body should De buried ^tli 
the usual rites, and that games should be 
instituted in honor of Melicerta. 

lNocui.ATioir. (See <SinaiU Pox, and 
Faccinaiion,) 

ha Palco (AaL) ; an expression alljidiii^ 
to a stage performance. Oratorios wrcre 
originally performed in Italy on a msLgti 
erected in the church ; that is, inpalco^ 

In Pontificalibus {LaHnj in the fuli 
dress of a priest); fi^equently applied,in sport, 
to a person in full dress on any occasion. 

Inquisition. The immediate catise of 
the erection of the tribunals of fiiith, was 
the sect of the Albigenses, the persecution 
of whom, in the l£h and 13th centuries, 
made the south of France a scene of 
blood. (See ABngenges.) The prc^t of 
extirpating the rebellious members of the 
church, and of extending the papal power 
at the expense of the bisbi^is, by means 
of the inquisition, was conceived by pope 
Innocent III (who ascended the papal 
chair in 1198), and was cona|>leted by hia 
immediate successors. This tribunal, call- 
ed the hoiy vnquiMfm or the hoii^ t^Lce 
(sanctum i^ium), was under the imukedi- 
ate direction of &o papal chair ; it was to 
seek out heretics and adherents of fiilse 
doctrines, and to pronounce its dreadfir. 
sentence agjalnst their fortune, their hon 
or and their lives^ without appeal. The 
process of this tribunal differed entirely 
nrom that of the civil courts. The in- 
former was not only concealed, but re- 
warded by the inquisition. The accused 
was obhged to be his own accuser; sus- 
pected persons were secretly seized and 
thrown into prison. No bettor instruments 
could be found for inquisitora, than the 
mendicant orders of monks, pardcukrly 
the Franciscans and Dominicans,whoro the 
pope employed to destroy the heretics, and 
inquire into the conduct of bishops. Pope 
Gregory IX, in 1233, completed the de- 
sign of his predecessorB,and,as the^ had suc- 
ceeded in givinff these inquisitorial monks, 
who were whoUy dependent on the pope, 
an untimited power, and in rendering die 
interference of the temporal magistratQs 
only nominal, the inquisition was succes- 
sively introduced into several parts of Ita- 
ly, and into some provinces of Fnmoe ; 
its power in the latter country being more 
Umited than in the foimer. The tribunabof 
faith were admitted into Spain in the mid- 
dle of the 13th century, but a firm opposi- 
tion was made to them, particulariy in (kfh 



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INQUISITION. 



29 



dB and LeoB, andllie bi8ho|)8 there i 
uied their exdonve jurisdiction in ipirit- 
mi msCten. But a change afterwards 
KMik place ; and while, in other countries 
of Europe, the inqoiaition couM never ob- 
Gnn a fimi fiwting, but in some fell enttre- 
fy intD dianse, as in France, and in oth- 
efBy as ID Venice, was cioedy watched by 
the ciTfl power, an institution grew up 
ia Spain, towarda the end of Uie 15th 
centmnf , which was the most remarkable 
of all the inquisitorial courts of the mid- 
dle ageeii and diflbred much from the rest 
m its ofayeets and organization. Ferdinand 
oC Arnmi, and Isabella of Castile, having 
uniiied tlHir power, made many effi>rt8 to 
bfreak the strength of the nobles, and to 
lendei the royal authority absolute. The 
incpiisition was used as a means of efiect- 
mg their plans. There were three rehg- 
icNiB parties in Spain, Christians, Jews and 
Mohammedans. The Moors still main- 
tamed possesrion of the last remnant of 
their empire, the kingdom of Grenada, 
which was, however, already threatened 
\Fy the arms of Ferdinand and Isabella. 
The Jews had their synagocu^ and form- 
ed a distinct class in the pnncipal cities of 
Spaio. Commerce was principally in 
their hands; they were the lessees of the 
^iog and the nobles, and suffer^ no op- 
preasiofi, being subject onlv to a moderate 
Ion tax, which they had been 
i to pay to the clergy since the year 
The riches which diey had amass- 
ed by their industry, expKDeed them to 
|ieat' envy and hatred, which was nour- 
ished by the ignorant priests. The ser- 
moos of a toatical monk, Fernando 
Maitiiiez NuHez, who preached die per- 
secutkm of the Jews as a good work, was 
the principal cause of the popular tumults 
in many cities, in 1391 and lo92, in which 
this unhappy people was plundered, rob- 
bed and muraered. Man^ Jews submit- 
ted to bapdsm, to save theu* lives, and the 
dneendanta of these unfortunate men 
were, for about 100 years, the first victims 
of inquisitorial zeaL In 1477, when^aev- 
eral toibulent nobles had been reduced in 
the soathem part of Spain, queen Isabel- 
la went to Seville with the ciudiBal Pedro 
GonzafaB de Mendoza: there this prelate, 
as atehhhhop of Seville, made the firet at- 
tenqic to introduce the inquisition. At 
his conamand, punishments were publicly 
and privately inflicted, and it was discov- 
eied, among other things, that many citi- 
zens of Seiville, of Jewish origin, follow- 
ed, in private, the manners and customs 
of dieir ftthen. The cardinal charged 
lome of the clergy privateiy to enlighten 



the fidth of diese people, and to make the 
hypocrites true sons of the church. These 
teachers brought back many to the faith ; 
but many, who persevered in their opposi- 
tion to the doctrmee of the church, were 
condemned and pumshed. After this 
prelude, the deaiip was disclosed of ex- 
tending the inquisition over the whole 
country ; and Mendoza laid the project 
before the sovereigns Ferdinand and jsa- 
beUa. They approved of an institution, 
which, at tlie same time, suited the perse- 
cuting spirit of the age, and coukl be used 
as a powerful engine of state. The de- 
sign ^was, by means of this institution, 
which was to.be entirely dependent on 
the court, to oppress those who were, ei- 
ther secretly or openW, Jews or Moham- 
medans (and many Christian nobles be- 
longed to the party of the Mohammedaus, 
the standing allies of malcontents), to en- 
rich the royal treasury, to which the prop- 
erty of the condemned was confiscated, 
and to limit the power of the nobles, and 
even of the clerinr. In the assembly of the 
estates, heki at Toledo, 1480, the erection 
-of the new tribunal was urged by the car- 
dinal. Afler the superior branches of ad- 
ministration — the sujweme council of Cas- 
tile, the council of state, the board of fi- 
nance, and the council of Arragon — had 
been confirmed by the estates, the cardi- 
nal declared that it was necessary to es- 
tablish a permanent tribunal, to take cog- 
nizance of matters of fidth, and adminis- 
ter the eccleaiaBtical police. In spite of 
all opposition, it was aetermiiied to estab- 
lish a tribunal, under the name of the gen- 
eral inquisition (general mqumcion tvprt" 
mal and the new court was soon opened 
in Seville (14811 Thomas de Torquema- 
da, prior of the Dominican convent at Se- 

S^via, and father-confeasor to the cardinal 
endoza, bad alreadv been appointed b}*^ 
Ferdinand and Isabella^ die first grand ui- 
quintor, in 1478. He had 200 &miliare 
and a guard of 50 horsemen, but he lived 
in continual fear of poison. The Domin« 
ican monastery at Seville soon became 
insufficient to contain the numerous pris- 
oners, and die king removed the court to 
the casde in the suburb of Triana. At 
the fu« mdo da fi (act of fidth), seven 
apostate Christians were burnt, and the 
number of penitents was much greater. 
Spanish writers relate, that above 17,000 
gave themselves up to the inquisition, 
more than dOOO were condemned to the 
flames the first year, and great numbers 
fled to the neighboring countries. Many 
Jews escaped into Portugal, Afirica and 
r^ier places. The pope, however, had 



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INQUISITION. 



opposed the establishmeut of the Spanish 
inquisition, as the conversion of an eccle- 
siastical into a secular tribunal Soon af- 
ter the appointment of the new inquisitor, 
he had directed the archbishop of Toledo, a 
warm enemy of Mendoza, to hold a solenm 
court over a teacher in Salamanca, who 
was charged with heretical opinions, and 
the inquiator-genend was repeatedly sum- 
moned to Rome. Torquemada, however, 
did not obey the summons, but sent a 
fiiend to defend his cause. The contest 
between the pope and the Spanish court, 
was carried on with heat, until 1483, when 
Sixtus IV was obliged to yield, and ac- 
knowledge Torquemada as inquisitor- 
general of Castile and Leon. He was al- 
so authorized, by the papal bull, to estab- 
lish inferior courts at pleasure, to remove 
those judges who had been appointed by 
the pope, and to regulate the manner of pro- 
ceeding in inquiries respecting matters of 
faith according to the new plan. A later 
bull subjected Arragon, Valencia and Sici- 
ly, the hereditary dominions of Ferdi- 
nand, to the inquisitor-general of Castile ; 
and thus the inquisition was the first tri- 
bunal whose jurisdiction extended over 
the two Spanish kingdoms of Castile and 
Arragon ; the Arragonese estates, at their 
session at Tarragona, in 1484, being oblig- 
ed to swear to protect the inquisition. 
The introduction of the new tribunal was 
attended with nsinss and opposition in 
man^ places, excited by the cruelty of the 
inquisitors, and encouraged, perhaps, by 
the jealousv of the bisliops ; several pla- 
ces, particularly Saragossa, refused admis- 
sion to the inquisitorB, many of whom 
lost their lives ; but the people were oblig- 
ed to yield in the contest, and the kings 
became the absolute judges in matteis of 
ftlth ; the honor, the property and the life 
of every subject was in their hands. 
They named the grand inquisitor, and by 
them, or under their immediate influence, 
were his assessors appointed, even the 
secular ones, two of whom were of the 
supreme council of Castile, laymen being 
permitted to hold the office. This tribu- 
nal was thus wholly dependent on the 
court, and became a powerful instrument 
fi>r eeAablishin^ the arbitrary power of the 
king on the ruins of the national freedom; 
for putting down the clergy, who had 
previouBlv acknowledged only the juris- 
diction of the Roman see ; for oppressing 
the bold nobles, and taking away the priv- 
ileges of the estates. The property of 
thM6 who were condemned, fell to the 
kinc ; and, although it had been granted 
to the inquisition, it was still at his dispo- 



sition. Ferdymand and IsabeUa, indeed, 
devoted a port of this property to fiMind 
convents and hospitals ; but the church, 
notwithstanding, lost many poaseesions by 
means of the inquisition; and an ordi- 
nance, drawn by Torquemada (1487), 
proves that it was a source of revenue to 
the king, supplving the treasury, which 
was exbiustea by me war: the inquisito- 
rial chest was, indeed, at that time, drain- 
ed by so many royal drafts, that the offi- 
cers could not obtoin their salaries. The 
first ordinance, by Torquemada, dedicat- 
ing the tribunal to the service of God and 
their majesties, bean date 1484. Among 
other articles are the following, showing 
the political importance of the institution. 
In every community, the grand inquisitor 
shall fix a period, firom 30 to 40 days, 
within which time, heretics, and those 
who have relapsed from the fidth, shall 
deliver themselves up to the inquisition. 
Penitent heretics and apostates, although 
pardoned, could hold no pubUc office ; 
tiiey could not become lessees, lawyers, 
physicians, apothecaries or grocers ; they 
could not wear gold, silver or piecious 
stones, or ride, or carry arms, dunnff their 
whole life, under penalty of being oeclar- 
ed guilty of a relapse into heresy; and 
they were oblLeed to give up a part of 
their proper^ for the support of the war 
against tne Moors. Thoee who did not 
surrender tliemselves within the time ^' 
hielty of the ed, were deprived of their property inev- 
perhaps, by ocably. The absent also, and those who 
sevenu pla- had been long dead, could be condemned, 
provided there was sufficient evidence 
against them. The bones of those who 
were condemned afler death, were duf 
up, and the property which they had len 
reverted to the king. Torquemada died 
in 1493, snA was buried in the Dominican 
convent at Avila, which had been built 
with the property taken from heretics, and 
was a monument of his cruel zeal. He 
had resiffned his office two years before, 
being afflicted with the gout. According 
to another aooountr Torquemada did not 
retire so quietly frora the stage. It is said 
that, Buiqsecting that Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, whom the wars with the Moon bad 
uivolved in great pecuniary enobarrass- 
ments, would be movedf by the great sums 
which were offered them, to limit the 
privileges of the inquisition, and disturb- 
ed by this apprehension, h» went to the 
royal palace, with a crucifix nrder his 
mantle. " I know your thoitgfala,'' said he 
boldly to the sovereigns; <* bebdd the 
form of the crucified one, whom die fod- 
l«0s Judas sold to his enemies for 90 



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INaUISITION. 



31 



pieees of flUver. If you approve the act^et 
stU him dearer. I here lay down my office, 
uui am free from all responsibility ; but 
you sball give an account to God.^ He 
iben laid down the cross, and left the pal- 
ace. At fiist, the jurisdicdon of the in- 
quisition was not accurately defined; but 
it received a more regular organizadon by 
the ordinance of 1484, establishing branch- 
es in the different provinces of ^min, un- 
der the direction of the inquisitor-ceneral 
In later times, the supreme tribunsJ was at 
Madrid. The mquisitor-general presided. 
Of the six or seven counsellors, whom he 
appointed on the nomination of the kin^, 
one, accordiog to an ordinance of Phihp 
in, must be a Dominican. He had a fis- 
cal, two secretaries, a receiver, two rela- 
tors^ and several qficiaU^ as they were call- 
ed, who were appointed by the srand in- 
quisitoi^ in concuironce witli me king. 
The iajqutaitorial council assembled every 
(lav, except on holydays, in the royal 
palace ; on the last three days of the 
week, two members of the council of 
Castile were present at the meeting. It 
was the duty of some of the officers 
[rtdifieadoreg) to explain whether any act 
or opinion was contnuy to the doctrines of 
the church ; others were lawyera, who 
mezely had a deliberative voice. The 
sentence of the inquimtion was definitive. 
It was the duty of the fiscal to examine 
the witneases, to giveinfonnation of crim- 
malB, to denuoid their apprehension, and 
tD accuse them when seized. He was 
present at the examination of the wimess- 
es, at the torture, and at the meeting of 
the judgea» where the votes were taken. 
It was the duty of the registers, besides 
the preparation of the necessary papers, 
to observe the accuser, the wimesses and 
the accused, during their legal examina- 
tion, and to watch « closely the slightest 
modon by which their feelings might be- 
tray themselves. The officios were per- 
sons sent by the court to arrest the accus- 
ed. A aeciiesfroior, who vras obliged to 
give sureties to the office, kept an account 
of the confiscated property. The receiv- 
er took the money which came from the 
sale of sequestered property, and paid the 
salaries and dj»fis on the treasury. It is 
comraied, that there were in Spain above 
20^00 officers of the inquisition, called 
jinuKsrs, who served as spies and iu- 
formoB. These places were sought even 
by persons of nmk, on account of the 
great privileges connected with them. As 
soon as an accuser appeared, and the fiscal 
had called upon the court to exercise their 
authority, an order wa^ issued to seize the 



accused. In an orduiance oi 1733, it was 
made the duty of all believers, to inform 
the inquisitioD if they knew any one, Uv- 
iug or dead, present or absent, who had 
wandered from the fiuth, who did observe 
or had observed the law of Moses, or even 
spoken fiivorably of it ; if they knew any 
one, who followed or had followed the 
doctrines of Luther ; any one who had 
concluded an alliance with the devil, ei- 
ther expressly or virtually ; any one who 
possessed any heretical book, or the Koran, 
or the Bible in the Spanish tongue ; or, in 
fine, if liiey knew any one who had har- 
bored, received or fiivored heretics. If the 
accused did not appear at the third sum- 
mons, he was excommunicated. From 
the moment that the prisoner was in the 
power of the court, he was cut ofif firom the 
world. The prisons, called holy houH$ 
(casaa Banita8\ consisted of vaulted apart- 
ments, each divided into several square 
cells, which were about 10 feet high, and 
stood in two rows, one over the other. 
In the upper cells, a dim ray of light 
fell through a grate ; the lower were 
smaller and darker. Each dungeon had two 
doors. The iimer, which was bound with 
iron, had a grate through which food was 
introduced for the prisoner. The other 
door was opened, early in the morning, to 
air the cell The prhioner was allowed 
no visits firom his finends or relations ; no 
book of devotion was given him; he was 
compelled to sit motionless and silent in 
his dark cell, and, if lus feelings found 
vent in a tone of complaint, or even in a 
pious hymn, the ever-watchfiil keeper 
warned him to be silent Only one cap- 
tive was usually placed in each cell, un- 
less for the purpose of making discove- 
ries. At the first hearing, the accused 
was called upon to confess his guilt If 
he confessed the crime of which he viras 
accused, he pronounced his own sentence, 
and his property was confiscated. If he 
declared himself iimocent, contrary to the 
testimony of the wimesses, he was threat- 
ened with torture. The advocate who 
was appointed to defend him, could not 
speak to himt except in the presence of tiie 
inquisitors. The accused was not confinont- 
ed with the accuser nor the wimesses be- 
fore the court, neither were tiiey made 
known to him ; and be was often subject- 
ed to the tortore ((|. v.), to extort a confes- 
sion or to explain cireumstances which had 
not been fully explained by the witnesses. 
Those who escaped death by repentance 
and confessions, were obliged to abjure 
their errors, and to swear to submit to all 
die pains and penalties which the court 



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mauisiTioN. 



ordered. ImpiiBonment, often for hfe^ 
Bcoureing, and the loss of proi)erty,were the 
punishments to which the penitent was sub- 
jected. He was made infamous, as well as 
his children and grand-children. Wear- 
ing the 8€fn-htnUo (the blessed vest of 
penitence, a sort of coarse, yellow tunic, 
with a crosB on the breast and back, and 
painted over ^ith devils) was a common 
method of punishment An accused per- 
son, who was fortunate enough to esca^ 
before the officera of the inquisition could 
seize him, was treated as an obstinate her- 
etic. Summonses were posted up in all the 
public places, callinff on him to appear. 
If he did not do diis within a certain 
time, and if the evidence of the witnesses 
proved the charges, he was delivered over 
to the secular power, and burnt in effigv. 
Persons who had been dead more than ^ 
years, were condemned, and, though theu* 
children retained possession of the prop- 
erty they had inherited, yet they were 
dishonored, and rendered incapable of 
holding any public office. When sen- 
tence of death was pronounced against 
the accused, the holy auto dafk was order- 
ed. This usually took place on Sundav, 
between Trinity Sunday and Advent At 
day-break, the solemn sound of the great 
bell of the cathedral called the fidthful to 
the dreadful spectacle. Men of high rank 
pressed forward to offer their sendees in 
accompanying the condemned, and gran- 
dees were often seen acting as familiars 
to the inquisition. The condemned ap- 
peared barefooted, clothed in the dreadful 
Mm-ftenito, with a conical cap (carozor) on 
their heads. The Dominicans, with the 
banner of the inquisition, led the vtnay. 
Then came the penitents, who were to be 
punished by fines, &c., and after the 
cross, which was borne behind the peni- 
tents, walked the unfortunate wretches 
who were condemned to death. The 
effigies of those who had fled, and the 
bones of the dead who had been condemn- 
ed, appeared in black coffins, painted over 
with names and hellish forms ; and tiie 
dreadful procesaon ^vas dosed by monks 
and priests. It proceeded through the 
principal streets of tlie city to the cnurch, 
where a sermon was preached, and the 
sentence was then pronounced. The 
convicted stood, durinff this act, befi>re a 
crucifix, with an exUnguished taper in 
theur hands. As "the church never pol- 
lutes herself with blood," a servant of the 
inquisition, when this ceremony was fin* 
i^ed, gave each of those who had been 
sentenced a blow with the hand, to signify 
Ihat the inquisition had no longer any 



power over them, and that the vietboui 
were abandoned (refaxcuAM) to the secular 
arm. A civil officer, " who was afiection- 
ately charged to treat them kindly and 
mercifully,'' now received the condemned, 
bound them with chains, and led them to 
the place of execution. They were then 
asked in what faith they would die 
Those who answered the CathoHc, were 
first strangled; the rest were burnt alive. 
The otifM da fi were spectacles to v^hich 
the people thronsed as eageriy aa to the 
celetnration of a victory. Even the kings 
considered it a meritorious act to be pres- 
ent, with their courts, and to wimess the 
a^nies of the victims. In this manner 
did the inquisition proceed, in the times 
of its most dreadful activity. The Span- 
iards found then- personal freedom bo 
much restrained, even in the eariy period 
of the existence of this office, that one of 
the principal requests of the disaflfected, 
in the reign of Charies I, was, that the 
king should compel the inquisition to act 
according to the jcninciplea of iustioe. But 
the important innuence which this court 
had, in the course of the foUowmg centu- 
ry, both on the state and on the moral 
character of the Spaniards, could not, at 
that time, have been anticipated. This 
noble and liigh-spirited people were more 
debased by the daric power of the inquisi- 
tion than by any other instrument of aiiri- 
traiy government, and the stagnation of 
intellectual action, which followed the 
discovery of America, concurred, witii 
other fatal causes, to diminish the industiy 
of the people, to weaken the power of the 
state, and to prevent, for a long time, any 
proffress to higher degrees of moral and 
intellectual improvement In more mod- 
em times, when the spirit of persecution 
was restrained in almost all other coun- 
tries of Europe, the original organization 
of the inquisition was Init little changed; 
still the dread of this dark court gradually 
diminished. The horrible spectacle of an 
cButo da fi was seldom wimessed during 
tiie last century, and the punishments of 
the inquisition were confined, in a consid- 
erable degree, to those men who had be- 
come obnoxious to justice. In 1763, the 
grand inquisitor having, contrary to the 
express will of the king, published a bull, 
excommunicating a French booJE, was ex- 
iled to a monaslerv at a distance fix>m 
Madrid. A royal decree forbade tiie in- 

r'sition to issue any conunands without 
consent of the king, and required the 
grand inquisitor, in the condemnation of 
books, to conform to the laws of the land, 
and to make known his prohibition only 



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INQUISITION. 



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by ntm of tbe power pvea him by hit 
offiee, and not wkh the citatkm of buUsi 
The decree also Mndeced that, before pro- 
biUtiog any book, the author ahould be 
cited, thai his defence nu^ be heard. 
Iq 1770, during the adnuniatndon of 
Aianda, the power of the inquisition was 
Smiled to the punishment of obstinate 
boetica and apostsies, and it was foifoid- 
den lo imprison any <^ the king's subjects, 
without fast ftdly proving their guilt In 
1784, it was detennined mat, if Sie inqui- 
ation instituted a process against a gran- 
dee, a minister, or, in short, against any 
officer of rank, its sols must be subjected 
ID the royal inspection. If we consider 
the principal aeis of the inquisition during 
the Idch century, we shall see that, not- 
vnihetanding the restraint eiercMed over 
it, it stfll remained an instnwient which, 
under ft vonble circumstances, might ex- 
ert a terrible influence. There were 16 
pnyrincial inquisitions in Spain and the 
cdonieiV all sukgect to the supreme tribu- 
saL As fete as 1763, we find that, at an 
mdo 4ajl at Ueiena, some obstinate here- 
lies w«e committed to the flsmea, and, in 
1777, the inquisition armed itself with all 
ito lenoiB agaimt a man who was guilty 
of nothing more than imprudenee — the 
celehraied Olavidss (q.y.); and, in 1780, 
t poor woman of Seville was deckied 
goilly of wilehcnft, and was burnt aBve 
at the Slake. With all the limilB whieh 
had been set to its power, with all the 
BiildneaB of the tribtmal, whose principal 
officer^ under the pwooding leignfl^ had 
been BMMlty nam of mteUigence ami mode- 
ntioo, fliill the odious spirit of the institu- 
lioo, and the uiyust fmrm of proeedure, 
nrvived ; and, until the moment when it 
wm abolkhed by Napoleon (Dec 4, 1806), 
the inouirition continued to oe a powerftl 
obeiaeie to the pro^feas of the human in- 
tEOect. The inquisition publiihed annu- 
ally a catalogue of prolubiled books, in 
wfaieh, among some mfidel and immoral 
«ock% many exedlent or umocent IxxAs 
woe included. All the aiti^npts of en- 
fiffaiened men, towards efl^tiiig the de- 
ttuction of thte antiquated instnimeDt of 
a dsik poticy, during the two last nipu> 
ipere without connexion, and thermre 
without eflfect, and they sunk under the 
aitifioes wiiieh an all-powerftd fiivorite, 
the detgy nod the inquisition employed 
ftr their coounon advantace. The pro- 
en^ eoocloded as late as 1806, against two 
karoed and ezeellent canons — ^Antonio 
and Geronimo Coesta, whoae destruction 
their unworthy bishop, under the protec- 
tioo of the prince of peace, had striven to 



efiect— -was die last aign of life in this ter- 
rible court, and pbinly shows that intrigue, 
when united with the secret power of the 
inquisition, had great influence in Spain, 
even in recent times; and the decisioD of 
the king, which decliared the accused in- 
nocent^ and condemned the proceedings 
of the inquisition as contrary to law, was 
yet tender towards the inquisitorB, and 
confirmed the general opinioo, which pun- 
ished those who had iaflen into the power 
of the inquirition with the Iobb of public 
esteem. According to the estimate of 
Llorente, the number of victims of the 
Spanish inquisition, from 1461 to 1806, 
amounted to 341,031. Of these, 31,912 
were burnt, 17^859 burnt in eflSgy, and 
991,456 were subjected to severe penance. 
Ferdmand VII reotablished (1614) die 
inquisition, vriuch had been abolished du- 
rioig the Freoch rule in Spain; but, on 
the adoption of the constitution of the 
eortes (1890), it was asnin abohahed, and 
was not revived in 16S3, by the advice of 
the European powers.— in Portugal, the 
inquirition vras estabfished, after a lenc 
contest, in 15S7. The supreme tribunal 
was in Lisbon ; inferior oourt^estaUiaiied 
in the other cttieB,wefe subject to this. 
The grand inqniritor was nominated by 
the king, and confirmed by the p<^. 
Jolm of Braganasa. after the delivery of 
the country from the Spanish yoke, wish 
ed to destroy the inquirition. But he 
succeeded cmly in depriving it of the 
right of oonfiscatmff the property of the 
eondemned. On mis account, he was 
exoommnnicated after his death, and his 
wife vras obliged to permit his foody to 
receive absolution. As the Snaoiarda 
took the inquisition with them to America, 
so the Portuguese carried it to India, and 
established it at Goa. In the 18di ceaitury . 
the power of the inquiritmn in Poitu^ 
vras restrained 1^ the ordinsnce whidi 
commanded that the accuser of die court 
should fiiroish die accused with the heads 
of the accusation and the names of the 
witnesses, that the accused should be al- 
lowed to have die aid of counsel, and that 
no sentence of die inquisition should be 
executed until confirmed by the royal 
council. The late king aboUahed the in- 
qiiirition, not only in Portugal, but also m 
Brazil and the East Indies^ and caused 
all its records at Goa to be burnt — ^The 
inquirition restored in Rome by Pius VII, 
has jurisdiction only over the clergy, and 
is not therefere dangerous to those who 
are not Cadiolics. In 1896, it condemned 
to death Caschiur, a pupil of die Propa- 
ganda, who was appoiiiied patriarch of 



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iNauisrnoN-.wsciiiPTioN, 



MempluBy but not accepted by the vioeroy 
of Egypt The pope changed the pun- 
iriiment into imprisonment for life. His 
crime is unknown. — Among the late 
woiks on the inquirition, are Llorente^ 
History of the Spanish Inquisition (Paris, 
1815; in Endish, London, 18S7), and 
Antonio Pui^lanch's Inquisition Un- 
masked, fiom the Spanish (London, 1816). 
The Ridcords of the Inquisition, fiom 
the original MSS., taken from die In- 
qujsitona] Palace at Barcelona, when it 
was stoimed by the Insurrectionists in 
1819 (Boston, 1828), contain interesting 
reports of some particular cases. 

iR^uisiTioif, Process of. This phrase 
is used, on die continent of Europe, to des- 
ignate that kind of criminal process in 
which the court takes upon itself the 
inyesdjeadon of an offence, by appointing 
one of its members to collect the proon 
of the crime, as, for instance, in the Ger- 
man courts. Thus the process of in- 
quiadon diflers from what is called the 
proctMB of accusationj where the court 
stands between the ffovemment and the 
accused, as it does in England and die U. 
States. In civil cases, the process of accu- 
sadon prevails also in the German courts. 
(See Procisi ; also ^cctMoftoa, and AcL) 

LN.R.I. ; abbreviation for .Xsnitf JVbz- 
armttf Rex Judaorum (Jesus of Nazareth, 
King of th^ Jews); the insciiption which 
Pilate put over the head of Christ when 
he was crucified. 

IifSAinTT. (See Mental Derangemmt.) 

LrsciuPTiON, in archseoloffy, is used to 
designate any monumental writing, in- 
tjmdfed to commemorate some remarkable 
event, to preserve the name of die builder 
of a monument, or of die person in whose 
faoQor it W9B erecledf &c. Inscriptions 
are one of the most important sources of 
histoiy, particulariy for die earlier periods 
of nations, when other written documents 
are rare or entirely wanting, and tradition 
is the only medium of lustorical knowl- 
edge. After the invention of the alphabet, 
the earliest application of the art of writ- 
ing is by engravings on wood, stone or 
metals ; and, after ^er and more conve- 
nient materials have come into common 
use, this mediod is still preferred for many 
purposes, on account of the ffreater dura- 
bilirjT of the materiaL We nave inscrip- 
tions, therefore, from all nadoos who have 
arrived at a ceitain stage of civilization, 
on walls of temples, tombs, triumphal 
monuments, tablets, vases, &c., containing 
Haws, decrees, treaties, religious legend^ 
moral, philosophical or scientific preceptSi 
chronological tables, &c., generally con- 



temporaiy with the events they ooramem- 
orate. Indian, Penian, Egyptian, PhcB- 
nician, Etruscan, Grecian, Roman, &c^ 
inscriptions, have been diligendy studied, 
and have made important revelations in 
the hands of learned and ingenious men. 
The Esyptian monuments are nunner- 
ous, andcovered with inscriptions, which 
the leanied have only recently been 
able to decipher. They are in the hiero- 
l^lyphic, hieratic and demotic characters^ 
m the Coptic or old Egyptian language, 
and have already serv^ to throw much 
light on the imperfect accounts of histori- 
ans, and to supply many deficiencieB in 
our knowledge of Egyptian history. ( See 
Hienglypkka,) The Phoenician monu- 
ments, oearing inscriptions, are few. The 
language was employed on the mefialfl 
of die PhoBnician cities till the time of 
Alexander, and was carried to Carthasc, 
Cadiz, Sic^ by this commercial peoMe. 
Bardi^lemy ( Jfefem. de Mead, des BdU» Lei- 
trt$, torn, zxzii), Swinton, ChishuU, have 
written on this subject, but it is still in- 
volved in obscurity. The inscriptions on 
the ruins of Pasaripidfle, Babylon and 
Persepolis (a. v.), are in the arrow-headed 
character, or which there are two kindB^ 
the Persian and the Babylonian : the for- 
mer oonsisiB of three sorts of charaeters, 
all af which are commonly used in the 
same inscription. The Penian inscriptions, 
so fiur as they have been deciphered^ 
appear to contain merely names of die 
kings, with vridies for dieur welfere. The 
Babylonian chaiacters are of two sort% 
and are sometimes called natf-fteckferf, in 
distinction from the Persian. The little 
that is known relating to the arrow- 
lieaded characters may be found in Hee- 
ren'6 Afeen, i, 1 : Hager^i Din. wi the 
.BdfiyloiiumAumpe. (London, 1801); Von 
Hammer's Fkmdgruben dt» Ortente, iv. 4 ; 
Alexandei's TrSodB from huUa to JBng- 
Umd (London, 1837). The ancient Ara- 
bic inscriptions are m the Cufic character 
(see Ci^ f^ritktg\ and the old Hebrew 
aire in the Samaritan character. Greek 
art was carried from its native soil into all 
thjB countries around the Meditenanean, 
by commerce and colonies, and, by the 
arms of Alexander and his successom, 
even into the remote East The Greek 
language appears on a great number of 
monuments m this extensive region, writ- 
ten in different characters, according to 
the age of the inscription, and in different 
dialects in different countries. The Done 
dialect is perceptible in the monuments of 
Dorian colonies, and so with the others. 
In this manner, where there are two cities 



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INSCRIPnON--IN8ECT8. 



35 



or ifM8 of tbe sune name, it may be 
dettnodiiied to winch the work of art 
flboold be attributed by tbe dialect of the 
iDseiiptiQiL The fiMmaof tbe Greek letters 
noderwNit some changes, which must be 
attended to in the study of inscriptions: 
tbe afaaence or admisnon of certain letters 
(as H and Q), the different forms of the sig- 
ma (£, C, or 8)» of the epsiton (as K or ^\ 
of tne o (as round or square, O ), of the 
lambda (as A or L), &c.,may lud in deter- 
minin|( the age of a monument The 
eaiiy inacriplions are often from ri^ht to 
left, sometimes in the houHropkedon 
(q. rX which was abandoned about the 
middfe of the Mb centuiybefore Christ 
(See tbe 8tb vol of the Thuaur. Antiq. 
Gnec of Gronovius ; the works of Po- 
eocke, Chandler, and other traveUers; 
MoDtSkueon^aPalmogrqpkiaChraca; Mhn. 
de PJkadSmie d€9 In$enp^on9.\ The 
Etruscan inscriptions, on vases ana monu- 
ments^ have occasioned much dispute 
UBtODf the learned. Niebuhr, in bis Ro- 
man Histoiy, says, that the assertion of 
Dionvaius^ that the Etruscans spoke a 
peculiar languay, deserves full credit, 
■nee it was, in bis time, a iivins langua^ ; 
and it ia fully confirmed by the inscnp- 
tiooB extant, in the words of which no 
analogy with tbe Greek or Latin can be 
detected; and be adds in a note, tet> 
among all the Etruscan words of which 
explanations bave been protended, only 
two bave been t&^y explained. See, 
however, Lanzi's amti dk Lingua Einu' 
CO (Rome, 1789, 3 vols.) ; Gori^s Muwwn 
Etnigeum; and Ingbirami's MtnmmaU. 
Bnu€ki (1826). From tbe Euguknan 
Tableau discovered in 1444, Buonarotti, 
Gori and others endeavored to form an 
Alphabet : the former thought he bad dis- 
covered 24, the latter 16 letters. The 
Latin inecriptions are the most fifequendy 
met with. They are found on monu- 
ments of all descriptions; some veiy 
ancient ones are yet preserved. (See 
GnBvius's neaaur. Atitia. Rom^ vol. 4, and 
Fabridus^s BibUMeea JjatmOy bb. iv, c. 3.) 
Inscriptions are called bilingtudf when 
tbe characterB are taken finom two di&r- 
ent languages, as was sometimes done by 
tbe vanquiabed people, in complunent to 
their conquerors. Inscriptions are some- 
times repeated in different languages, or 
in di^rent characterB, on the same monu- 
ment; «^ for instance, in the language of 
the province and in the Greek or Latin, 
in the times of the Greek and Roman 
empires. Some <^tbe general collections 
of uMcriptions are, Gruter's Auer^pHonu 
> Clara Qrami (Amsterdam, 1707, 



3 vols., Mo]; Muratori's Tkeiourus Vet, 
huerw. (Milan, 1739, 4 vols.) Consult, 
also, the works of Selden, Prideaux, Chan- 
dler, and Mattaire on the Parian (Anmde- 
lian) mariales (q. y.)\ tbe AnJuBologia Bri- 
ianmea 1779 to 1B22, 21 vols.. So. ; the 
Mhnoina de VAcadimU dts hiacripHotis; 
and the numerous works on particular 
countries, cities or collections. (See Med- 
al, Vase, ObeUskiy Pyramids, &c.) 

IifscRipnoNS, AcAOKMT OF. (See 
Jlcademy,) 

IifSECTivoBA ; animals which five, or 
are thought to live, on insects. Divis- 
ions of this sort cannot be very exact. 
Some tngedwora drink blood with defight, 
or eat grass occasionaUy, and some of the 
beasts of prey, whose principal food is 
larger game, are fond of flies. Among 
biras, the mndivin'a form a very numerous 
class. 

Insects, in natural history. Under the 
bead EmUmologif, an account is given of 
Latreille's system of this department of 
natural history. The foUowmg descrip- 
tion of the characteristics of insects appfies 
to the Crustacea and anchnides,as well 
as to insects, stricdy so called. Insects 
are not furnished with red blood, but 
their vessels contain a treoisparent lymph. 
This may serve to distin^ish them from 
the superior animals, but it is common to 
them with many of tbe inferior ; though 
Cuvier has demonstxated the existence of 
a kind of red blood in some of the vermes. 
They are destitute of internal bones, but, 
in place of them, are furnished with a 
hani external covering, to which the 
muscles are attached, which serves them 
both for skin and bones; they are like- 
wise without a spine formed of vertebrc, 
which is found m all the superior classes 
of animals, lliey are furnished vrith ar- 
ticulated legs, six or more; this drouno- 
stance distinguishes them from aU other 
animals destitute of a spine formed of ver- 
tebne. A veiy great number of insects 
undergo a metamorphosis: this takes 
place in all the winged insecta They 
frequendy change their skin in the prog- 
ress of then- growth. A veiy great num- 
ber of insects are furnished with jaws 
placed transversely. The wings with 
which a veiY great number of insects are 
furnished, distmguish them from all other 
animds, wbich are not furnished with a 
spine composed of vertebrae. Insects are 
ffenerallv oviparous; scorpions and aphi- 
des, duruig the sunmier months, are vivip- 
aroua Insects have no nostrils ; are doB- 
titute of voice ; they are not fUmished 
with a distinct heart, composed of ventri- 



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INSECTS. 



ele and auricle. IncobatioQ ib not neces- 
saiy for batching their eggs. Insects, 
like all other organized bodle^ which 
form the animal and vegetable kingdoms, 
are composed of fluids and 8otid& In the 
four superior classes of animals, viz., mam- 
malia, birds, reptiles and fishes, the bones 
form the most solid part, and occupy the 
interior part both of me trunk and limbs ; 
they are surrounded vrith muscles, Rea- 
ments, cellular membrane, and skin. The 
matter is reversed in the class of insects ; 
the exterior part is most solid, serving at 
the same time both for skin and bones ; it 
encloses the muscles and internal organs, 
gives firmness to the whole body, and, by 
means of its articulations, the limbs, and 
different parts of the body, perform their 
various motions. In many insects, such 
as the crab, lobster, &c., the external cov- 
ering is very hard, and destitute of organi- 
zation; it is composed of a calcareous 
earth, mixed with a small quantity of gel- 
atine, fisrmed by an exudation jrom the 
surface of the body. As its great haixlness 
would check the growth of the animal, 
nature has provided a remedy; all of 
these crustaceous insects cast their shell 
annually. The skin of most of the other 
insect^ is softer, and organized, being 
formed of a number of thm membranes, 
adhering closely to one another, and put- 
ting on the appearance of horn. It owes 
its greater softness to a larger proportion 
of gelatine. The muscles of insects con- 
sist of fibres formed of fiisciculi ; there are 
commonly but two muscles to produce 
motion in any of their limbs, the one an 
extensor, the other a fiexor. These mus- 
cles are conomonty attached to a tendon, 
composed of a homy substance, connected 
to the part which they are destined to put 
in motion. In most insects, the brain is 
situated a littie above the oesophagus; it 
divides into two large branches, which sur- 
round the Q9sophagus,and unite a^am under 
it, from which junction a whitish nervous 
cord proceeds, corresponding to the spmal 
marrow of the superior animals, which 
extends the whole length of the body, 
forming in its course 1^ or 13 knots or 
ganglions, from each of which small 
nerves proceed to different parts of the 
body. Whether insects be endowed with 
any senses different from those of the 
superior animals, cannot easily be ascer- 
tained. Jt appears prettv evident, that 
they possess viaon, heanng, smell and 
touch ; as to the sense of taste, we are 
left to conjecture ; for we are acquainted 
with no mcts by which we can prove that 
insects do or do not enjoy the sense of 



taste. The eyes of insects are of two 
kinds; the one compoimd, composed of 
lenses, laige, and only two in number; 
the other are small, smooth, and vary in 
number from two to eight. The small 
lenses, which form the compound eycb, 
are veiy numerous; 8000 have been 
counted in a common house fly, and 1700 
in a butterfly. The far greater number 
of insects have only two eyes; but some 
have three, as the scolopencfra ; some four, 
as the gyrinus; some six, as scoi^nous; 
some eight, as spiders. The eyes of in- 
sects are commonly immovable; cnhsy 
however, have the power of moving their 
eyes. That insects are endowed with the 
sense ofhearing, can no longer be disputed, 
since frog-hoppNers, crickets, &c., furnish 
us with undeniable proofs of the fiict. 
Nature has provided the males of these 
insects with the means of calling their fe- 
males, by an instrument fitted to produce 
a sound which is heard by the latter. The 
male and female death-watch give notice 
of each other's presence, by repeatedly 
striking with their mandibl^ against old 
wood, &c., their flivorite haunts. Their 
ears have been discovered to be placed at 
the root of their antennsB, and can be dis- 
tinctly seen in some of the larger kinds, 
as the lobster. The antenn« or feelers 
seem to be merely instruments of feeling, 
though some naturalists have thought 
them to be organs of tasting and smelling ; 
and others, of a sense unknown to us. 
The amazing variety in the mouths of in- 
sects, is evident fit)m the fiict, that their 
whole classification, in the Fabrician sys- 
tem, is founded on it. That insects enjoy 
the faculty of smelling is very evident ; it is 
tiie most perfect of all thev senses. Bee- 
ties of various sorts, the different species 
of dermestes, flies, &c., perceive at a con- 
siderable distance the smell of ordure and 
dead bodies, and resort in swarms to the 
situations in which they occur, either for 
the purpose of procuring food, or laying 
their eggs. Insects feed on a neat variety 
of substances ; there are few things, either 
in the vegetable or animal kinpdom, which 
are not consumed by some ofthem. The 
leaves, flowers, fhiit, and even the ligne- 
ous parts of vegetables, afford nourish- 
ment to a very manerous class; animal 
bodies, both dead and alive, even man 
himself^ is preyed on by many of them : 
several species of the louse, of the acaras, 
of the gnat, and the common flea, draw 
their nourishment from the surfkce of his 
body; the pulex ulcerans penetrates the 
cuticle, and even enten his flesh. A spe- 
cies of gadfly (oestrus homiBis) dqxMltoitB 



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INSECTS. 



37 



«g]^ iinder bis skio, where the larvs feed. 
Other caterpillars iosixiuate themselves in- 
10 difierent cavities of his body. All tlie 
inferior animals liave tlieir peculiar para- 
sitical insects, which feed on them during 
iheir life. There are some insects which 
can feed only on one species. Many cat- 
erpillais, both of moths and butterflies, 
feed on the leaves of some particular veg- 
etable, and would die, could they not ob- 
tain this. There are others which can 
make use of two or three kinds of vegeta- 
bles, but which never attain full perfec- 
tion, except wlien they are fed on one 
particular kind ; for example, the common 
alk-worm eats readily all the ppecies of 
mulberry, and even common lettuce, but 
asains its greatest size, and pixKiuces most 
alk, when fed on the white mulbeny. 
There are a great many wliich feed indis- 
rrinunately on a variety of vegetables. 
Almost all herbivorous insects eat a great 
deal, and very ftequently ; and most of 
them perish, if deprived of food but for a 
short time. Carnivorous insects can live 
a hmg while without food, as the carabus, 
(iiiisctis, &c. As many insects cannot 
transport themselves easily, in quest of 
food, to places at a distance from one 
aoother, nature has furnished tiie perfect 
Insects of noany species with an instinct, 
which leads them to deposit their eggs in 
situations where the larva?, as nrion as 
hatched, may find that kind of food which 
i>i best adapted to tlioir nature. Most of 
the butterflies^ though tbey fluttrr about, 
ci*d collect the nectareous juice of a variety 
of flowers, as food for tliemselves, always 
depoeit their eggs on or near to tliose 
vegetables which are destined, by nature, 
to become the food of their larvte. The 
various species of ichneumon deposit tlieir 
fggs in the bodies of those insects on 
which their larvae feed. (See Ichneumon.) 
The ffijnex and sphex are likewise careful 
:o deposit their eggs in situations where 
their larvae, when hatched, may find subf 
i^!5tenGe. The sphex flgulus deposits its 
rns on the bodies of spiders which it has 
k&dy and enclosed in a cell composed 
of clay. Some insects, at different periods 
fit tbeir existence, make use of aliment 
of very diflferent properties ; the larvae of 
^iine are carnivorous, while the perfect 
.natct feeds on the nectareous juice of 
flowers, e. g. sirex, ichneumon, &c. The 
hiTvsB of most of the lepidopterous insect?? 
kcd on tlje leaves and young shoots of 
vegetables, while the perfect insects either 
take no food at ail, or subsist on the sweet 
juice which they extract from flowers: 
lodeed, the consiniction of their moutlis 

VOL. VII. 4 



prevents them from taking any other than 
fluid food. We shall now refer to the 
functions of insects, beginning wth res- 
piration, which is die act of inhaling and 
exhahng the air into and out of the hings. 
Mammalia, birds, and most of the am- 
piiibia, breathe through the mouth and 
nostriJs. The air, when received into the 
lungs, is mixed with the blood, and imparts 
to it soraetliing necessary, and carries off 
somethinff noxious. Some autliors have 
asserted mat insects have no lungs; hut 
later experiments and observations show 
that no species is without them, or,tet least, 
something similar to them ; and, in many 
insects, they are larger m proportion to 
their bodies than ui other animals. In 
most of them, they lie at or near the sur- 
face of the body, and send out , lateral 
pores or tracheae. The respiration of in- 
sects has attracted the attention of many 
naturalists; and it is found that insects do 
not breathe through the mouth or nostiils ; 
that there are a number of vessels, for the 
reception of air, placed alone on each side 
of the body, commordy caBed spimcida^ 
which are subdivided into a number of 
smaller vessels, or bronchiae ; that the ves- 
sels, or tracheae, which proceed from the 
ix)res on the sides, are not composed of a 
simple membrane, but are tubes formed 
(»f circular rugse ; that tlie spiracula ai-e 
distinguishable, and are covered "with a 
small scaly plate, willi an opening in the 
middle like a button-hole, which is fur- 
nislied with membranes, or threads, to 

Crevcnt the admission of extraneous 
odies. Insects are the only animals 
wiiliout vertebne, in whicli the sexes are 
distinguislied. Copulation is perfonned 
in them by the introduction or the parts 
of generation of the male into those of the 
female. All insects ai*e either male or 
female, except in a lew of the genera of 
the order ki/menopterti, such as the bee, 
ant, &c., where individuals are to be 
found, which are neither male nor fe 
male, and, on that account, cAlled neuters. 
Among the bees, the neutere form the far 
gi-eAier part of the comnumity, and per- 
form the office of laborer. Among the 
ants, die neuters are very numerous, and 
constitute the only active members of the 
society. It lias been alleored, that these 
neuters are nothing but females, whose 
fjarts have not been developed for want 
of proper nourishment. OUver, however, •% 
at'ter strict examination, is disposed to 
think them really different, though he 
does not adduce facts suflicient to estab- 
lisli his opinion. The parts which dis 
tiiig'tiish the male from the female may be 

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INSECTS. 



divided into two clasBes, viz., 1. those 
which ave DOt diractiv connected with 
generation ; 2. those which are absolutely 
necessary for the purposes of generation. 
The ctrcumsCanoes which have no direct 
communication vnth generation, which 
serve to point out the distinction between 
the sexes, are the difTerence of size ob- 
servable in the nude and ibmale; the 
brightness of the color in each ; the form 
and number of articulations of the anten- 
nss;' the size and form of their wIms; 
the presence or absence of a sting. The 
male is always smaller than the female ; 
the fhmale ant is nearly six times larger 
than the male: the female cochineal is 
from 12 to 15 times the size of the male ; 
th9 female termes is 200 or 900 times the 
aze of the male ; the colore of the male 
are commonly much more brilliant than 
those of the female ; this is particulariy 
the case in lepidopteroos insects ; in some 
insects, the color of the male is totally 
different fhnn that of the female: the 
antennae of the male are commonly of a 
different form, and laner than those of the 
female: frequently me males are fur- 
nished with wings, while the females 
have none ; the lampyris, coccus and blat- 
ta, and several moths, aftbrd an example 
of this : the female bee is fumiidied with 
a sting, while the male is destitute of one: 
the imles of some insects are furnished 
virith sharp, prominent points, resembling 
boms, ntuated either on the head or 
breast, which are either not perceptible, 
or very fidntly marked, in the female. 
The parts essential to generation afford 
the b«a distinguishinff marie ; in most in- 
sects, they are situated near the extremity 
of the rectum ; by pressing the abdomen 
near to the anus, they may frequently be 
made to protrude ; but the parts of gene- 
ration are not always situated near the 
anus ; in the spiders, they are situated in 
the feelers ; in the libellula, the male 
organ is situa^ in the breast, while that 
of the female is placed at the anus. The 
eggs of insects are of two sorts ; the first 
membranaceous, like the em of the tor- 
toise and the other repti^; the other 
covered vrith a shell, lilce those of the 
buds. Their figure varies exceedinffly ; 
some are round, some elUpdcol, some len- 
ticular, some cylindrical, some pyramidal, 
some flat, some square; but the round 
and oval are the most common. The 
eggs of insects seldom increase in size, 
mm the time they have been deposited 

5 the parent tiU they are hatched : those 
the tenthredo, however, and of some 
others, are observed to increase in bulk. 



At first, there is nothing to be perceived 
in the eggs of insects but a wateiy fiuid ; 
afier some little time, an obscure point is 
observable in the centre, which, according 
to Swammerdam, is not the insect itself 
but only its head, which first acquires con- 
sistence and color ; and the same author 
alleces, that insects do not increase in bulk 
in me egg, but that their parts only ac- 

auire shape and consistence. Dnder the 
liell of the egg, there is a thin and very 
delicate pellicle, in which tbe insect is en- 
veloped, which may be compared to the 
chorion and amnios, which surround tlie 
fbtus in quadrupeds. The little insect 
remains in the e^g till the fluids are dissi- 
pated, and till its limbs have acquired 
strength to break the egg and make its 
escape ; the different species of insects 
remain enclosed in the egg for very differ- 
ent periods ; some continue enclosed only 
a few days, othera remam for several 
montha The eg|gs of many insects re- 
main vrithout being hatched during the 
whole winter, and the youns insects do 
not come forth from them till the season 
at which the leaves of the vegetables, on 
which they feed, begin to expand. When 
the insects are ready to break their prison, 
tlieycommonlv attempt to pierce the shell 
with their teem, and form a circular hole, 
through which they put forth first one leg, 
and then another, till they extricate them- 
selves entirely. Insects afford nourish- 
ment to a great number of the superior 
animals ; many of the fishes, reptiles and 
bhrds, draw the principal part of their sus- 
tenance iacom that source. The immense 
swarms of different species of crab, which 
abound in eveiy sea, directly or indirectly 
form the principal part of the food of the 
cod, haddock, herrmsr, and a great variety 
of fishes. Tlie snasJce, lizard, frog, and 
many other reptiles, feed both on land and 
aquatic uisects. Gallinaceous fowls, and 
many of the small birds, &c., feed on in- 
sects. Swallows, indeed, feed entirely on 
winged insects. They afibrd food, uke- 
wise, to many of the mammalia, viz.^ to 
many species of the bat, to the ant-eater, 
&C., and even to man himself. Many 
species of crab, viz., lobster, common crab, 
shrimp, prawn, land-crab, &c., are reck- 
oned delicacies. The larvee of some 
coleopterous insects and locusts form part 
of the food of man. Insects, likewise, by 
consuming decayed animal and vegetable 
matter, wBch, if left to undereo the putre^ 
factive process on the sumce of the 
ground, might taint the atmosphere with 
pestilential vapors, preserve the air pure 
for the respiration of man and other ani- 



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» 



mab. On the other hand, the uyuriee 
which tbe^ inflict upon ub are extenaiye 
and comphcated ; and the remediee which 
we attempt, are often aggravations of the 
eirily because they are duected by an iffno- 
rence of the economy of nature. The 
httle knowledge which we have of the 
modes hf which insects may be impeded 
in their destruction of much that is valua- 
ble to usj^has probably proceeded fiom 
our contempt or their individual insignifi- 
cance. The security of property has 
ceased to be endangered by quadrupeds 
of prey, and yet our gardens are ravaged 
by aphides and caterpiUara. It is some- 
what startling, to affirm that the condition 
of the human race is seriously injured by 
these petty annoyances ; but it is perfectly 
true, that the art and industry of man have 
not yet been able to overcome the collec- 
tive fiwce, the individual perseverance, 
and the complicated machmery of de- 
struction which insects employ. A small 
ant, according to a most careful and phi- 
losophical observer (Humboldt)^ opposes 
almost invincible obstacles to the progress 
of civihzation in many parts of the equi- 
noctial zone. These animals devour pa- 
per and parchment ; tfiey destroy every 
book and manuscript Many provinces 
of Spanish America cannot, in conse- 
quence, show a written document of a 
hundred years' existence. ^ What devel- 
opement," he adds, ''can the civilization 
<^a people aastune, if there be nothing to 
connect the present with the pest ; if the 
depositories of human knowledge must 
be eonstandy renewed ; if the moniunents 
oi genius and wisdom cannot be trans- 
mitted to posterity ?" Again, there are 
beetles which deposit their larves in trees, 
in such formidable numbers, that whole 
forests perish beyond the power of reme- 
dy» The pines of the Hartz have thus 
been destroyed to an enormous extent; 
and at one place in South Carolina, at 
least 90 trees in every 100, upon a tract 
cf 30O0 acres, were swept away by a 
small, black, win^ hug. Wilson, the 
historian of Amencan birds, speaking of 
the labors of the ivory-billed wood-pecker, 
says, *^ Would it be beUeved that the lar- 
vse of an insect, or fly, no larger than a 
grain of rice, should silently, and in one 
season, destroy some thousand acres of 
pine trees, many of them from two to 
three feet in diameter, and 150 feet high ? 
In some places, the whole woods, as far as 
you can see around you, are dead, strip- 
ped of the bark, their wintiy-looking arms 
and bare trunks bleaching in the sun, and 
turning in ruins before every blast" The 



subterraneous larvas of aspecies of beede 
has oflen caused a complete fiiilure of the 
seed-corn, as in the district of Halle in 
1613. The com- weevil, which extracts 
the flour from grain, leaving the husk be- 
hind, will destroy the contents of the 
largest storehouses in a very short period. 
The wire-worm and the tumip-ny arc 
dreaded by every former. The ravages 
erf* the locust are too well known not to be 
at once recollected, as an example of the 
fomudable collective power of the insect 
race. The white ants of tropical coun- 
tries sweep away whole viUa^e^ with as 
much certainty as a fire or an mundatkm ; 
ships even have been destroyed by these 
indefatigable rqHihlic% and the dodcs and 
embankments of Europe have been threat- 
ened by such minute ravagers. 
Insolvbrct. (See BcmknpL) 
IifSTAKcc On the European conti- 
nent, a oouit is said to be oiihejfnt ta- 
staace, vfhesk it has orinnal jurisdiction e£ 
a case ; of the Mcoaa tn^toice, when it 
has fqipellate jurisdiction fixim a lower 
court; of the Mrd inshnctj when it has 
appellate jurisdiction from courts of the 
second instance. In some cases, general- 
ly criminal, a court may be of the first or 
second instance, according to the place 
where the process was begun; for in- 
stance, if a man is tried in Prussia for a 
high crime, and found guilty, he appeals, 
ai^ the case is sent to another criminal 
eourt, chosen by the goveroment, which, 
in this case, is of the seeond instance; 
while, in the next case, perbane, the situa- 
tion of the two courts may oe reversed. 
To akaohe ab tMUmUa means to absolve 
a person from an accusation, without car- 
rying through the process. 

Instinct (from the Latin instinciui); 
that impulse, produced by the peculiar 
nature of an animal, which prompts it to 
do certain thincs, without beinff direeted, 
in acting thus, by reflection, and which is 
immediately connected with its own in- 
dividual preservation, or with that of its 
kind. Thus the new-bom duck hastens 
to the water, the infont sucks, without 
being taught to do so; all animals eat 
when they feel hunger, drink when (hey 
are thirsty, by instinct All the instincts 
of animaJs are directed to the preserva- 
tion either of the individual or of the ge- 
nus. They appear in the selection of f<^ 
avoiding of mjurious substances, taking 
care of their young, and providing for 
them before they are bom; as the bird, 
for instance, builds its nest to receive its 
fumre progeny. The instinct of motk>n, 
and the opposite instinct, which compels 

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40 



INSTINCT— THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE. 



the bird, for instance, to remain on her 
eggs, at the period of incubation, are 
equally strong. The building of dwell- 
ings is, in the case of many animals, a 
highly curious exercise of instinct; as, for 
instance, in the case of the beaver and the 
bee. They are evidently actuated by in- 
stinct, as they always succeed the first 
time they attempt it Certain instincts 
lead to certain chanses ; for histance, to 
migrating, or to coupling at certain times, 
to builduig nests, and expelling tlie young 
when they are fledged, and able to take 
care of themselves. Instinct sometimes 
misleads ; as, for instance, tlie fl^ lays its 
eggs in the flower of the stapdia kwsutaf 
deceived by the smell of this plant, which 
resembles uat of meat in a state of putre- 
faction. The young, in this case, perish 
from want of fooa Two thin^ are 
wordiy to be remarked. Men often act 
from insdnct, when least aware of it, and 
often explain actions in other animals, by 
instinct, in which they cannot be actuated 
by it, but in which memory, and the 
power of combination, must necessarily 
be supposed. Numberless anecdotes of 
dogs prove this. The intelligence of 
anunals is an extremely interesting sub- 
ject, and though there are several nishly 
valuable worl^ on it, yet it is fiir from 
having been thorouffhly investigated. 

Instititte, the National. This learn- 
ed body, wluch was organized after the 
first storm of the revolution, durins 
which all the academies of learning and 
arts in France bad perished, was formed 
by the decree of the 3d Brumave of the 
year 4, fiiom the Acadhnit FVangaise, the 
AtaAtmit des Sciences, and the Acadhnie 
des BcUea Lettres et Inscriptions, Its ob- 
ject >vas the advancement of the arts and 
sciences by continual researches, by the 
publication of new discoveries, and by a 
correspondence with the most distinguish- 
ed scholars of idi countries, and especially 
by promoting such scientific and literary 
undertakings as would tend to the nation- 
al welfare and glor}'. The institute 
was composed of a number of members 
residing at Paris, and an equal number of 
associates ((u^oct^) in the different parts 
of tlie republic. Each class could also 
choose eight learned foreigners as asso- 
ciates. It was at first divided into three 
claaBes,each of which was subdivided into 
several sections. The first class embraced 
the physical and mathematical sciences, 
the second tlie moral and historical, and 
the tliifd literature and the fine arts. The 
number of active members, exclusive of 
the assQcUSf was Umited to 144. The 



national " institute received, however, its 
final organization by a decree of the 3d 
Piuviose of the year 11 (January 23, 
1^03). It was then divided into 4 classes 
— 1. the class of the physical and madie- 
matical sciences, consisting of 65 mem- 
bers ; 2. the class of the French lancuagc 
and literature, consisting of 40 menibere ; 
3. the class of history and ancient litera* 
ture, of 40 members ; and 4. the class of 
tlie fine arts, with 28 members. In the 
last years of the imperial government, tiio 
title of the national institute was ex- 
changed for Uiat of the imperial institute* 
The restoration of the Biourbons gave 
rise to new changes in this learned body, 
which restored it, in some degree, to its 
original condition. * A royal ordinance of 
March 21, 1816, first restored tha former 
names of the classes, so that the name 
of institute was applied only to the whole 
body collectively. The same ordinance 
assigned the first rank to the Acadhnie 
Frangaise, as being the oldest ; the next 
rank to the AcadSmie des Inscriptions et 
Belles Lettres ; the third to the Acckimie des 
Sciences ; and the last to the AccuUmie des 
Beaux Arts. These united academies were 
under the personal direction of the king, 
and each bad an independent organiza- 
tion, and a free exercise of the powers 
committed to them. To each academy 
were attached 10 honoraiy niembere, 
who hnd merely the right of beiner pres- 
ent at til i meetings. Such of the rormer 
honorary members and academicians as 
had returned with the court, became, as 
a matter of right, honorary members of 
their respective academies. A list of 
names, appended to the royal decree, de- 
termined the members. The Acadhxie 
Frangaise is well known to be cliarged 
with the composition of a French dic- 
tionary. Villemain, the successor of Fon- 
tanes, and Cuvier, are die most eloquent 
members. As every one who has brought 
a vaudeville on the stage with success, 
thinks himself entided to a place among 
the 40 members of this class, these 
places afiford the most fruitful subjects for 
squibs and satire. The Acadhnit des Inn 
scrwtions et Belles Lettres has lately hm- 
ited its members to 30. It has always 
been considered a great mark of distinc- 
tion to be an assocU Stranger of this class. 
The number of corresponding members 
is unlimited. The most distinguished 
scholars, both in and out of Europe, are 
thus connected with tiie society. Com- 
mittees of this academy superintend the 
erection of public monuments, and the pres- 
ervation and description of those already 



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41 



in existence. Sacv, Daunou,^ Cautasin, 
Letronne, Boissonade, were chosen from 
this acadeniyto continue the Mdices et 
Exiraits des Manmcripts, de la BibL du 
JZoy. The editing of the Journal des So- 
eonj, to which the members of all the 
academies contribute, devolves principally 
on this academy. They have the distn- 
botion of prizes of considerable value. 
The Aeadhrde des Sciences is divided, a6 
formeriy, into the two principal depart- 
ments of the physical and mathematical 
sciences, and retains most of its eariier 
regulations, made in the time of the re- 
piiDlic. The number of its assocUs stran- 
gers is limited to 10. Cuvier is perpetual 
secretary of the physical branch, Fourier 
of the mathematical. The two secreta- 
ries are not confined to a mrticular sec- 
tion ; tliey belong to aU. The AcadimU 
des Beaux Arts has five sections. A com- 
mittee of this academy is char^^ed with 
the publication of a dictionaiy or the fine 
arts. The annual changes which take 
place in the academies may be learned 
from the calendar called Matiiut Royal d^ 
France, published by Firrain Didot, print- 
er to the institute. 

iNSTiTUTiorras. (See Corpus Juris, 
and CivU Lat^,) 

IivsTEVMEirr, in music; any sonorous 
body, aitificially constructed for the pro- 
duction o£ musical sound. Musical m- 
scruments are divided into three kinds — 
wind instruments, s^ged instruments, 
and instruments of percussion. Of the 
stringed instruments among the ancients, 
the most known are the lyre, psalterium, 
trigonium, sinimieimn, epondoron, &c. 
The pnncipal wind instniments were the 
tibia, fistula, tuba, comu, and lituus ; those 
of percussion, the tympanum, cymbalum, 
crepitacultim, tintinabulum, and crotalUm. 

l!vsTRiTir£E«TAL Music ; music produc- 
ed by inslnmenls, as contradistinguished 
from wad music. The term insS^ment- 
al is paiticularly applied to the greater 
compoeidons, in which the human voice 
Jias no part. The first instrument invent- 
ed was probably the pipe or flute. An 
idle shepherd might very naturaUy, firom 
accident, or in imitation of the effects of 
the wind, blow through a simple reed, and 
thus invent the pipe, fit)m which the flute 
woukl readily originate. The pipe is, in 
tact, found among many savages. The 
invention of string instruments, as they 
are more artificial, is of later origin. The 
instrumental muac of the Greeks was 
confined to a few instruments, among 
^^ch the flute, the cithara, the sackbut, 
though not precisely like those instruments 



among the modems, were the most im- 
portant. * The violin was invented in the 
middle ages, and soon became the princi- 
pal instrument, taking place above the 
flute, though the ktter is of much more 
ancient origin, because the playing on a 
stringed instrument is less mtiguing, and 
the tone of the violin is more distinct fi*om 
the human voice, and, therefore, better 
fitted to be used with it ; besides, the in- 
strument permits much more perfect exe- 
cution. Vd^ the middle of the last cen- 
tuiy, the Italian composers used no other 
instruments in their great pieces, than vio- 
lins and baas-viols ; at that time, however, 
they began to u^ the hautboy and the 
haruj but the flute has never been much ' 
esteemed in Italy, particularly in music 
exclualvelv instnunental. These were the 
only wind instruments in Italy, used in 
instrumental music, until the end of the 
last century; and even to this day, the 
Italians use wind instruments much less 
than the Germans, and particulariy the 
French, Since Mozart, every instrument 
has been used, which appeared adapted 
to answer a particular purpose. This vi 
the cause of the fewness of the notes in 
the Italian, and of theu- great number in 
German, and their excess in the modem 
French scores. In general, symphonies 
and overtures, solos, duets, terzettos, 
quartettos, quintettoe, &c., sonatas, fanta- 
sias, concens for sinffle in8trument8,dances, 
inarches, &c., belong to instrumental 
music. 

iNsuRArfCE is a contract, whereby, for 
a stipulated consideration, called a premi' 
urn, one paity undertakes to indemnify 
another against certain risks. The party 
undertaking to make the indemnity is 
called the insurer or underwriter, and the 
one to be indemnified, the assured or in- 
sured. The instrument, by which the 
contract is mode, is denominated tx policy; 
the events or causes of loss insured 
against, risks or perHs; anc^ the thing in- 
sured, the subject or insurable interest. 
Marine insurance relates to property and 
risks at sea ; insurance of property on 
shore against fire, is called Jlre insurance ; 
and the written contracts, in such cases, are 
oflen denominated fire policies. Policies 
on lives are another description of this 
contract, whereby a party, for a certain 
premium, agrees to pay a certain sum, if 
a person, to whose Ine it relates, shall die 
within a time specified. These policies, 
however, usually make an exception of 
death by suicide. There was a kind of 
insurance in use, among the Greeks and. 
Romans, called bottomry or respondanHOf 



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42 



INSURANCE. 



which is, where the owner of a vessel or 
goods, borrows money upon bottomiy 
(q. V.) upon the vessel, or upon respon- 
dentia on the goods, for a certain voyage, 
agreeing, that if the ship or goods arrive 
at a certain port, the money shall be re- 
paid, and also interest, exceeding the legal 
rate ; but if lost by the risks specified in 
the bond, before arriving at the port nam- 
ed*, the lender is to lose the money loaned. 
This risk of losing the whole capital, is 
the cause of the excess of interest allow- 
ed in case of the arrival of the ship or 
goods ; and it is called nuarine intertst, 
which ought to be equal to the common 
rate of interest, added to the rate of pre- 
mium, for insuring the shin or goods for 
the same voyage against the same risks. 
This sort of contract was anciently in use, 
and, as the laws then cave less security, 
or, at least, as credit and confidence were 
not so widely diffused, and correspond- 
ence was less extensive among merchants, 
it was usual for the lender to send some 
person with the property, to receive re- 
IMiyraent of the money loaned and the 
marine mterest, at the port where the risk 
terminated. In modem times, it is not 
usual to send any person with the jjroper- 
ty, who would be of no semce during tlie 
voyage; and, at its termination, some a^nt 
of the lender, at tlie port of arrival, it he 
IS not there himself, looks after his inter- 
est The wide extension of correspond- 
ence, among merchants of all paits of 
the w^orld, m modern times, gives a facili- 
ty for this purpose, and renders the exe- 
cution of this, as well as other commercial 
contracts, more economical, and, at the 
same time, more secure. But contracts 
of insurance, strictly so called, are of 
modem invention ; and their importance, 
in relation to commerce,is scarcely infe- 
rior to that of bills of exchange. E very- 
merchant is liable to losses and reverses, 
by the change of tlie markets. The risks 
of this description may, however, be cal- 
culated upon with some degree of proba- 
bility ; but those of fire, the perils of the 
seas, or capture, cannot be so well esti- 
mated; and, when they come, they would, 
in many cases, bring ruin upon the mer- 
chant, if it were not for the system of in- 
surance, the object of which is, to appor- 
tion the losses from these disasters among 
all those whose property is exposed to tlie 
same hazards. If, for instance, all per- 
sons engaged in tradmg were to enter into 
a general agreement to contribute for the 
losses of each otlier, occasioned by those 
casualties, in the proportions of the 
amounts that they should respectively 



have at risk, e^fery individual would tlien 
only mn the risk of the proportion of 
losses occurring upon the general aggre- 
gate of property at risk. But as such a 
general combination would be complicat- 
ed, and practically inconvenient, a verj'^ 
ample system is devised, by means of in- 
surance, for effecting the same object ; for 
one person — the underwriter — agrees to 
take upon himself those risks, for a hun- 
dred merchants, more or less, for a certain 
premium on each risk, calculating that the 
premiums on the fortunate adventures 
will com{)ensate him for the losses he may 
incur on those which ai-e unfortunate, and 
leave him some surplus, as a compensation 
for his time and trouble; and a little ex- 
perience will enable him to calculate the 
chances with very considerable accuracy. 
The resuh accordingly is, tliat all tlic per- 
sons who procure their property to be in- 
sured by him, in effect, mutually con- 
tiibute for each other's losses, by the bar- 
gain of each with the common receiver 
of the contributions of ail. This contract 
was subjecied to a system of definite 
rules, much earlier in Italy and France 
than in England ; and as tjie contract is 
the same in principle, and veiy similar in 
form in different countiies, the mles of 
constmction adapted to it in one countiy, 
are equally applicable in another. The 
system of rules collected in the French 
ordinance of the marine in the year 1681, 
and which had already, in general, become 
established in France, Italy and the Neth- 
erlands, is still in force, and daily ap- 
plied tlirouphout the commercial world, 
not only in Europe, but also in America. 
But it was late before these principles 
of insurance were intimately incorporat- 
ed into the law of England. Until tlic 
time of lord Mansfield's becoming chief- 
justice of the court of king's bench in 
England, about the middle of the 18di 
centur3% the law of insurance was in a 
very mde state in tliat coimtry. It was, 
before tliat time, the more general practice 
to make what were called wagenng poli- 
cies, in which one party agreed, for a 
certain premium, to pay tiie other a cer- 
tain sum, in case a particular vessel should 
not arrive at a certain port of destination, 
on account of certain jierils ; without ony 
question being made whether the ^iorty 
insured had any interest in the ship or 
cargo ; so that, in addition to the contracts 
of uisurance agahist real loss, many con- 
tracts of the above sort were made by per- 
sons who had no intei-est whatever in the 
property to which the contract related. 
These contracts of insurance, in the case 



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INSURANCE^INTERDICT. 



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of persons reaiUy ioterested iii the proper* 
tr, were a very iniperfect indemnity, «nce 
Jiey only extended to the case of a defeat 
of the Toyage; whereas, great damage is 
often sustained by the ship or cargo, not- 
withstanding they may botli arrive at the 
port of destination. But, at about the pe- 
riod already mentioned, Magens, a mer- 
ciiant, who had removed from Hamburg 
to London, published liis very elaborate 
work on insurance, in the latter place, 
containing all the laws and regulations of 
tlie different commercial countries of the 
continent, on this subject, and presenting 
its leading doctrines^ in relation to partiiu 
losses and general averages, and giving a 
great number of examples of adjusUnents 
of losses, of both descriptions. Lord 
Mansfield, at about the same time, expel- 
led from tlie administration of this branch 
of law the narrow, quibbling and tech- 
nical doctrines with which it had been 
previously too much infested. The foun- 
dation was then laid for that magnificent 
and truly scientific superstructure of legal 
principles and practical rules, which has 
(R'en tlie work of the joint labors of the 
Coglish and American jurists, from that 
period down to tlie present day. The 
courts of tlie U. States have contributed 
their full share towards the formation of 
the aduriirable system by which tlie com- 
merce of the world is now protected and 
promoted ; and instances might readily 
be referred to, of discussions and opin- 
ions on this subject in the American 
courts, which, in learned research, liberal- 
ity of views, scientific principles, and log- 
ical precision, will not suffer by a compar- 
ison witli those of any other counuy. 
This contract, considered as pne of in- 
demnity, — and as such only it ought al- 
ways to bo regarded, and by no means 
confounded with gambling, — requires, in 
the first place, a stibject ; something must 
1)0 at risk, and the thing so at risk must 
be described in the contract ; and no par- 
ty can be injured, unless he has an inter- 
est in the subject which he is liable to 
lose, or in respect to which he is llal>le to 
suffer by the perils insured against ; and 
the contract must specify against. what 
perils or risks the underwriter undertakes 
to make indemnity ; and tlie party insur- 
ed must, at the time of making the con- 
tract, state, fairly and honestly, all tlie ma- 
terial circumstances within his own pri- 
vate knowledge, which may enable the 
underwriter to form an estimate of the 
risk. This is peculiarly a contract, in 
which the assured is bound to fairness 
and good fiiith in effecting it, and the im- 



derwriter to liberal promptnen in com' 
plying with his stipulation to make iQ- 
denuiity. 

Insurrection. (Sec RevohUion.] 

Intaglios ; engraved gems. (See Gem 
Sculpture.) 

InteoraIm (See CaUsulus,) 

Intemperance. (For some facts on 
tills subject, see the article Temper- 
ance,) 

Intenseness is the state of being raised 
or concentrated to a great decree. A 
verbwn irUensivumy in grammar, is a veri> 
which expresses increased force ; as, fa- 
cesso, I do earnestly, from /acio, I do ;pe- 
iissOf 1 seek earnestly, from /?eto, I seek. 
The German bettdrij to beg alms, may, 
perhaps, be considered as the intensive 
form of bUteti, to ask, unless it be consid- 
ered to denote properly a repetition of the 
act of asking, in which case it will belong 
to the class of verba JrequentatwOj such ae 
factito, I do repeatedly; lecHtOj 1 read 
often. 

Interdict; an ecclesiastical censure 
in tlie Catholic church, the effect of which, 
taken in its most extended sense, is, that 
no kind of divine ser\'ice is celebrated in tlief 
place or country under tlie sentence ; the 
sacraments are not administered, the dead 
not buried with tlie rites of the church. 
This interdict is called real or locals whilst 
the personal interdict regards only one or 
more persons. We shall here speak of 
tlie former. Even Catholic writers admit 
that the interdict has been oflen abused 
for interested purposes, and has produced 
licentiousness in the countries and prov- 
inces subjected to it, by depriving them of 
religious service for a length of time. (See 
the (Catholic) DicUonnaire de ThiotogiCf 
Toulouse, 1817, article Interdict,) And 
no one, acquainted with history, can deny 
that interdicts have been productive of re- 
bellion and all kinds or disorder ; they 
8er\ed, however, in the barijorous age of 
modem Europe, as a check against the 
power of tlie monarchs. It is a mistake 
to suppose tliat Gregory VII (q. v.) was 
the inventor of this mighty engine of-ec- 
clesiastical power. It can be proved to 
have existed before his time ; out it vs 
true that he used itoflener and more pow- 
erfully tlian any of his predecessors. The 
11th century was preeminently the centu- 
ry of interdicts. Adrian IV laid Rome 
itself imder an interdict, for the purpose 
of compelling the senators to expel Ar- 
nold of Brescia and his followers. Inno- 
cent III laid France under an interdict in 
1200, and England in 1208. (See PhUip 
AuguHuSy Johif and hmocent.) Popes or 

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INTERDICT—INTERLUDE. 



bishops sometimes mitigated the rifor of 
the interdict. Thus we read in the Chroni- 
cle of Toura, that the viaticum and bap- 
tism were allowed to be administered 
during the interdict, under which France 
was laid, as above-mentioned, and which 
lasted nine months. Innocent III finally 
permitted preaching and confirmation to 
take place during this period, and even 
the administering of tlie eucharist to cru- 
saders and foreigners. And Gregory IX, 
about 1230, on account of the ^ great scan- 
dal" caused by the interdicts, permitted 
mass to be said once a week, without 
ringing the bells, and with the doors 
closed. Boniface VIII (1300) ordered the 
mass to be said without singing, every 
day, with closed doors, except on Christ- 
mas, Easter, Pentecost and Assumption, 
when ringing the bells, singing and open 
doors were allowed. Magdeburg was 
four years under an interdict, because the 
archbishop of the city had been murdered. 
John XaII took off the interdict by a 
bull. Interdicts were gradually recog- 
nised to be inconsistent with the spirit of 
the time ; and, when Paul V laid Venice 
under an interdict in 1606, the churches 
were not closed, nor divine senice inter- 
rupted, and only a. minority of the bishops 
acknowledged it. In the beginning of the 
same century, some interdicts, pronounced 
by bishops, excited much attention. It 
was not imfi^uent, in the middle ages, 
for princes to request bishoi)8 to luf the 
territories of their vassals under an mtcr- 
dict. The interdict must be announced, 
like the excommunication, in writing, with 
the causes, and is not to be unposedf until 
ailer three admonitions. The penalty of 
disobedience to an interdict is excommu- 
nication. Writers of the Galilean church 
say that the pope has no right to lay 
France under an interdict, and the parlia- 
ments refused to register tlieiiL Inter- 
dicts are not to be confounded with the 
simple cessatio a dwinis, or the disuse of 
religious ceremonies, which takes place 
when a church has been polluted, e. g., by 
a murder committed in it. 

Interest is the allowance made for 
the loan or forbearance of a sum of money, 
which is lent for, or becomes due at, a 
Certain time; this allowance being gen- 
erally estimated at so much per cent, per 
annum, tliat is, so much for the use of 
$100 for a year. Interest is either simjde 
or compouruL Simple iniereat is that which 
is allowed upon the principal on! v, for the 
whole dme of the loan or forbearance. 
The money lent, or forbome« is called the 
prific^ ; the sum paid for the use of it, 



the inUresL The interest of $100 for one 
year, is called the raieper cent^ and the sum 
of any principal and its interest, together, 
the amount, — Compound interest is that 
which arises from any sum or principal in a 
ffiven time, by increasing the principal, at 
fixed periods, by the mterest then due, 
and hence obtaining interest upon both in- 
terest and principal The accumulation of 
money, when placed at compound interest, 
afler a certain number of years, is exceed- 
ingly rapid, and in some instances appears 
truly astonishing. One penny, put out at 5 
per cent, compound interest, at the birth of 
Christ, would, in 1810, have amounted to 
a sum exceeding in value 357,000,000 
of solid globes of standard gold, each in 
magnitude as large as this earth ! (the 
exact number of globes, according to this 
computation, is« S7,474,600) ; while, at 
simple interest, it would have amounted 
only to 7*. 7|flL 

Interim (of Augsbure]. Afler the 
overthrow of the Smalcaidic league, the 
despotic emperor Charles V, in order to 
place Gemiany in its former condition, in 
regard to religion as well as politics, 
issued a decree, to be observed until a 

Seneral council should be assembled. Thb 
ecree was therefore called the intennij 
and aetdedfpro tem,^ the constitution, the 
doctrines and discipline of the church in 
Germany. At the diet of Augsburff (1548) 
it received the force of a law of the em- 
pire. Nothing was conceded to the Prot- 
estants but the cup in the Lord's supper, 
and the marriage of priests ; in every oth- 
er respect, the doctrmes and ceremonies 
of Catholicism, from which they Had 
been froe for more than 20 years, were to 
be restored. The Protestants, however, 
contrived to gain time by negotiations and 
compliances, until the treaty of Passau 
(155&) and the peace of Augsbui^ (1555) 
secured to them com|jlete religious free- 
dom. (See Peace, Rdigioiu,) 

Interlude ; a piece of music, a dance, 
or a short dramatic scene, generally be- 
tween two performers- of dinerent sexes, 
exliibited between the acts of a serious 
opera, to vary the entertaiiunent. The 
interlude is not an inventi<Hi of the mod- 
ems ; the ancients were acquainted with 
certain short pieces, loosely connected, 
which served to make an easy transition 
from one play to another, and to occupy 
the interval between the two. At present, 
the term interlude^ or inUrmezzo, is applied 
principally to small comic operas, written 
tor one, or at most for two persons, but 
not connected, in any way, either with the 
play which precede^^ or that wfaieh foi- 



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INTERLUDE— INTERVENTION. 



45 



lows. Ou account of the very limited 
number of persons in tlie interlude, litde 
more is required of such pieces than hu- 
mor and comic power. According to Ar- 
tcaga, modem interludes were at first 
uiadiigals, which were sung between the 
acts by several voices, and were connected 
with "tlie play. One of the oldest and 
most beautiful is B combattimento fTApd- 
lint eel SerperUe^ by Bardi. But these 
madrigals soon lost their primitive form, 
and represented some action. 

Intermewt. (See Funeral Rites.) 

I^rrER^uirrius ; the messenger or rep- 
resentatiTe of the pope, sent to small for- 
eign courts and to republics. Tlie papal 
ambesBador to emperors and kings is 
caBed nuntius, (See Minoo.) The or- 
dinary Austrian ambassador at Constan- 
tinopie is also called iniemuntiuA, 

Interpolation, in algebra, signifies the 
findiiig of an intermedute term in a se- 
ries, its place in the series beins; given. 
There are anal}tic formulas for the exe- 
cution of interpolations. — ^In philological 
criticism, interpolation signifies the inser- 
tion of spurious pessafes in a work. In 
printed texts, suspected passages are oflen 
encloeed in brackets. 

Interpretation (fit>m the Latin) ; the 
explanation of the true meaning of an au- 
thor or instrument. * (For the mteipreta- 
tion of the Scripture, see Exegesis ; lor in- 
terpretation in politics, see Vonstruction,) 
On the continent of Europe, if a law is 
interpreted by the legislative power, it is 
called interpretatio authentica ; if bv the 
unwritten usage, interpr, usualis; if in a 
scientific way, interpr, doctrinalis, which 
ma^r be interpr. grammatica, if the mean- 
ing is found out fix>m the words according 
to grammatical rules, or interpr. logiea^ if 
the meaning is found by internal reasons, 
or inJUrpr. m^icti, if obtained by correcting 
the text. The interpr. logica is caUed 
tsdenstuoj if it extends the few beyond the 
literal meaning of the words, or restrictiva, 
if it restricts the application of tlie law to 
fewer cases than the words would imply, 
and dedarativti, if it setdes vague expres- 
sions. In the interpretation of laws, it is 
of the first importance to ascertain the 
meaning of the lawgivers ; the intention 
of the person who drew up an instrument 
in the nature of a contract, is not so de- 
cisive, because there the intention of the 
party with whohi the contract was made, 
is equally important.^ Furthennore, the 
meaning which words bore at certain pe- 
riods, is important in the explanation of 
old laws, and a knowledge of local usages 
is oflen, essential for interpretation. In 



former times, laws and instruments were 
drawn up with a profusion of words, to 
avoid, as far as possible, leaving any thinff 
to construction ; but experience nas proved 
this view to be erroneous, for nothing is 
clearer than the simplest language ; and, 
tliough there will always be room left for 
iuteipretation, except in mathematics, yet 
this increases with the profusion of words 
and the endeavor to embrace every de- 
tail. 
Interregnum. fSee Germany.) 
Interval ; the oifTerence in point of 
gravity or acuteness between any two 
8oun<b. Taking the word in its more 
general sense, we must allow that the pos- 
sible intervals of sound are infinite ; but we 
now speak only of those intervals which 
exist between the different tones of any 
established system. The ancients divided 
the intervals into simple or uncomposite, 
which they call diasUms, and composite 
intervals, which they call systems. The 
least of all the intervals in the Greek mu- 
sic was, according to Bacchius, the enhar- 
monic diesis, or fourth of a tone ; but our 
scale does not notice so small a division, 
since all our tones concur in consonances, 
to which order only one of the three an- 
cient genera, viz. the diatonic, was accom- 
modated. Modem musicians consider the 
semitone as a shnple interval, and only call 
those composite which consist of two or 
more semitones : thus fifom B to C is a 
semitone, or simple interval, but from C 
to D is two half tones, or a compound in- 
terval. 

Intervention, in politics; a word 
which has been used,particulariy since the 
congresses of Troppau, Laybach and Ve- 
rona (see Congress, and Holy Miance), 
to express the armed interposition {inter^ 
venJtion arm^e) of one state in the domestic 
•affiurs of another. The right of armed 
intervention has never been so distinctly 
pronounced, and ^cted upon, as in modem 
times, since the congress of Vienna. It 
was a natural consequence of the holy 
alliance, and the congresses of rulers, or 
their representatives, assembled to prop 
the pillars of despotism. (See Italy, 
France, since 1819, JSTaples, and Spain.) 
Such armed interventions as have lateTv 
taken place in Europe arise from the fel- 
low-feeling of sovereigns, who claim the 
right of assisting each other against their 
subjects, and directly contravene the riffht 
of independent developement which be- 
longs to the character of a nation. Yet to 
deny the right of forcible intervention m 
toto, would be to condemn the interference 
of the powers of Europe to. save \h» 

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INTERVENTION— INTESTINE. 



Greeks from extirpQiion; and we might 
inquire, who, if the mad tyranny of don 
Miguel were to continue for years, and 
the Portuguese nation to be cruelly op- 
pressed by a military force, would blame a 
roreign power for interfering ? Or if the 
French, instead of actually conquering 
Algiers, had merely destroyed the govern- 
ment of the pinitioBl soldiery, for the sake 
of liberating the natives, whom the^ op- 
pressed, who could blame such an mter- 
vention? The works of Fi^vfee (De 
VEspagne et des Contiqutnces de PbUerven- 
<um.^(nn4^ 3d edit, Paris, 1823),ofBignon 
{Du Comrris de TVfwmni, Paris, 1831, and 
Les CaRnOs et k» PeimUs depuii 1815, 
jutqu'it la Fin de 182S, Sd edit^ Paris, 
1823), of De Pradt, &c., as well as the 
important debates on the subject of the 
French war of intervention in Spain, in 
both the French chambers, and in the 
British parliament, 1823, have exhausted 
the subject The first statesmen of Fiance 
and England then exerted themselves to 
throw light on the doctrine of armed in- 
tervention, which had already been ap- 
plied to the Poles, treating it both in its 
general principles and in its application 
to particular cases. Among the state pa- 
pers relating to the right of intervention 
according to the latest principles, the fol- 
lowing are particulariy important i—die 
declaration of th6 English minister, lord 
Caatlerea^ of the 19th January, 1821, 
and the circular of Verona, 14th Decem- 
ber, 1822. MTith regard to the applica- 
tion of this doctrine, by the European 
powers, to the Spanish American colonies, 
the U. States and England declaftd them- 
selves so categorical^, in 1824, that no 
congress of the sovereigns was held on 
that subject The U. States are the power 
which acts most implicidy upon the prin- 
ciple of non-intervention. (See ihcEe- 
pendenee,) Recently, the interest of most 
of the European monarchs, which in- 
duced them to pronounce at Laybach the 
right of armed intervention, has prompted 
them to deny it in the protocol of the five 
great powers, issued at London, in 1831, 
denouncing foreign intervention in the 
affidrs of Belgium ; and a similar declara- 
tion is expected in reg^ to Pokind ; the 
reason of which is, that the absolute mon- 
archs at present see clearly how much the 
securitv of their thrones woukl be jeop- 
ardized by a war. 

iNTESTiin (intestmum, from tnfu«, with- 
in). The convoluted membraneous tube, 
that extends from the stomach to the anus, 
receives the ingested fi>od, retains it a cer- 
tain time^ mixes With it the bile and pan- 



creatic juice, propels the chyle into the 
lacteals, and covers the fieces with mucus, 
is so called. The intestines are ai^iated 
in the cavity of the abdomen, and are 
divided into the small and large, wluch 
have, besides their size, other circum- 
stances of distinction.' The small intes- 
tines are supplied internally with folds, 
called tahmUt connwenUs, and have no 
bands on their external suifiice. The large 
intestines have no folds internally ; are sup- 
plied extemally with three strong muscular 
tiands, which run parallel upon me sur&ce, 
and give the intestines a saccated appear- 
ance ; they have also small fatty append- 
ages, called appendicula qt^fUnc^t, The 
first portion or the intestinal tube, for 
about the extent of twelve fingers' breadth, 
is called the duodenum ; it hes in the epi- 
gastric region, makes three turnings, and, 
between the first and second flexure, re- 
ceives, by a common opening, the pancre- 
atic duct, and the dueha eommiums chole- 
dochui. It is in this pordon of the intes- 
tines that chylification is chiefly performed. 
The remaining portion of the small in- 
testines is distin^ished by an imaginary 
division into the^^'utittm and ileum. The 
j^unum, which commences where the du- 
odenum ends, is situated in the umbilical 
region, and is mosdy fi>und empty ; hence 
its name : it is every where covered with 
red vessels, and, about an hour and a half 
after a meal, with distended lacteela — 
The Ueum occupies the hypogastric region 
and the pelvis, is of a more pallid color 
than the former, and terminates by a trans- 
verse opening mto the large intestines, 
wjiieh is called the valve qftke Ueunif valve 
of tie eacum, or the valve qf Tulpku. 
The beginning of the large intesdnes is 
firmly tied down in the right iliac region, 
and, for die extent of about four fingers' 
breadth, is called the c^sctim, having ad- 
hering to it a worm-like process, called 
the proceeeue cad vermifonnis, or <^ppen- 
dieula ead vermxfbnnis. The great mtes- 
tine then takes tne name of coCn, ascends 
towards the Uver, passes across the abdo- 
men, under the stomach, to the leift side, 
where it is contorted like the letter S^ and 
descends to the pelvis ; hence it is divided, 
in this course, into the aecewHng porUonj 
the transverse arch^ and the stgrnoiaflexure. 
When it has reached the pelvis, it is called 
the rectum^ from whence it proceeds in a 
straight line to the anus. The intestinal 
caniu is composed of three membranes, or 
coats ; a common one from the/NTt^onetan, 
a muscular coat, and a villous coat, the villi 
beinf formed of the fine terminadons of 
artenes and nerves, and the origins of lac 



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INTESTINE— INTUITION. 



teals and lymphatics. The intestines are 
connected to the body by the mesentery ; 
the Atodenum has also apeculiar connect* 
ing ceUiikr substance, as have likewise 
the cokm and rectum, by whose means 
the fimner is firmly accreted to the back, 
the colon to the kidneys, and the latter to 
the 0$ coeejigw, and, in women, to the 
Yagina. 't& remaining portion of the 
tubie is loose in the cavity of the abdomen. 
The arteries of this canal are branches of 
the M^vertbr and inferior mesenteric, and the 
(hwdeTuiL The veins evacuate their blood 
into the vena porUt, The nerves are 
branches of the eighth pair and intercos- 
talsL The lacteal vessels, which originate 
principally from the j^unum, proceed to 
the glands in the mesentery. 

I^OK'ATioif, in music, relates both to 
the consonance and to the strength or 
weakness of sounds. Intonation not only 
includes the act of tuning, but the giving 
to the tones of the voice or instrument 
that occasional impulse, swell and de- 
crease, on which, in a great measure, all 
expresBion depends. A good intonation is 
one of the first qualifications in the higher 
walks of execution.'^In church music, 
those antiphonies are called intonations, 
which are first sung by the priest, and 
then responded by the choir or the con- 
gregation ; also the short sentence, most- 
fy taken firom the Bible, which the minis- 
ter ongs befi)re the collect, and which is 
retspondad by the choir or community. 
Such are the Gloria (q. v.), ** The Lord be 
with you," &c. 

iifToxiCATioN ; the state produced bv 
the excesnve use of alcoholic liquids. It 
comes on gradually, and several stages 
roav be nodced in its progress. The first 
is the condition expressed by the phrase 
warmed toUh unne. In this stage, the cir- 
culation of the blood becomes somewhat 
more rapid, and all the functions of the 
body are exercised with more fiieedom. 
The excitement, however, is not so great 
as to produce a sturcharge of blood in the 
head or lungs. In this state, some of the 
powers of the soul seem to act more freely ; 
the consciousness is not vet attacked; 
the fimcy is more lively ; the feeling of 
.Strength and courage . is increased. In 
the second stage, the effect on the brain is 
more decided. The peculiarities of char- . 
acter, the faults of temperament which, 
in his sober moments, the individual could 
control and conceal, manifest themselves 
without reserve ; the secret thoughts are 
disclosed, and the sense of propriety is 
lost In the next degree, consciousness is 
stiU more weakened ; the balance of the 



body cannot be kept, and dizziness attacks 
the bram. In the next degree, the soul is 
overwhelmed in the tumult of animal ex- 
citement; consciousness is extinguished; 
the lips utter nothing but an incoherent 
babble; the fiice. becomes of a glowing 
red ; the eyes are protruded ; sweat streams 
from the pores ; and the victim of intoxi- 
cation falls into a deep resembling ^e 
stupor of apoplexy. (For sonie further 
remarits on this subject, see the article 
Thnperanee,) 

iNTRsifCHMXNT ; any work that fortifies 
a post against the attack of an enemy. 
The word is generally used to denote a 
ditch or trench with a parapet Intreneh- 
ments are sometimes made of fascines 
with earth thrown over them, of gabions, 
hogsheads, or bags filled with earth, to 
cover the men fit)m the enemy's fire. (See 
JRetrenchment,) 

Ii^Riou£ ; an assemblage of events or 
circumstances, occurring in an affair, and 
perplexing the persons concerned in it 
In this sense, it is used to signify the no- 
dus or plot of a play or romance, or that 
point wherein the principal characters are 
most embenassed through artifice and op- 
position, or unfortunate accidents and cir- 
cumsumces. 

Introibo ; a passage of the fifth verse 
of the 42d Psalm, with which the Catho- 
lic priest, at the foot of the altar, afler hav- 
ing made the sign of the cross, begins die 
mass ; whereupon the servitor answers with 
the rest of the verse ; afler which the whole 
Psalm is recited alternately by the priest 
and the servitor. In masses .for the dead, 
and during Passion week, the Psalm is 
not pronounced*. 

I5TCITI0N (from the Latin intueor, I look 
steadfastiy at, gaze upon ; in German philos- 
ophy, *^nschauung,)\you\d mean, according 
to its etymology, m its narrowest sense, an 
image in the mind, acquired direcUy by the 
sense of sight In the English use of the 
word, it is confined to mental perception, 
and signifies the act whereby the mind per- 
ceives the agreement or disagreement of 
two ideas, immediately by themselves, 
without the intervention of any other ; in 
which case, the mind perceives the truth, 
as the eye does the light, merely by being 
directed towards it Thus the mind per- 
ceives that white is not black, that three 
are more than two, and equd to one and 
two. This pan of knowledge, says Locke, 
is irresistible, and, like the sunshine, forces 
itself immediately to be perceived, as soon 
as ever the mind turns its view that way. 
It is on this mtuition that all the certainty 
and evidence of our other knowledge de^* 

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INTUITION— INVENTION. 



pend *, this certainty every ooe finds to be 
80 great, that he cannot imagine, and there- 
fare cannot require, a greater. The Ger- 
man Jhischauimf, which literally signifies 
the same as iiUuUwn, is used to signify dny 
notion directly presented by an object of 
sense. The transcendental philosophy ac- 
knowledges also intuitions which tive in 14s 
(distinct nrom ideas obtained by reasoning), 
in consequence of the direct perception of 
the internal sense, as the intuition of the 
Divine. Kant distinguishes empiric in- 
tuitions (those conveyed by t})e senses 
Irom external objects), and pure intuitions 
(retne Anschautmgen), or intuitions a priori, 
which are the basis of the former ; for in- 
stance, space and time : as nothing can be 
perceived by our senses except either in 
space or time, our notions of these must 
precede the empiiic intuitions. 

Invalids ; soldiers and officers, who are 
disabled for foreign service by wounds, 
disease or age, and who are generally 
maintained for life in public estab&lmients 
(hospitals), at the public expense. The 
Athenians liad a law, providing for the 
public maintenance of persons disabled in 
war. The Romans also made some, though 
small, provision for invalids. At a later 
period, they were taken care of in the mon- 
asteries. Philip Augustus of France fii'st 
formed the plan of an hospital for invalids. 
But, as pope Innocent III would not ])er- 
mit this institution to be placed under the 
direction of the bishop, tlie king relinquish- 
ed the plan. Louis XIV was the first who 
carried this design into execution. Be- 
tween 1G71 and 1679, he erected a splen- 
did hospital at Paris, m tlie suburb of 
Sl Germain. A church, a department for 
the sick, a govenior, and other officers, are 
attached to it. Guards ai*e stationed, and 
all other forms observed which are cus- 
tomary in fortified posts. A soldier must 
have served ten years, to be received 
into tins hospital on account of poverty or 
infirmity. The invalids who mount guai-d 
are the only ones who bear arms. This 
institution sufiTered very much at tlic com- 
mencement of die revolution; but, during 
the imperial government, it was put in a 
better condition than ever. The architect 
of the hospital was Bruant. It is compos- 
ed of five courts surrounded by buildings. 
A vast esplanade, bordered by rows of 
trees, and decorated viritli a fountain, gives 
the principal ^pa(ie^ towards the Seine, a 
noble perspective. The hcid has a libra- 
ry of 2K),000 volumes; it is capable of con- 
taining 7000 men, and is governed by a 
marshal of France. The church is con- 
sidered a Jief'CTavvre of French architec- 



ture; its dome supports a lantern, which 
is siurmounted by a cross 308 feet big\u 
From tlie dome were formerly suspen&d 
3000 colors, taken fit)m different nations ; 
but they were. taken down and burnt by 
the invalids, at the time when the allies 
entered Paris, that tiiey might not be i*e- 
takeiu Works in statuary and painting, 
by Lafosse, Boullongne, Coypel, Coustou, 
Coysevox, &-c., adorn the ceilings, niches, 
and otlier parts of the buildings. Frederic 
the Great, in 1748, built the hospital at 
Berlin, with the inscription Lc^so et vmc- 
to militL The British marine hospital, at 
Greenwich, is the first institution of this 
kind. 

IivvENTiox, in science, is distinguished 
from discovery, as implying more creative 
combining i>ower, and generally signifies 
the appUcation of a discovery to a certain 
purpose. But the distinction is often veiy 
nice, and it is difficult, in many cases, to 
say which word is most suitable. Every 
invention includes a discoveiy. When 
Archimedes exultingly exclaimed, E5(ii?ira (I 
have found it), after he had discovered, in 
the bath, that his body, in the fluid, dis- 
placed an amount equsu to its own bulk, he 
discovered ; but he iiwenUd when he appli- 
ed the hydrostatic law, thus discovered, to 
detennining die specific gravity of different 
substances. Inventions owe then* origin, as 
discoveries do, either to chance, to some 
happy idea suddenly striking tlie mind, or to 
patient reflection and experiment. Many 
inventions belong to the two former heads. 
Of the thurd class of inventions, late years 
afford many instances, owing to the gi^at 
attention which has been paid to the nat- 
ural sciences. As man, in modern times, 
is always inclined to consider that which 
is nearest hun the most important, he gen- 
erally considers the inventions of his age 
as far surpassing those of other times ; but 
the study of history teaches us more 
modesty. The invention of tiie screw, 
of the wheel, of the rudder, of the double 
pulley, may lie compared with any modern 
inventions in mechanical science, and 
could not, moreover, have been struck out 
at once by chance. The history of in- 
ventions is one of the most interesting 
branches of historical sciences, exhibiting, , 
in a striking light, the stages of process 
and decline in human activit}', and the 
great variety of motives which have actu- 
ated diflTerent ages. G. Ch. A. Busch has 
published a Manual of Inventions, 12 vols., 
(Eisenach, 1802 to 1822, in German). 
jJeckmann's History of Inventions (Leip- 
sic, 1780 — 1805) has been translated into 
English, 3 vols. 



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Google 



INVENTION OF THE CROSS— INVESTITUail 



49 



iNVKSfTiON OF TBx Cao«8. The Ro- 
laan Catholic church celebrates a feast, 
Jtfay 3| in honor of the finding of the 
croee on which Christ was executed. The 
search was made by the order of St. Hel- 
ena, mother of the emp^wr Constantine, 
A. D. 336, and the croes was said to have 
been found under the ruins of Calvaiy. 
The story is told by St Cyril. 

ImrERsioN (from the Latin), literally, 
iumittg ui, is a word variously used. In 
grammar, it is contradisdnguished from 
conttrudionj and means the arrangement of 
words according to the order in which the 
ideas follow in the writer's mind, and not 
according to the usual grammatical con- 
struction. The inversion is regulated by 
the object of the writer or speaker. The ' 
French language is the most confined in 
this respect, and has made the natural 
construction its first law of arrangement. 
The Greek and Latin, on the contrary, 
are extremely free in the use of inversion, 
and, imder certain circumstances, can 
use ahnost any order of words. The 
(iferman is not so free as the Greek, but 
much freer than the French. Inversion 
seems necessary for the perfection of a 
language, though it leads to many abenria- 
tions m>m good sense. As a figure in 
rhetoric, inversion is used to direct the at- 
tention to a ])articular point, without 
changing tlie meaning, as, for instance, 
' My peace I give to you,' or * The palm of 
victory he soon hath gained, the faithful 
warrior.' — Two numbers, powers or quan- 
tities are said to be in an inverse propor- 
tion, if one diminishes as the other in- 
creases ; for instance, the fleemess and the 
power of a horse are in an inverted pro- 
portion. — ^The term is also used, in tac- 
tics, to denote the disordered arrangement 
of a battalion, when the platoons composing 
it stand in a reversed order. When the pla- 
toon which usually stands on the extreme 
right becomes, by a manceuvre,the extreme 
lefl, the second platoon firom the right be- 
coming the second finom the lefl, and so 
on, then the man who before stood at the 
right extremity of the platoon should prop- 
eny stand at the lefl ; but if^ instead of so 
doing, he still stands at the right, the po- 
sition of the battalion is inverted, in the 
following series, 

87 654 3 2 1 

q....p\o....n\m...J\k ....i\h..,^\/....e\iL...c\b..,.a, 

let 0, c, e, g, t, /, n, ;?, be tlie men on the 
right of their respective platoons, when 
tl^ battalion stands regularly drawn up : 
then the following order would represent 
the battalion inverted, thus : 

VOL. VII. 5 



12345 678 

*.... a\d ....c|/.... e\k ....e\k .... i\m ....l\o....n\q....p. 

Here platoon 1 stands on the leff wing, yet 
a stands on the right of his platoon. In 
both cases, the hiie is supposed to fiice the 
same way. 

LrvESTiTnEE, in the feudal law, was the 
open deliveiy of a feud by a lord to bis 
vassal, thus, by external proof, affording 
evidrace of property. To use the words 
of Blackstone, ** Investitures, ki their 
original rise, were probably intended to 
demonstrate, in conquered coimtries, the 
actual possession of the lord, and that he 
did not grant a bare litigious right, but a 
peaceable and firm possession. At a time 
when writing was seldom practised, a 
mere oral ^fl, at a distance from the spot 
that was given, was not likely to be long 
or accurately retained in the memory of 
bystanders who were very little interested 
in the grant" For this reason, investi- 
ture was performed by the presentation 
of some symbol to the person invested, as 
a branch of a tree, &c. In the primitive 
church, after the election of a bishop, and 
his consecration, the early Christian em- 
perors claimed a right of confirmation. 
The Gothic and Lombard kings exercised 
the same privilege. Iki the French mon- 
archy, the Merovingians affected the still 
greater power of direct nomination, and 
their control was supported by means 
aeainst which the church was wholly in- 
adequate to contend. The estates and 
honora which composed the ecclesiastical 
temporahties, were considered to partake 
of the nature of fiefs, and therefore to re- 
quire similar investiture from the lord. 
Charlemagne is said to have introduced 
this practice, and to have invested the 
newly consecrated bishop by placing a 
ring and crosier in his hands. Gratian, 
indeed {digtind, 63, cap. Adricmus), direct- 
ly affirms that pope Adrian positively con- 
ceded to the emperor the power of elect- 
ing, even to the papacy, in 774 ; but neither 
Eginhard nor any otiier contemporary 
writer mentions this fact. The custom, 
however, existed, nor does it appear to 
have been objected to or opposed diuring 
the lapse of two centuries from his reign. 
The disorderly state of Italy, which suc- 
ceeded die death of Charlemagne, fre- 
quently interrupted the exercise of this 
right by the Carloviugians ; but even so 
late as 1047, when the empire had passed 
to another line, Henry III received an ex- 
plicit admission of his prero^tive, and 
repeatedly used it. Theinvesuture in the 
lesser sees followed as a matter of course 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



INVE8TITDBE— lO.. 



AieiBilder n ianed ft decrae against lay 
i in general, which was revived 



injreneral» 
by Gregoty VA (Hildebrand), who» having 
auoeeeded in anoniling tke prarogative cf 
the empeama to nominata or oo nfi i'na 
popes, soogfat to diqpenn entirely the eerie- 
aiastiral fiom the dvil rule. He oomplain- 
ed kmdiyof the humiliation 10 whicJ] the 
churehwasBubjeeted by dependence opon 
die patronage of laymen, and condemned 
with far more reason the mereenaiy and ai- 
raoniacal enecions, which eeclesiasticssuf- 
fered from temporal prinoeff as the price 
of the bmefices which they confemd. 
In the council of the Latenm in 1060, he de- 
clared that no biahop or abbot, submitting 
to lay investiture, should be considered a 
prelttte. The convulsions which follow- 
ed engendered the Guelf and Ghibeline 
ftctioDS (see €hie^ and deluged Italy 
with blood ibr a long series of yeara ; for 
the stnuBtle commenced by Gregoty with 
Henty IV was zesJoualy condnued by his 
succeasofs, among whom Urtian II and 
Ftachal II especially distinguished them- 
sehes. It waa not, howeven until the 
papacy of Cafixtus II, in 1122, that the 
question wastenninated, as it appears, ma- 
terially to the advantage of the hoW see. 
By a ooocordat then arranged at Womis, 
neniy y rerigned fiir ever all pretence to 
invest bishops by the ring and croaer, and 
recognised the freedom of elections : the 
new bishop, however, vras to receive his 
temporalities by the sceptre. In France, 
even under the papacy of Hildebrand, the 
right of investiture does not appear to 
have been made a subject of open quarrel 
In spite of the protesla of the holy see, 
the IdngB exercised the power, but at 
length reliBquiBhed the presentation of the 
rinff and crosier, and contented themselves 
wim confeiring investiture by a written 
instrament, or orally, upon which they 
were left in peaceable possesrion of the 
power. But m England, Paschal II was 
engaged in a contest litde less fierce than 
that which he maintained with the empe- 
ror. Anselm, the primate, refused to do 
homage to Heniy I for his see. The king 
seema to have asserted an unqualified 
right of investiture, which the pope, who 
was appealed to, as unqualifiedly denied. 
Afler a protracted struggle, and continned 
threats of excommunication) the contro- 
veny ended in England, as it did after- 
wards in Germany, by compromise. Pas- 
chal ofiered to concede the objections 
against homage, provided Heniy would 
fiwMN) the ceremony of inveatiture. To 
this he agreed. 
IiivocAViT;tiie fifst Sunday in Lent, bo 



called because the primitive chureh began 
their wonhqi, on thfttday, with the wwds 
of the 91st Psahn, 15tii verae, buoeanU 
mt d extmdUtm eum, hr'm idso called 
Quadragegima^ or the 40th day, because it 
is 40 daya befim Good Friday, the day 
when h&Dt ends. 

IirvoiCB; an account, in writing, of 
the paiticulan of merchandise, vrith their 
value, custom, chaiges, &c., transmitted 
by one merchant to another in a distant 
countiy. 

Iif voLUTioH, in mathematics ; the raising 
of a quantirr from its root to any power 
assigned. Thus 2x2X^S^-=6. Here 8, the 
thnd power of 2, is firand by involution. 
By continuiiw the process, we can obtaui 
any power of 2, and so with other num- 
bers. 

lo ; daughter of Inachus (according to 
some, of ArffUB Pancmtes) and Peitho ; ac- 
cording to otheiB, of lasus and Leucane. 
Jupiter fell in love vrith her. Atfirat, she 
would not listen to his widies; but, being 
enveloped by him with a thick cloud, she 
yielded herselfto his embraces. Juno,not- 
vrithstuiding,perceived the infidelity of her 
husband, aiM reserved to be revenged on 
both. Jupiter, to protect lo from the jeal- 
ousy of Juno, changed her into a beauti- 
ful white heifer. Juno was not deceived, 
and begged the heifer of her husband. 
Apprehending no evil, he granted her re- 
ouest; but she immediate^ placed it un- 
der the custody of the hundred-eved 
Aigus. Jupiter now regretted that he had 
complied with her request, but it was too 
late ; he tlierefere sent Mercury to kill 
Aigus, and set lo at liberty. This com- 
mission Mercury sucoessfully executed, 
having lulled the watchful ArgaB to sleep 
by playing on the fiute ; but at the mo- 
'ment when lo thought herself again at 
liberty, the jealous Juno afilicted her with 
madness, and persecuted her, without a 
moment^ rest, through the worid. She 
sprang into the Ionian sea, reached Illyr- 
ia, passed the Haemus, went through 
Thrace, swam over the Thracian Boepho- 
rus to Asia, passed through Scythia, over 
Caucasus, and came at l^gth to Egypt 
She found Prometheus in the Caucasian 
mountains, who comforted her, and show- 
ed hbr the way she must take. This way 
is described at length in tiic ** Prometheus'* 
of JBschylus. Her sufierings ended in 
Egypt Here ^e regained her original 
ferm, and bore Epaphus^ the son of Jupi- 
ter. At the instigation of Juno, the Cu- 
retes concealed tiie child, and were, in 
consequence, struck with lightning by 
Jupiter. After a long search, lo fivmd her 



Digitized by ^UO^ It! 



lO-IODINE. 



MB IB Sviiiy and votunwd with hfan to 
SgyfUf wWe flhe BDanied die kiag^ Tel- 
egoBHB. She ww deifiedf and, acooidiiig 
toaomeaiichoritiei^ waathefoddeflB whoiA 
the E^ypCiaiiB wonkipped imdef the name 

loDum (fipom iii&ff, etpflfacma, in a]huion 
to the beaudftd violet color of its vapor) 
is the name of an ondeeompoiinded pri&- 
cqile or elemmt in chemietiy. It had 
escaped the observation of cfaemisiB until 
1812; when a manuftctmer of aak-petre, at 
Paris, detected it in the ashes of sea-vreedSy 
in the ibilowkig manner. In evapoiatittg 
the ley fiom these ashes, to procuie the 
caihonate di soda which they contain, he 
noticed that die metallic vooBokv with 
vrfaich he operated, were powetftilly cor- 
roded, and toat the corrosion was incress- 
ed ss the hquor became more concen- 
trated. Having at hand, one day, a bottle 
of sn^hiirie acid, he added some of it to 
a poition of the mother-water, and wassur- 
pmed to see a rich violet vapor disengaged ; 
this vapor was the iodine. He at once 
commimicated the observatim to M. Cle- 
ment Desormee; who set about coUeeting 
some of the vapor, and, sAer examining 
its leading propetties, announced it to the 
royal institute of France as a new body. 
Its real natmfe was soon after unfolded 
throng the accurate researches of Gay- 
Lussac and air H. Davy. Its historjr prov- 
ed singuhoiy interesliBg in modifymgthe 
then psevaiUng theory <^ chemistrv. 8k 
H. Davy had, a few yean previously, jpo- 
nmlgsted the new theoiy of cluonne, 
which was still received with 
among chemiBlB. The strong 
however, between this substance 
chlorine, in their relations to combustibles, 
— both bodies ferming compounds by unit- 
ing with them, similar to acids containing 
oxygen, or oxides^ — ^were conceived to give 
great weight to the views of sir H. Davy, 
and operated completely to overthrow the 
emmeous hypothesis of oxygenation, in- 
vented by Kavoiaier. Its investigation, 
therefore, smay be said to have formed a 
new ere in cheroistiy. The phvsical 
properties of iodine are as follow : U is a 
soft, finable, opaque solid, of a bluish-black 
color, with a metallic lustre, usually in 
scales, but sometimes in distinct crystals 
of the fbnn of rhomboids or riiomboidal 
tables, referable to an octahedron, with a 
rhombic base as their primary form ; its 
qiecific gravity is 4946. It po oooosos an 
odor 'somewhat analogous to that of chlo- 
It is a non-e<mductor of electricity, 
M»esnsinan eminentdegree the elec- 
properties of oxygen and chlorine. 



and 



ledhie enten into toion at MP W^br^ 
and boils at 347^ ; bat when moisture hi 
present^ it sublimes iw^ at a tempera- 
ture considerafaly below 2)1SP, and gives rise 
10 a dense vapor of the usual violet hue. 
It is scareely at all sehible in waler, but m 
readily taken up by afcohol and ether, to 
which it imparts a reddidi-bKown e^er. 
It eatinguishes vegetable CQk«% bat with 
leas energv than chlorine. , It is not 
mflammable. Its nunge of affinity fer 
other bodies is very extensive $ the most 
important compounds it feims with these 
vre shall describe after aUudms to its 
natural state and pr^Muntion. It eodols 
most abundant^ in the various qteeies of 
fucus, which form the greatest piirt of the 
sea-weeds of our coast ; it also ocean in 
the sponge, and in the coverings <^ many 
moUusoous animals, and has bMn found in 
a great number of mineral waleri, as 
those of Sak m Piedmont, Ssratnga in 
New Yorii, SLCy and more rscentqr has 
been detected in some silver ores from 
Mexico^ and in an ore of zinc fiom Upper 
Silesia. Eat it is from the incinerated see- 
weed or kelp, that the iodine, m huge 
quantities^ is obtamed. As the soap-man- 
ufecturera are in the habit of obtaining 
their aoda fromkdp, iodine may be pro- 
cured, veiy economicaHy, fixnn the reaida 
II 018 of their operation, according to the 
process invented by doctor Ure, wiuch is 
as follows : The brown iodic liquor of the 
soap-boiler, or the solution of kelp fiom 
which aD the ciystaDizaMie iogredienip 
have been separated by concentration, ia 
heated to about 230P Fahr., poured into a 
large sbwe-ware basin, and saturated with 
diluted sulpburic acid. When eold,the 
liquor is filtered throurii woollen cloth ; 
and to eveiy 12 oz. (apomecaries' measure) 
of it, is added 1000 grains of blsek oxide 
of manganese in powder. The mixture 
is put into a glass globe, or large raanrass 
with a wide neck, over which a glass ghibe 
is inverted, and heat is i^lied, mieh 
causes the iodine to subume copiouelv, 
and to condense in the upper veeseL As 
soon as the balkion becomes warm, another 
is substituted for it ; and when the second 
becomes heated, the fiist is again applied. 
The«iodine is withdrawn fiom the globeB 
l^ a little warm water, which disBoTves it 
very sparingly ; and it is purified by un- 
dergoing a second sublimation. The test 
made use of for the detection of iodine in 
any solution, when it is suspected to be 
present, is starch, with whicn iodine has 
the property of unitin||[, and of fonninir 
¥rtth'it a compound, insoluble in ooid 
water, which is recogrased with certainty 



Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



» 



IODINE. 



by its deep blue color. The solution 
should be cold at the tiiqe of adding the 
starch ; and, if the color does not become 
apparent simply on the addition of the 
starch, a few drops of sulphuric acid 
should be cautiously added, when, if any 
iodine is present, the blue color will make 
its appearance. This test is so exceed- 
ingly delicate, that a tiquid, containing 
TavlTirTr of '^ Weight of iodine, receives 
a blue tinge from a solution of starch. — 
Iodine has a powerful affinity for hydro- 
gen, which it tiikes from animal and vege- 
table substances, in the same manner as 
chlorine, and, uniting with it, forms hydri- 
odic acid. The following are the methods 
for obtaining this acid in the gaseous and 
in the liquid state : Into a flaiuc, to which 
a recurved tube is fitted, dipping ninder a 
jar of mercury, are introduced eight parts 
of iodine and one of phosphorus, and to 
the mixtiue a few drops of water are add- 
ed ; the water is immediately decomposed ; 
the phosphorus^ seizing its oxygen, forms 
phosphoric acid, while the hydrc^n com- 
bines with 'the iodine. As there is not 
water present in sufficient quantity to dis- 
solve the hydriodic acid, it passes over in 
the gaseous state, and is collected over the 
mercury. In contact with air, it smokes, 
or fumes, like the muriatic acid, and, like 
it, reddens vegetable blues. It is distin- 
guished, however, from that acid, by the 
superior affinity possessed by chtorine for 
hydrogen, in consequence of which, if 
ehlorine and hydriodic acid gases are 
mingted together, the yellow color of the 
former disappears, and the violet vapor of 
iodine makes its appearance, which proves 
the decomposition of the hydriodic acid 
by the chlorine. If the decomposition is 
complete, the vessel will be wholly occu- 
pied by muriatic acid gas. To obtain the 
hydriodic acid in a liquid state, we have 
only to conduct the gas through water, 
until it is fully chained with it ; or it may 
be obtained by transmitting a current of 
sulphureted hydrogen gas through water 
in which iodine, in fine powder, is sus- 
pended. The iodine, from a greater affin- 
ity for hydrogen than the sulphur pos- 
sesses, decomposes the sulphureted hy- 
drogen ; and hence sulphur is set free, and 
hydriodic acid produced. The constitu- 
tion of hydriodic acid is, 

By volume. Br weight. 

Iodine 50 124 

Hydrogen . ^ __ J 

100 125 

The solution of hydriodic acid is easily 
decomposed. Thus, on exposure for a 



few hours to the air, the oxygen of the 
atmosphere forms water witli the hydro- 
gen of the acid, and liberates the iodine. 
Nitric and sulphuric acids likewise de- 
compose it by yielding oxygen, the former 
being convened into nitrous and the latter 
into sulphurbufr acid. The fkee iodine 
beeomes obvious on the application of 
the above-mentioned test. The com- 
pounds of hydriodic acid with the salifia- 
hle bases may be easily formed, either by 
direct combination, or by actine on the 
basis in water with iodine. Sulphurous 
and muriatic acids, as well as sulphureted 
hydrogen, produce no change on the hy- 
driodates, at the usual temperature of the 
air; but chlorine, nitric and concentrat- 
ed sulphuric acid, instantly decompose 
them, and separate tlie iodine. The hy- 
driodates of potash and soda are the most 
interesting of their number, because they 
are the chief sources of iodine in nature. 
The latter salt is probably the one which 
affi)rds the iodine obtained from kelp ; 
while it is believed, that it is the hydrio- 
date of potash, which is most generally^ 
found in mineral springs. (Hence the 
necessity of adding sulphuric acid to the 
residual liquor of the soap-boiler, in order 
to procure the iodine, which requires to 
be separated from its combination with the 
alkali to which it is uidted, in the con- 
dition of hydriodic acid ; and peroxldeK>f 
mangar '"'!'> is also added, in order to fa- 
cilitate tho decomposition of the hydriodic 
acid.) — ^Iodine forms acids also by uniting 
witli oxygen and vrith chlorine. When 
it is brought into contact with protoxide 
of chlorine, immediate action ensues ; the 
chlorine of the protoxide miites with one 
portion of iodine, and its oxygen witli 
another, forming two compounds, — a vola- 
tile orange-colored matter, the cliloriodic 
acid, and a white solid substance, which is 
iodic acid. Iodic acid acts powerfully on 
inflammable substances. With charcoal, 
sulphur, sugar, and similar combustibles, 
it torms mixtures which detonate when 
heated. It enters into combination with 
raetaUic oxides, giving rise to salts called 
iodatts. These com|x>und8, like the chlo- 
rates, yield pure oxygen by heat, and def- 
lagrate when thrown on burning char- 
coal. Iodic acid is decomposed by sul- 
phurous, phosphorous and hydriodic acids, 
and by sulphureted hydrogen. Iodine, in 
each case, is set at liberty, and may be 
detected, as usual, by starch. Chloriodic 
acid, which is also formed by simply im- 
mersing dry iodine in chlorine gas, deli- 
quesces in the open air, and dissolves 
very- finely in water. Its solution is very 



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IODINE—IONIA. 



lour to tbe taste ; and it reddens vegetable 
bknoBf but afterwafds destroys them. It 
does not unite - widi alkaline bases ; in 
which respeot it wants one of tbe charac- 
teristics of an acid, and has hence been 
called by Gay-Lussac a chloride of iodine. 
lodbne unites with nitrogen, ibnning a 
dark powder, wfaieh is characterized, uke 
chkxide of nitrogi^ by its ezplosiTe 
property. In order to form it, iodine is 
put into a solution of ammonia ; the alkali 
IS decomposed ; its elements unite with 
differait portions of iodine, and thus 
cause tbe formation of hydriodic acid and 
iodide of nitrogen. Iodine forms, with 
sulphur, a feeble c<Mnpound, of a grayish- 
black color. With phosphorus, also, it 
combines with great rapidity at common 
temperatures^ attended with the emergence 
of heat It manifests little disposinon to 
comUne with metallic oxides; but it has 
a strong attraction for tbe pure metals, 
producing compounds which are called 
iodureU^ or iodiaes. The iodides of lead, 
copper, bismuth, silver and mercury, are 
insoluble in water, ^^ile the iodides of the 
very oxidizable metals are soluble in that 
liquid. If we mix a hydriodate with the 
metallic solutions, all the metals which do 
not decompose water will give precipi- 
tates, while those which decompose that 
liquid will give none. Iodine, besides 
being employed for philosophical illus- 
traiioo, is used in the arts, for pigments, 
dyes and medicine. 'Hie proto-ioduret 
of mercuiy is used in England as a 
substitute for vermilion, in the prepara- 
tion of peper-hanginffs ; and a com- 
pound of hydriodate of potaasa 65, iodate 
of potaasa 2, and ioduret.of mercury 33, 
is employed in printing calico. The 
tincture of iodine, 48 gis. to 1 oz. of alco- 
hol, is a powerful remedy in the goitre 
and other glandular diseases; but it is 
so violent in its action on the system as to 
require great caution in its administration. 
The hydriodate of potash, or of soda, js 
also applied to medical uses ; and it is 
inferred, that the efficacy of many mineral 
springs, in certain diseases, is owing to 
the presence of one or the other of these 
salts. 

Ioulus. (See ProtesiUna.) 

loLK. (See Hercules.) 

lOLITB, CORBIEBITE, Or DiCHROITE, 19 

an earthy mineral, commonly massive, 
though sometimes crystallized in ax or 
twdve-sided prisms, with indistinct cleav- 
ages, parallel to the sides of a six-sided 
prism, which is conadered as its priniaiy 
form ; lustre, vitreous ; color, various 
ahades of blue, |eneniliy inclining to 



black; streak, white; transparent ortrans^ 
lucent ; blue, if viewed in the direction 
of the axis; yellowish gray, perpendicular 
to it 'j hardness, the same as mat of quartz ; 
specific gravity, 3.583. It consists, accord- 
ing to Stromeyer, of 

SiUca, 48.538 

Alumine, 31.730 

Magnesia, 11,305 

Oxide of iron, 5.68^ 

Oxide of manganese,. « 0.702 

Water, or k)S8, 1.648 

Before the blowpipe, it melts in a good 
heat, but with difficulty, and only on its 
edsee, into a glass not inferior to the min- 
eral, either in color or transparency. It 
occurs in aggregated crystals, with garnet, 
quartz, &c., at Uabo de^Gata in Spain. A 
variety found in Bavaria, at Bodenmais, 
which is generally massive, resembling 
quartz, and imbedded in iron pyrites, has 
been called peliom. Handsome bluenirys- 
tals of this species, found at OrijerfVi in 
Finland, have been called stetnheUUey in 
honor of count Steinheil. The sapphire 
d'eau of jewellers is a transparent variety 
of the present species from Ceylon. 
' lox ; a son of Xuthus and Creusa. 
daup^hter of Erechtheus, who married 
Helice, the daughter of Selinus, king of 
iGgiale. He succeeded to the throne of 
his fether-in-law, and built a city, which 
he called Heiice, on account of his wife. 
His subjects, from him, received the name 
oflonians, and the country that of Ionia. 
(See lonians.) — ^A tragic noet of Chios, who 
flourished about the 88a Olympiad. His 
tragedies were represented at Athens, 
where they met with universal applause. 
He is mentioned and greatly commended 
by Aristophanes and Athenseus, &c. — A 
native of Ephesus, introduced in Plato's 
dialogues as reasoning with Socrates. 

loNA. (See IcolmMU.) 

Ionia; the ancient name of Achaia 
(hence the Ionian sea and Ionian islands). 
By Ionia is generally understood that dis- 
trict of Asia Minor, where the lonians 
from Attica settled, about 1050 B. C. 
This beautifbl and fertile counny extend- 
ed from the river Hermus to the Meeaii- 
der, alonff the shore of the iEgean sea, 
opposite the islands of Samoa and Chios, 
and was bounded by Caria, JEaMbl and 
Lydia. Commerce, navigation and agrl- 
culturo early rendered it wealthy and 
flourishing, as is proved by the great num- 
ber of populous cities it contained, among 
which the most important were Ephesus 
(the chief place), Smyrna, Clazomenie, 
Erythra, Colophon and Miletus. These 

Digitized by V^OOyK:^ 



54 



IONIA— IONIAN ISLANDS. 



free cities fonned the l6Dian league, but 
CrGBSus, and afterwards Cyrus, made 
them tributaries. They remained subject 
to the Persians until they recovered their 
independence by the assistance of the 
Aliienians and Lacedsmonians, after hav- 
ing previously made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt, during' the reign of Darius Hystas- 
pes. They were ajrain subjected, and 
again delivered by Alexander the Great. 
Ionia, at a later period, became a Roman 
province, and was totally devastated by 
the Saracens, so that few vestiges- of its 
ancient civilization remain. The lonians 
were considered effeminate and voluptu- 
' ous, but, at the same time, hi^y amiable. 
Their dialect partook of their character. 
(See Ionian Dialect,) The arts and sci- 
ences flourished in this hapj^ country, 
particularly those which contribute to em- 
bellish life. The Asiatic Greeks became 
the teachers and examples of the Euro- 
pean^ Greeks. Homer the poet, Apelles 
and Parrhasius the painters, were lonians. 
The Ionic column proves the delicacy of 
their taste. (See ^rckiUcturey Ionian Phi- 
losophy, and /onions.) 

Ionian Dialect ; one of the Greek dia- 
lects, the softest of all, on account of the large 
proportion of the vowels to the consonants 
(see the article Consovumi), which was 
particularly spoken in the Greek colonies 
m Asia Minor and on the islands of the 
Archipelago. It is divided into the old 
and new. In the former, Homer and 
Hesiod wrote. It originally diftered little, 
or not at all, from the old Attic. Tlie 
new Ionian originated after tlie lonians 
liad more intercourse with the other tribes, 
and planted colonies. Anacreon, Herod- 
otus and Hippocrates wrote in this dia- 
lect (See Greek Language^ under the 
head of Greecty and Dialed.) 

Ionian Islands ; a republic in the 
South of Europe, under the protection of 
Great Britain^ situated in the Ionian sea, 
along the western coast of Greece and 
Albania. The state is often called the 
Republic of the Seven Manda, on account 
of the seven chief islands of wliich it is 
composed, viz., Corfu, Paxos, Santa Mau- 
ra, Tliiaki or Ithaca, and Cephalonia, ly- 
ing west of the gulf of Lepanto ; Zante, 
near the western shore of the Morea; and 
Ceriffo, to the south-east of the same pen- 
insula. The other islands and islets of 
this littie state are Merkira, Fano, Samo- 
tnUd, Anti-Paxos, Calamos, Megauesi and 
Cerigotto, which is the most southern and 
most eastern t)oint of the republic, in 35® 5(y 
lat. N., and 23° 17' Ion. E. Merlera, in 30^ 
57' lat. N., is the most northern, and Fano, 



in 19P Ion. E^ tihe most western point. 
Most of Uie inhabitants of the Ionian 
islands are of Greek origin. A census, in 
1814, gave a population of 218,000: at 
present, it amounts to about 227^000, of 
whom about 8000 are Italians, and 7000 
Jews. There are also some EnslLsli 
there. The inhabitants are in general su- 
perstitious, and then* morals are lax. Until 
of late, the language spoken here was a 
corrupt Italian, but modem Greek now 
prevails. The E^g^Ush ahd Greek inhab- 
itants have littie intercourse, notwith- 
standing the efforts of the Endish govern- 
ment In 1828, there were 2d schools of 
mutual instruction, a college, and a uui- 
versit}', founded in 1823. — ^The coasts of 
the islands are ruc^;ed,the surface uneven, 
containing a numT«r of barren rocks and 
some high bills, interspersed witii fertile 
plains and valleys. The climate is very 
mild, but subject to sudden changes. The 
productions are com, vines, olives, cur- 
rants, cotton, honey,, wax, &c. Vines and 
olives form the chief source of income 
to the inhabitants. In 1825, the expoits 
amounted to about $660,600. The cur- 
rants and small dried grapes are exported 
in large quantitie& Since 1815, this state 
has formed an aristocratic government, 
under tiie name of the United lonioai 
Mands^ under the protection of Great 
Britain, and entirely dependent on her. A 
constitution was granted by Great Britain, 
in 1817. There is a British high-commis- 
sioner at Corfu, the capital of the state, 
and Great Britain has a right to occupy 
the fortresses, and keep garrisons. The 
high-commissioner convokestiie legislative 
assembly, appoints the governors of the 
different islands, and commands the forces. 
The legislative assembly consists of 40 
members, and holds its sessions at Corfu. 
Five senators, chosen by the legislative 
assembly from their own number, and a 
president, appointed by the commissioner, 
for five years, form the senate. The civil 
law is the law of the land. Revenue, 
about £150,000 ; expenditure for the foi*ce 
maintained by Great Britain (6400 men, 
among whom are four regiments of na- 
tives), £100,000.— These i^ands were in- 
habited at an early period, and formed 
small states in the most flourishing period 
of Greece. They were reduced by Alex- 
ander the Great, at a later period by the 
Romans, and they afterwanls formed part 
of the Byzantine empire. The kings of 
Naples obtained possession, in the IStli 
century, of Corfu and other islands^ but, 
in the 14tii century, the Venetians, then 
the masters of the Adriatic sea, occupied 



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lONLVN ISLANDS— IPHICRATES. 



55 



a]) the Seven Islands. Corfu placed herself 
under the protection of Venice, in l:i86» 
and the other islands followed her example. 
Venice left the govenunent in its former 
5(ati% merely sending out prowediieri as 
heads of the administration. The claims 
of Naples were extinguished by purchase, 
and Venice nmained in possession of the 
islands, in spite of the repeated attacks 
of the Turica^ until the repuhlic of Venice 
was itself dissolved, in 1797. In 1799, 
the RussianB and Tuiks conquered them ; 
and the emperor Paul, by a ukase of 
March 21, 1800, declared them a state, 
imder the name of the RtpubHc <^ iht 
Seven Untied Mands, forming an aristoc- 
racy under the protection of Turkey. In 
1803, Russia granted a new constitution. 
In 1807, they were incorporated with tlie 
great empire of France ; but the French 
were able to maintain only Corfu. Nov. 
5, 1815, it was agreed bet^'een Russia and 
Great firitain (later also Austria), that the 
islands should form a republic, under the 
name of the UmUd StaU of the Ionian 
Ua»d», and under the exclusive protec- 
tion of Great Britain. In April, 1819, Great 
Britain agreed to cede to the Porte the 
city of Parga, on the continent, which had 
so long maintained itself against Ali Pa- 
cha, (q. V.) The greater part of the Par- 
giolB, in d^pair, emigrated to the Ionian 
islands. (See Parga.) The commercial 
dag of the Ionian Islands is acknowledged 
as the flag of an independent nation. (See 
the works of Geli, Dodwell, Hughes, Mus- 
toxodi, and Kendrik ; also, Esscm on the 
bUmdt of Coifuj. LeuetuHa^ Cepnaloniaj 
&C., b^ W. GoMlisson (London, 1822); 
AiHqmiitB ofhrna, published by the so- 
ciety of Dilettanti, London.) 
losKiAif Oroek. (See Amhiltdurt,) 
loinAH Philosophy. . As Grecian civ- 
ilization was first developed among the 
lonians (see hidans and Umia), Grecian 
philosophy also originated among them. 
The Ionian philosophy started with the 
question req>ectinff the primitive elements 
of the workL To the Ionian school 
(o{ fvmKoti belong Thales, Anaximander, 
Pherecydes, anc^ in some points, Anaxi- 
menes. (See PkilosophVy and consult Bou- 
terwek, De primia PkU. Grtec, Decretia 
PhysicUf in the 'second volume of the 
Omm, Soe. G«tt^ 1811 ; Ritter, GesckichU 
der hmgakenPhUoaophiey Beriin, 1821, and 
GeachichU der PkUosopkU, volume IsL by 
the same, Hamburg, 1829). In moclem 
times, the Ionian philosophy has been 
revived, in connexion with tlie atomic 
system, by Berigard, Magnenus, Sennert 
and Gassendi. (q. v.) 



Io?riAif Sea ;, ancient name of that part 
of the Mediterranean which lies between 
tiie south pert of Italy and Greece. 

lojf I ANs ; a trilje of Greeks, deriving its 
name from Ion. (q. v.) They firat hved 
in the Peloponnesus, on the bordere of the 
gulf of Connth, where they built 12 cities, 
celebrated for their manufactures and 
commerce. The AchsBans, being pressed 
by the Heraciides and Dorians, united 
themselves with them, uid the country 
became insufficient for both people ; the 
lonians therefore emigrat^ to Attica, 
whence Neleus led a colony to Asia. (See 
/onto.) Those who had recnained in At- 
tica were nungled with other tribes, and the 
Asiatic lonians alone retained the name. 

Ionic Foot consists of four syllables, 
two short and two long. If the two short 

syllables are in the beginning (^ v^ ), 

it is called iowicvs minor : if the two short 

syllables follow ( vy v^), it is called 

iomcua nuaor, Horace used the former. 

Iota ; the Greek name for i. (See /.) 

Ipecacuanha, according to the latest 
authorities, is the product of two different 
^ants, both natives of South America. 
The ^y is the root of a species of n- 
chardut ; the other, that of the eephdis ipe- 
cacuanha. The two roots, however, do 
not differ m their medicinal properties, and 
they are much employed indiscriminatelv. 
It was first brought to Europe towards 
the middle of the 17th centuiy ; but waa 
not generally used till about the year 1686, 
when it waa introduced, under the patron- 
age of Louis XIV. Its taste is bitter and 
acrid, covering the tmigiie with a kind of 
mucilage. It is one of the safest and 
mildest emetics with which we are ac- 
quunted, and is administered as a powder, 
in the tincture, or infused in vrine. It is 
also less injurious, if it does not operate 
as an emetic, than antimony, fix>m its not 
disturbing the bowels as that does. 

Iphicrates; a famous Athenian mili- 
taiT commander, in the fourth century 
ben>re the Christian era. He was bom in 
obscurity, but raised himself to eminence 
in his profession, by his courage and tal- 
ents, eaiiy in life. In the war of Corinth, 
395 B. C, he opposed, with success, 
Agesilaus, the warlike kinff of Sparta. He 
afterwards commanded a body of auxilia- 
ry troops, in the service of Artaxerxes, 
king of Persia, in an expedition to Egypt ; 
and, in 368 B.* C, he relieved Sparta, 
when invaded by the Thebau general 
Epamiuondas. xd the social war, he was 
one of the commanders of the fleet fitted 
out by the Athenians, for the recovery of 
Byzantium, when, being accused of 



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Vjiuogle 



m 



IPHICRATES-IRELAND. 



treachery by one of his colleagues, he de- 
fended Aimself with such spirit, that he 
was acquitted by his volatile counUymen ; 
but, though he lived to a great age, he did 
not again engage in active service. In 
the early part of his career, he restored 
to his dominions Seuthes, king of Thrace, 
whose daughter he married. Iphicrates 
was a strict observer of discipline, and was 
the author of some important improve- 
ments in the arms and accoutrements of 
the Athenian soldiei^. He was accus- 
tomed always to fortify his camp in the 
field, even in a friendly country; and, 
when once asked why he took so much 
trouble, he answered, <* Because, if, con- 
trary to probabiliQT, I should be attacked, 
I may not be obliged to make the dis- 
graceful excuse, that I did not expect it" 
IPHiGEifiA, dancfater of Agamemnon 
and Cljrtemnestra (according to some, an 
illegitimate daughter of Theseus and Hel- 
en, adopted by Cly temnestra in childhood), 
was to have been sacrificed to Diana, at 
the advice of the prophet Calehas, when 
the goddess, enraged with Agamemnon, 
because he had slain, in hunting, her con- 
secrated hind, detained the Glr^k fleet in 
Aulis by a calm. Under the pretence that 
she was to be married to Aichilles, Iphi- 
genia was taken from her mother, ana led 
to the altar. But, in the moment when 
the priest was about to give the death 
blow, Iphigenia disappeared, and, in her 
stead, a beautiful hind was substimted, 
whose blood gushed out on the altar. 
Diana had relented, and conveyed her in 
a cloud to Tauris, where she became the 
priestess of the goddess. Conformably 
with the cruel law of the country, she was 
obliged to sacrifice every Greek that 
landed there. Her brother Orestes, comr 
ing thither on his wanderings, in despair 
at the murder of his mother, and wishing 
to take away the statues of Diana, was 
likewise condemned to be sacrificed to the 
goddess. A recognition took place in the 
temple, and, after deliberating on the 
means of escape, Orestes succeeded in 
removing Iphigenia and the statues of 
Diana. Some nadons maintained, that 
they derived the worship of Diana of 
Tauris from Iphigenia. She herself is 
said to have arrived at the island of Leuca, 
and, after being endowed with immortal 
youth, and the name of Orilochia, to have 
married the shade of Achilles. Pausanias 
says that her grave was shown at Meganu 
In two famous operas by Gluck, and Qo- 
•he's masterpiece^ ^higtma auf Tawris 
'Iphigenia at Tauns), Iphigenia is the 
leading character. 



Iphttus ; king of Elis, in Greece, the 
son of Praxonidas, and grandson of Osnr- 
lus, memorable as the institutor of the 
fiunous Olympic games. They are said 
to have been origmally celebrated by Pe- 
lops, or, according to some, by Hercules, 
m honor of Jupiter ; and, after being neg- 
lected for several ages, they were restornl 
or reestablished by Iphitus. Controver- 
sies have arisen as to the age in which 
this prince hved. Some chronologera 
place him 884 B. C. ; but fiir Isaac New- 
ton has shown that he probably lived a 
century later, and that the first games of 
his institution were held 776 B. C. ; from 
which period they were continued, with- 
out interruption, for several centuries. 
(See Olympic Gam»B,) 

Ipsara. (See Psora.) 

Ipsilanti. (See TpmainJti) 

Irak Adjemi. (See P€T9iiu\ 

Irak Arabi ; the ancient Babylonia and 
Chaldflsa. 

Iran. (See Pertia.) 

Irblano ; a large and fertile island of 
Europe^ in the Ati^tic ocean, lying to the 
west of Great Britain, from which it is 
separated by the Irish see, or St George's 
channel ; in some parts 190 miles broad, 
in others not above 12 miles. This coun- 
try is situated between Ion. 5^ ID' and 1(P 
W W.,and lat 5P 15^ and 55*^29^ N.; its 
superficial extent is not accurately known. 
Pinkerton assigns it an area of 27,451 
square miles; Wakefield, of d2;i01. Ire- 
land is divided into four great provinces, 
viz. Ulster, Leinster, Connau^ht, and Mun- 
ster, wluch are again divided into 32 coun- 
ties, containing 2496 parishes. Ulster, 
which occupies the northern part of the 
kingdom, contains nine counties, viz. An- 
trim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, 
Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and 
Tyrone. Leinster, situated to the east, 
contains 12 counties, viz. Carlo w, Dublin, 
Kildare, Kilkenny, King's county, Long- 
ford, Louth, Meath, Queen^ county, West- 
meath, Wexford, and Wicklow. Con- 
naught, towards the west, contains ^y^ 
counties, viz. Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, 
Roscommon, and Sligo. Munster, which 
occupies the southern part of the king- 
dom, contains six counties, viz. Clare, 
Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, and 
Waterford. The fkce of the counuy af- 
fords a pleasing varietv of sur&ce. In 
80IIUI pans there are rich and fertile plains, 
watered by large and beautiful streams, 
whih» in other parts hills are found in fre- 
ouent succession, which give an agreeable 
oiversity to the scenery. The mountain- 
ous chains of Ireland are neither numer- 



Digitized by V^OO^ VC 



IRELAND. 



«T 



ouB Dor important ; for, though the country 
cootainB many hilte of considerable eleva- 
tion, yet they are not of such height, nor 
are they collected into such masses, as to 
give tolreland the character of a moun- 
tainous country. The hilly parts of Ire- 
land are, in general, of easy ascent, and ad- 
mit of culture a conaderable way up their 
ades ; some of them, however, are precip- 
itous, and terminate in cones, or spires. 
The principal rivers are the Shannon, the 
Bandon, the Lee, the Blackwater, or Broad- 
Moter, the lifi^, the Boyne, the Suire, the 
Barrow, the Slaney, and the Bann; the 
principal lakes, or laughs, louffh Neagh, 
lough Erne, and knup Corrib. Lough 
Lane, or the lake of luUamey, is the most 
distinguished for its beauties. The har- 
bors of Ireland aie excellent and very nu- 
merous ; these are Wateribrd and Coik 
haitKMS on the south, Bantiy and Dinirle 
bays on the south-west, the.estuaiy of Sie 
Shannon and the vast bay of Galway on 
the west, that great opening on the north- 
west, of which the bay of Sligo is a part 
Loo^ Swilly and k>u^h Foyle, on the 
north, are the most considerable. On the 
east i^de are the harbors of Belfast and 
Nevny, and the barred havens of Dublin, 
Drogfaeda and Wexford. The principal 
commercial towns are Dublin, Coric, Bel- 
feet, Limerick and Waterford. The nu- 
merous lakes and rivers render the inland 
navigation extensive, and are connected by 
mwml canals. (See Canals.) The cli- 
mate of Ireland is, in general, more tem- 
perate dian the climate of other countries 
in the same latitude ; ^e heat of summer 
is leas oppressive, and the cold of winter 
less severe. It is also much more inclin- 
ed to moisture, fiiUsof rain being more fre- 
Suenc, and the atmosphere, even when 
lere is no rain, being impregnated with a 
moisture which affects the wails of houses, 
as well as furniture and other articles. 
The soil of Ireland is, generaUy speaking, 
a fertile )oam, with a rocky substratum. 
The bogs of Ireland form a very remark- 
able feature of the country ; these are of 
different kinds, and in some places are very 
exteoave. In the reports of the commis- 
sioners appointed, in 1809, to inquire into 
the nature and extent of Irish bog^ 
their extent is sta^ at 2,890,000 English 
acres. The greater part were considered 
by the commisnoners to form one con- 
nected whole ; and a portion of Ireland, 
of little more than one fourth of its eittire 
superficial contents, and included between 
a une drawn fit>m Wicklow-head to Oal- 
way,and another drawn from Howth-head 
to sligo, was supposed by the commission- 



ers to comprise within it six sevenths of 
the bogs in the island, exclusive of some 
mountain bogs and bays of less extent 
than 500 acres. They were perfectly con- 
vinced of the practicability of draining 
these maishes. Ireland is said to rest on 
a bed of granite, and granite is according- 
ly abundimt, also limestone. The basaltic 
region is in the north-eastern part of the 
island. (See Gianfs Causewm.) A great 
variety of marbles is found, also eyp- 
sum, fuller's earth and coal. Precious 
stones have been discovered in Ireland, 
namely, beryls, amethvsts and jaspeis, and 
also various species of crystals, which are 
hard, larse, and very brilliant Pieces of 
native gold have also been found. There 
are mines of lead, copper and cobalt, some 
of which have been wrought to great ad- 
vantage, and some are at present worked 
by the Irish mining company. Two cop- 
per mines are now worked in the county 
of Cork. Iron ore is abundant, and in the 
mkldle of the 17th century, iron-works 
were very common. Mineral springs, 
chiefly chalybeates, are found in almost 
every county. There is a remarkable de- 
ficiency of wood in Ireland, though old 
historians speak of the country as a con- 
tinuous forest The woods were destrov- 
ed with so unsparing a hand, that well- 
grown timber is rarely to be seen. In the 
17th century, diey were infested with 
wohree. Notwithstanding the great fertil- 
ity of the soil, the average produce is much 
Vbbb than in England, owmg to the back- 
ward state of agriculture. In 1809, it was 
calculated that two millions of acres were 
in the culture of nain, about 



800,000 in that of potatoes, and 150,000 in 
that of flax. The amount of land at pres- 
ent under tillage is probably five millions. 
The average amount of grain exported, in 
the four yearspreceding 1728, was 26,638 
quarters ; in 18&5,it amounted to 12,774,4^ 
quarters, although the population had 
trebled in the mean time. The same 
remarkable results appear in the number 
of cattle reared. The bullocks, cows and 
horses exported, on an average of seven 
years preceding 1770, amounted to 2127 ; 
in 1826, they amounted to 66,64^. In 
the same year were exported 72;101 sheep, 
and 65,919 swine. The catde are of u 
very excellent description. The butter 
trade is considered, at present, as the staple 
trade, and a much greater extent of coun- 
try is covered by dairy than by crazing 
&rms. In 1824, 521,465 cwts. of butter 
were exported, and the tjuantipr has since 
mcreased. The cultivation of'^flax, on a 
large scale, dates fitnn the beginning of 



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tSB 



IRELAND. 



the last century, and has now probably 
reached its maximum. Since 1827, a 
ffood deal of tobacco, of Inferior quality, 
has been raised with profit The linen 
manufacture has been of great impor- 
tance to Ireland, not only in a commercial, 
but in a moral point of view. It ib a do- 
mestic industiy, the spinnens and weavers 
being, in ffeneral, rural peasantnr, who add 
the manuncturing busineaB to the care of 
a few acres of ground. The linen exported 
from Ireland in 

1710, was 1,688,574 yards ; 
1730,.... 4,436^ « 
1750,... 11^,000 « 
1770,... 20,560,754 « 
1790,... 37,446,133 « 
1810,... 37,165,099 « 
1818,... 55^770,636 « 
1822,... 49,414,775 « 
1823, . . .43,464,363 « 

The .commereipl ifitereouiM' between 
Cireat Btkain and Ireland having been piit 
on the feoting of the coasting trade, in 
1884,dieie are ne official records later than 
the above ; but k is well known that the 
linen manufacture has oominued to decline, 
and has yielded no piofki fbr the last six 
yeans partly en account of the compara- 
tive cheapneas of cotton stuffi, and partly 
on account of the manufeeturs of an arti- 
cle composed of Inien and cotton, which 
deeovea the most pnotised eye, and 
is sold at hatf the price. The cotton 
manuftcture has^ however, increased. 
Ilie cotton stufb manufaetored in Ire- 
land, and exported to Great Britain, 
nmountedfin 

1822, to 406,687 yaids; 
1834^... 3,840,699 ^ 
1825,... 6^418,640 ** 

The oooBumption of cotton goods in the 
countiy is more than double what it was 
20 years ago. The country possesses 
many naturu advantages fer the woollen 
manufiumune, but it lias been crippled by 
the EkiffUsh legislation. The silk manu- 
frcture has much declined. The distille- 
ries of Ireland are veiy extensive, and a 
coosiderable quantiQ^ of whiskey is ex- 
poited. In 1826, 9,895,567 callous of spv- 
itB were produced from the ucensed distil- 
leries, and the quantity from unlicensed 
stills was estiinated at six millions. The 
industfy and resources of the country 
have been wonderfully developed during 
the latter part of the last century, and stiU 
more since the beginning of me present 
cenmiy, as araeaia from the following ta- 
ble of the total exports and impons : — 



1720, . . £ 7^45 ... £ 1,2^,988 

1760, . . . 1,740,660 2,519,569 

1790, . . . 3,758,579 4,651,755 

1800, . . . 5^155,013 3,452,137 

1810, . . • 6,059,612 5,630,157 

1820, . . . 5,190,888 7,169,128 

The ofiicial values here given &1I consider- 
ably short of the real values. The total of 
imports from 1781 to 1800 was £49,763,506; 
fiom 1802 to 1820, £91,450,593; of export8 
for the former period, 69,692,764 ; for the 
latter, 103,672310 (official value in Irish 
currency). An act, passed in 1819, for 
the encouragement of the Irish fishe- 
ries, has had a remarkable effect The 
number of men registered was, in 

1821, 36,000; 

1823, 49,448 

1825, 57,809 

1827, 59,177 

The net produce oF the ordinary revenue 
of the kingdom amounts to nearly five 
millions annually (exclusive of loons and 
duties appropriated to national objects), 
which is ten times the sum that was raised 
with difficulty in the first half of the last 
century, and about four times the amount 
raised at the beginning of this centu- 
iT. The debt of Ireland in 1817 wns 
iSl34,602,769; but it was then considered 
expedient to unite the exchequer of Ire- 
land with that of Great Britain, and 
thus consolidate the public debts of the 
two kingdoms. The population of the 
itiy has also increased nmidly and 
In 1695^ it WBB estmwted at 
1,084,000; in 1754, at 2,372,634; in 178S, 
at 2^45^. In 1821, the census gave 
6,8^9,999 as the total population; and, ac- 
cording to estimates formed by M . Moreau, 
in 1827, it amounted to 7,672;000. A cal- 
culation, founded chiefly on returns Geotn 
schools^ gives 1,970,0(10 Protestants (of 
whom 700,000 are Presbyterians) 4,780,000 
Catholics, and the remainder uncertain. 
The eetablishod chureh of Ireland resem- 
bles that of England. The dignitaries are 
four archbishops,— of Armagh (primate of 
all Ireland), of Dublin (primate of Ireland), 
of Caahel, and of Tuam,— «nd 18 tnflhops. 
The average revenue of these sees is 
about £9,000 per annum ; the income of 
two of the primates is £14,000; of the 
bishop of Derry, 15,000 ; of the bishop of 
Elphin, 12,000. The number of parishes 
is Slated at 2167, the beneficed cteivy at 
1300, and the curates at 400. The clergy 
not of the established church are estimated 
at about 2378, viz. 1994 Roman Catholic, 
239 Presbyterian, and 145 of other sects. 



coimtiy 



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O 



IMr wbolQ ineome is about £964,000. 
**Id Lpeland,^ aeys die Eclectic Review 
(1833), ''the church of f^gland has the 
tithee, the church of Rome the people. 
Of neutj seven millions of people, 5i 
millions are Roman Catholics, above one 
iDilfion diflsenten, and less than half a 
milhcm {4XJ0fiO0) adherents of the estah- 
lishment. To minister to these 400,000 
bearen% there are 1700 clergy (of whom 
587 are dipitaries), with an incoipe of 
£1,300,000? The income of the clergy 
of the other 6i millions we have above 
inentftQiiedisi^64,000. (ConsuhMoreau's 
StaiMad SUOe of Jbtkmd (London, 1627L 
Wakefield'b Aceauni of Mand (1812), 
Young's, Beaufort's, Reid's (1823) TVooeb 
m bJmd) Until 1800, Ireland had a 
sepatate parliament ; but, the union with 
Fngland having been effected in that year, 
the countnr is now r^esented in the im- 
peiial paraament The government is 
administered k^ a viceroy appointed by 
the kii^ vnth me title of lord Heuienant 
rf indaiuL An Irish chancellor, comman- 
der of the forces, chief secr^ary, vice^ 
treasorer, and attCHiiey and solicitor gene- 
nl, &c^ compose the Irish ministiy. In 
1827, the Iri^ peers were 213—1 duke, 14 
jnarquisea, 76 earls, 48 viscounts, 70 barons, 
aod 4 peeressesL • They are represented in 
the ftitish house of lords by 28 represen- 
laiive pee» ; the church is also rejuesented 
by ibor representative bishopa The Irish 
oommcHiB are represented by 64 knights 
ad 96 citizens and burgesses. By 10 
Geocge IV, c 8 (13 April, 18291 a fieehold 
of £10 clear yearly value is made a qualifi- 
catioD for voters, in the election of knij^hts 
of the shires, and the 40 shiUing nee- 
holdeia, of whom the number was 184,492, 
are dis^aiichised. 

Hie beginning of the histoiy of Ireland 
is enveloped in fable. The historians of 
dK eountxy (OTlahertv, Keating, O'Hal- 
lonm, VaDancey, Plowaen) epeak of Greek 
and Pboenician colonies, give lists of kings, 
ke^ for which there is no historical foun- 
daiioii. The vernacular language of the 
Irish proves that they are a part of the 
peaz Celtic race, which was once spread 
afl over Western Europe. (See Gavl,) 
So Irish manuscript has been found more 
mctexn than the 10th century. The old- 
eat and most authentic Irish records were 
\ vritten between the 10th and 12th centu- 
- ries ; some of them go back, with some 
eoDsiaieocj, as Gw as the Christian era; but 
:here is no evidence that the Irish had the 
me of letters before the middle of the fifth 
cortuiT, when Chrwstianity and Christian 
fiftntara were introduced by St. Patrick. 



The new fidth did not flourish tiH a centu* 
ry later, when St. Columba erected mon- 
asteries. In the eighth and ninth cento- 
ries, the scholars of Ireland were among 
the most distinguished at the courts of the 
Saxon kings, and of Chariemagx-e. But 
when the Northmen commenced tbeir de- 
scents on the coasts, the ecclesiastics toc^ 
to flight ; and it is evident, from tbe con- 
dition of the people at a later period, that 
the learning of the Irish deigy never ex- 
tended beyond the walls of the monaste- 
ries. Divided among a number of barba- 
rous and hostile chiev, Ireland liad been 
for a long time torn by internal wars, and, 
forneariytwo centunes, ravaged by the 
Danes, when, in the be^^inning of the 11th 
centuiy, Brian Borrhoimi, or Boroihmh 
(the Conquerer), united the greater part of 
the island under liis sceptre, restored pub* 
lie tranquillity, and expelled the nortnera 
invaders. In 1155, HeniTli;kingof Eng* 
laud, obtained a bull nom Adrian I V, 
eranting him the poeseasion of Ireland. 
Jji 1169, English troops under tbe earl of 
Pembroke (^rongbow) landed in the coun- 
tiy, which was soon partially reduced by 
tlie invaden, aided by the mutual hostili- 
ties and jealousies of the native chieft. 
The country over which the English aetu- 
dly ruled included the four counties of 
Dublin, Meath, Louth and Kildare, and 
was called the fok. In the rest of the 
island, the naUve chiefs still maintained 
their independence. In 1310, Edward 
Bruce, brother of the king of Scotland, 
kmded in Ireland, at tbe head of a Scotch 
force, and caused himself to be crowned 
king of the island; but, not beine vi^- 
rously supported by the Irish, who had in- 
vited his assistance, he was defeated by 
the English, and the Scotch were obliged 
to return without accomplishing any thing. 
There still remained one independent 
prince, in the province of Ulster, whose 
daughter and heir having been married to 
the duke of Clarence, son of Edward III, 
that province came into the hands of the 
English in 1961. A parliament, heki at Kil- 
k^my in 1367, foibade intermaniages with 
the Irish, the use of their language, ^c, 
under severe penaltieiEHand thus contributed 
to vriden tlie distinction between the two 
nations, which it should have, been the 
policy of the English govenunent to amal- 
gamate. In the reign of Henry VI, Rich- 
ard, duke of York, was appointed chief 
goVemor; and an attachment to his de- 
scendants continued to influence the 
Anglo-Irish during the reign of Heniy 
VII, as fl^mpears in the affair of Lambert 
SinmeL In his reign (1495) was passed 



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IRELAND. 



Porfning^s ad (so ci^ed from sir Edward 
Poyoing, lord-deputy of Ireland), which 
provided that all former laws passed in 
Englaiid should be in force in Ireland, and 
that no Irish parliament should be held 
without pfeviously stating tlie reasons on 
aecount of which it was to be summoned, 
and the laws which it was intended to en- 
act. When Henry VIII, in the 16th 
cehtuiy, embraced the reformation, the 
Irish continued to adhere to the Catholic 
religion. But, in 1541, Henry received 
from the Irish parliament the title of king 
of Irdand, instead of lordj which he had 
before borne, as a vassal of the pope. 
The monasteries were suppressed, the 
tribute to the pApal see abousned, and, to 
reward the chienaios for their submission, 
0*Neil, 0*Brien and De Burgo were cre- 
ated ^iris; they were the oldest peers 
of Irish descent Under Edward VI, the 
deputy proposed to the Irish parliament 
the adoption of the refonnation. Three 
archbishops and 17 bishops left the assem- 
bly ; most of the clergy ned the country, 
and those of the \owet clergy who re- 
mained, being deprived of their incomes, 
lived on the chari^ of their parishioners. 
Elizabeth, in 1560, caused iie measures 
adopted in the reign of Maiy to be abro- 
gated, and replaoMl every thing on its for- 
mer footing. *She endeavored to improve 
the condition of Ireland, and employed 
able men to efiect her purposes, yet her 
reign was marited by a series of risings, 
which finallv terminated in a general war 
ajBiainst England, usually called the rebd^ 
Itoiu O'Neil, earl of Tyrone, instigated 
by the pope, and supported by the Span- 
iards, was the leader in this war, which, 
though successfully begun, ended with the 
reduction of the whole island (1603). In 
1613, the first national parliament was held 
in Ireland ; but of 2St6 members of the 
house of commons, 125 were Prote^ftants, 
and the upper house consisted of 25 Prot- 
estant bishops and 25 temfiora] lords, of 
whom but few were Catholics. , The reifijn 
of James (1603—25) was, on tlie whole, jk- 
vorable to Ireland ; the arbitrary power of 
some of the chieftains was restrained, the 
administration of justice improved, &.c. ; 
but religious troubles were occasioned by 
the diseSiilities to which the Catholics were 
subjected. On the accession of Charles I, 
Wentworth, afterwards earl Strafford, was 
appointed lord-lieutenant; andliis admin- 
istration was beneficial to the country. 
But the repubhcan inclinations of the 
English residents, the hate which existed 
between them and the Irish Catholics, the 
-wfluence of the Irish clergy, who were 



educated in foreign countries, witii other 
circumstances, led to an attempt to shake 
off the Engli^ ^okc. Dr. Lmgard says 
of this insurrection, that it has been usu:d 
for writers to paint the atrocities of the 
natives and to omit those of their oppo- 
nents, but that revolting barbarities are 
equally recorded of both, and that if among 
the one therewere monsters who thirsted 
for blood,- there were among the others 
those who had long been accustomed to 
deem the life of a mere Irishman be- 
neath their notice. After the death of 
Charies, Cromwell was appointed lieuten- 
ant of Ireland, and, with his usual energy 
and promptitude, but with great cruelty, 
soon reduced the whole countr}\ All the 
possessions of the Catholics were confis- 
cated, about 20,000 Irish were sold as 
slaves in America, and 40,000 entered m- 
to foreign service, to escape the severity 
of the conqueror. Charles II restored 
the fourth part of the confiscated estates 
to the Irish, and James II appointed Tyr- 
connel, a Catholic, lord-Ueutenant of Ire- 
laud, and filled the parliament with Cath- 
olics. But the battle of the Boyne (16ti9) 
restored the Protestant ascendencv. Wil- 
liam proscribed the adherents of James, 
and confiscated their estates. Great num- 
bers of the Irish entered the French ar- 
my, and it has been computed that 450,000 
fell in the French service, from 1691 to 
1745. The dependence of the Irish par- 
liament on the English next became a 
subject of controversy, and in 1719 was 
passed an act declaring that the Britisli 
iwrliament had full )x>wer to make lawa 
binding the people of Ireland. - The Irisli 
trade and indumry were also subject to 
every kind of restriction and discourage- 
mem; and it was not until the Americaa 
war broke out, that a chanse became per- 
ceptible in the conduct and language of 
the British government towards Ireland. 
The Irish parliament demanded free 
trade, but the nation went much further ; 
and, in 1782, tlie parliament of Ireland 
was placed on the same footing with that 
of England. The French revolution was 
another occasion which encouraged the 
Irish to attempt to obtain new concessioiia. 
An association was according! v formed, 
under the name of the United Irishmen^ 
the secret object of which has been assert- 
ed to be tlie establishment of an indepen- 
dent repuUic. The Catholics also held a 
convendoii, in 1792, and obtained the i-e- 
moval of some grievances of which they 
complained, i^the troubles continued, 
the habeas corpus act was suspended iu 
1796. The leaders of the Irish union 



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lil£LAND->1R£T0N. 



! airested in 1798, and the plan of an 
ii«irre^tion was discovered ; yet quiet was 
not restored without much bloodshed. In 
ordei- to prevent further troubles, it was 
tliought advisable to effect a union of Ire- 
land with England, which was done in 
1800. The future histoiy of Ireland be- 
longs to Great Britain (q. v. ; see, also, the 
amcle ddMic EnumcufaUon), 

IjiELyijtB, William Henry, is the son of 
the late Samuel Ireland, well known as 
the author of several tours, and as illus- 
trator of Hogarth. The son was bom in 
London, educated at the academy in So- 
fao square, and articled to a conveyancer 
of New Inn, where, having much leisure, 
he began to exercise his incenuity in imi- 
tating ancient writings. His progress in 
this eocouxaged him to endeavor to pass 
off* some imiiations of Shakspeare as the 
real remains of the bard, llaving exe- 
cuted some of them on the blanks of old 
booka^ he communicated them to his fa- 
tber as recently discovered MSS. of 
Shakqieare. The ftther made the dis- 
coveiy public. The public were greatly 
imerested by these papers, and a few, who 
ought to have known better, admitted 
their authenticity, and in private compa- 
aiea^ with much warmth, supported it 
A subscription was set on foot to enable 
the Irelands to print them. A splendid 
vohnne appeaiea in 1798, and, at Drury- 
laae theatie, a play was performed, called 
Voitigem and SLowena, as a specimen. 
On the appearance of the volume and the 
play, bodi the readers and the audience 
defected the cheat, which had, however, 
tlmdy been properly exposed by Mr. 
Makxie. Young Ireland now found it 
ne cfana iy, for his father's character, to ac- 
knowledge the fraud, and published an 
authentic Account of the Shakspeare 
SfanuscriptB, in which he solemnly de** 
dares that his fiuher was deceived by 
him; that he alone was the author and 
vriier, and that no one else had any part 
in the affiur ; and, lastly, that he should 
not have gone so far, had not the public 
pniaed the papers so much, and flattered 
his vanity. Suice then, Mr. Ireland has 
written several novels, some poetry, a 
woik called France dining the last seven 
Y^eaiB of the Bourbons, Anecdotes of Na- 
poleon, a Life of Napoleon, &c. 

Irmvmjjs, St. ; jf^resbyter, and, at a later 
period, bisbop of Lyons, towards the end 
of the second century, a pupil of Poly- 
carp and Papias ; a man of considerable 
wning, and animated with an ardent 
zeal to Chiistianity. He was violent in 
ha opposition to the heretical Ghiliasts. 

VOL. Tir. 6 



His works are all lost, except hk Zdbri V 
advemis Hwrtsti^ and th^ are extant 
only in a translation. He suffered mar- 
tyrdom (after 20d), and is honored as a 
saint. His day is April 6. His works 
have been edited by Feuerardmt (Paris, 
1596, folio), Grabe (Oxfoid, 1703, folio), 
Massuet (Paris, 1710). His fh^aments 
have also been collected by C. M. P&ff 
(Hague, 1715). — ^There are several other 
martyrs of this name, and three men of 
the same name are mentioned in the 
Greek Anthology. 

Ibxne ; 1. in mythology, one of the 
Hours (see JEfirara), denoting jieoce, — % An 
empress of Constantinople, alike ftmoua 
for talent and beauty, and for her crimes; 
was born at Athens, and, in 769, married 
Leo IV, afier whose deadi, by poison ad* 
ministered by her, she raised herself (780), 
and her 9on, Constantme VI, who was 
then but nine years old, to the imperial 
throne, with the aid of the nobles. She 
believed it necessary to strengthen henelf 
in this diffnity by new acts of vv4ence, 
and caused the two brothers of her mur'> 
dered husband, who had formed a con- 
spiracy against her, to be executed. Char- 
lemagne at that time menaced the East- 
em empire. Irene at fo«t delayed him 
by promises. She at last went so for as 
to oppose him, arms in hand; but he to- 
taUy defeated her army in Calabria, in tl^e 
year 788. Two years before, she had 
convened two general councils at Nice, in 
which the Iconoclasts were particularly 
attacked. (See /conocto^.) When Con* 
stantine haa grown up, he refused to per- 
mit her to participate longer in the gov- 
ernment, and actuaUy reigned alone seven 
years, when he was arrested at the order 
of his mother, his eyes phicked out, and 
himself finally murdered. Irene was the 
fust fomale who reigned over the Eastern 
empire. Her entrance into Constantino- 
ple on a triumphal car of gold and pre- 
cious stones, her liberality to the people, 
the freedom which she bestowed on all 
prisoners, and other artifices employed by 
her, were not sufficient to secure her firom 
the consequences of her criminal acces- 
sion. She had ordered many nobles into 
banishment, and, to secure yet more firmly 
the possession of the throne, had just re- 
solved to marry Charlemagne, when Ni 
cephorus, who was placed on the imperial 
throne, exiled her, m 802, to the Isle of 
LesbcM, where she died, in 603. 

Ireton, Henry ; an eminent command 
er and statesman, of the parliamentary 
party, in the civil wars of Charles I. He 
was descended from a good fomily, and 

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IRETON^IRKUTSK. 



was brought up to the law ; but, when 
tlie ciyil contests eomnienced, he joined 
the parliamentary anny, and, by the inter- 
est of Cromwell, whose daughter Bridget 
Ke married, he became commissaiy-gen- 
erel. He commanded the left wing at the 
battle of Naseby, which was defeated by 
die fhrious onset of prince Rupert, and he 
himself wounded and made prisoner. He 
soon recovered his liberty, and took a 
great share in all the transactions which 
%rew the pariiament into the power of 
the army. It was from his suggestion 
that Gnnnwell called together a secret 
council of officers, to deliberate upon the 
disposal of the king*s person, and the set- 
tlement of the government He had abo 
a principal haiM in firaming the ordinance 
for Uie king's trial, and sat himself as one 
ofthejud^s. Ireton accompanied Crom- 
well to Ireland, in 1649, and was left hv 
him in that idand as lord deputy. He 
reduced the natives to obedience with 

n vigor, but not without cruelty. He 
in Lhnerick, in 1651. Hume calls 
him a memorable person, celebrated for 
vigiluace, capacity, and a ricid exercise of 
justice, during his unlimited conomand in 
IrelaQd. Afrar the restoration, his body 
was taken up and suspended from the 
tallowE^ vrith that of Cromwell, and v^as 
mnied in the same pit 
. laiA ; aBasque word,sign^ing tot0n,ctifif. 

laiAKTE, or Yriaete, Thomas d*; a 
Spanish poet, bom in 1752, and died in 
1803. As apoet, he is known by his Lite- 
rary Fables (17831, which have been trans- 
lated into £nglisn, his poem La Musica 
(1784, 4to.), dramas, &c. His worics were 
published in 8 vols., at Madrid, in 1805. 

Iridium; the name of a metal discov- 
ered in 18(X3, by Mr. Tennant, in the black 
residuum from the solution of the ore of 
pkdnum. Its name was bestowed in al- 
lusion to the rainbow (vis), in consequence 
of the changeable color it presents while dis- 
solving in muriatic acid. Its color is white ; 
it is iwittle, and very difficult of fusion; 
^wcific gravity, 18.68. It is acted upon 
with difficulty even by the nitro-muriatic 
add; but, when oxidized by digestion 
with it, it unites with other acids, and with 
the earths, jparticulariy with alumine. It 
combines with sulphur, by heating a mix- 
ture of ammonia, muriate of iridium, and 
sulphur: the compound is a black pow- 
der, consisting of 100 iridium and 33.3 sul- 
eur. Lead unites with this metal easily, 
t is separated by cupellation, leavinff the 
iridium on the cupel, as a coarse btack 
powder. Copper n>nns with it a very 
malleable alloy, which, after cupellation, 



with the addition cf lead, leaves a snur? 
pro[iortion of the iridinm, but much lesp 
than in the preceding instance. Silver 
forms with it a perfe^y malleable com- 
pound, the surfiice of wluch is merely tar 
nished by cupeUation ; yet the iridium ap 
pears to be diffused through it in fine po w 
der only. Gold remuns malleable, and 
little altered in color, though alloyed with 
a considenible proportion ; nor is it sepa- 
rable either by cupellation or quartalion. 
Dr. WoUaston has observed, that, among 
the grains of crude platinum, there are 
some scarcely distinguishable fiom the 
rest, but by their iosolubility in nitro-mu- 
riatic acid. Thev are harder, however, 
when tried bv the file, not in the least 
malleable, and of die i^iecific mviQr of 
19.5. These he concluded to oe an ore 
consisting entirely of iridium and osmium. 

Iris ; daughter of Thaumas and Eleo- 
tra (daughter of Oceanus), the sister of the 
Harpies, and the fleet, golden- winged mes- 
senser and servant of the gods, especially 
of J upiter and Juno, who, in reward of 
her services, as tradition runs, transported 
her to heaven, in the form of a rainbow. 
She is re|Hesented as a beautiful viisin, 
with wings and a variegated dress, vrith a 
rainbow above her, or a cloud on her head 
exhibiting all the colors of the rainbow. 
The physical appearance of the rainbow 
is the foundation of this &ble, conforma- 
bly with the custom of the Greeks. The 
rambow was believed to draw vimors up 
to the clouds fiom the sea and land, and to 
drink up the riven with the head of an ox. — 
The ring of the eye, or the colored circle 
around the pupil of the eye, is also called 
ins ; and irusUmes are specimens of crys- 
tal or quartz, which exhilHt the colors of 
the rainbow* 

Iris, Fi.ag, or .Fi.ower-de-Luck ; a ge- 
nus of plants comprising upwards of 80 
species, remarkable fi>r their pointed, 
Bword-flhaped leaves, and their large and 
beautiful flowers. They constitute one of 
the chief ornaments of the northern regions 
of the globe, and usually grow in wet 
places, bearing flowers of various colors;, 
but the prevailing tint of which is blue. 
Nine species are natives of the U. States, 
some of which possess active cathartic 
properties. 

Irkutsk ; a Russian government in Asia, 
formerly containing two and a half million 
square miles, vrith a population of finm 5 
to 600,000 inhabitants. The present gov- 
ernment, formed in 18S3» is the eastem 
part of the former government ; it ccMitaina 
400,000 inhabitants, and reaches fixMn 95^ 
40^ £. k>ngitude to the Noithevn Frozen 



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IRKUTSK— mON. 



oicta tfid tbe Paeific ocean, forming the 
BiHBian fiootier towaids Cfaina. The soil 
is chiefly stenle, the climate cold. The 
mountaia chains Saytinskie and Stanovoi 
render the face of the country uneven. 
The seas of Kamtachatka and Okotflk, into 
which many promontorieB project, wash its 
coasla In me wannest summer months 
only is navigadon possible, and the com- 
miuucation with other countries is very 
mush interrupted. The rivers are the Le- 
na, Okmek, Anabara, Kolyma, Indigerka, 
which emptv into the Icy sea; the Ana- 
dyr, Kamtschatka, Arsoun, Schilka, which 
empty into the Padnc ocean. The cli- 
mate is various, but the winter is every 
where long. In the southern part, grain 
is laised, and some vegetables are pro- 
dneed in every district The woods 
abomid in bears; few cattle are raised; 
the rdndeer are numerous, as are also 
sables^ foxes and sea-otters. Swarms of 
mosipiitoes molest man and beast. The 
waten contain many salmon, which 
make put of the food of the bears and 
woKnesL The mineral kingdom is not de»- 
lilute of precious metals, but thev are lit- 
de wQiked. The inhabitants are Russians, 
TutBi% Mongols^ &C., in a low state of 
Givifeadon. A circle of the government 
is also celled Irkutsk, and the capital of 
both bears the same name. It was built 
in 1069, is situated on the Angara, and 
wMifinft 33 churches, a theatre, several 
schools (a Japanese symnasiuai, a garrison 
school, a seminary for priests, a printing- 
office, a lihrsiy with 3000 vohimes, &cX 
mmp boikries^ manufoctories of cloth, salt 
works, and has considerable commerce, as 
the entrepot for the for trade with China. 
Population, 90,000. It is connected by its 
position with three commercial routes— 
diai of Kiakta, that of eastern Siberia and 
Kamtschatka, and that of western Siberia 
and Russia. The conunerce carried on 
here is valued at$800,000annually. The 
fomiture, ornaments, 6cc^ firom China, 
give this city a Chinese air. Lat N. 5S2^ 
10^41"; k>n. E. 104** ir 41". 

ImMursux* (Gennan, hmoMduU) ; a statue 
wotahipped by the ancient Saxons, which 
repvesented a man completely armed in 
the foahion of the ancient Germans, with 
a banner in his right hand and a lance in 
Ilia left. This statue was their most sacred 
idol, and is aaad to have stood in a holy 
grove at EIresburg, a principal fortress of 
Die Saxons (near the present Paderbom). 
Cha rlemagne demolisned this fortress in 
773^ and with it that monument of antiqui- 
ty. The history and meaning of the Ir- 
niiiisuJ is yeiy obscure : according to com- 



mon opinion, it was erected in honor of 
Hermann, the deliverer of Germany (see 
•^rmuuutf] ; but it was probably the image 
of some aistinguished oivinity, perhaps of 
Woden himself, and the name of irsita or 
Hermamij which sisnifies mm qf taor, 
was attached to it, because Woden was 
the god of war. 

Iron is the most valuable of all the 
metals. Though mentioned in the Penta- 
teuch, we have reason to believe, from the 
focts that the fobrication of steel was un- 
known to the ancients, and that they were 
wholly destitute of metallurgieal skill, that 
its uses were little known in the earlier 
periods of society. The Romans employ- 
ed, as a substitute for it in their armor, an 
alloy of copper and tin. lis use has fol- 
lowed the progress of civilization in the 
worid; and the amount of it consumed 
by any nation, at the present day, indi- 
cates very Oruly the degree of its advance- 
ment in the arts and scienees. The al- 
chemistica] name of iron was Mar$. In 
treating of this metal, we shall adopt the 
following order : its ores ; their reduction 
to the metallic state ; the chemical history 
of iron. 

Ores qf iron. Iron exists in nature un- 
der four diflerent states — the native stale ; 
that of an oxide; in combination widi 
combustible bodies, particulariy sulphur; 
and, foially, in the state of salts, as ^he 
sulphate, phosphate, and oaibonate, of 
iron.— 1. Maioe inon. Natural malleabie 
iron is a rare production of this globe, 
nearijr all that nas ever been found upon 
it having come to us from the atmoaphere. 
It occurs in the form of a ramose stahrtite, 
covered by brown, fibrous oxide of iroD, 
mingled with quartz and clay, in a vein 
traveraing a mountain of gneiBB, near 
Grenobl^ in France; also with spathic 
iron and lieavy-spar, at Kamsdor^ in Sax- 
ony. More recently, it has been foimd in 
three places in the U. States— at Canaan, 
in Connecticut, in a small vein attached 
to a mass of gneiss upon a hich mountain 
of the same rock ; and in FennsylvaDia 
and North Carolina: at the latter plaoe, it 
was found loose in the soil, in a mass 
weighing more than 30 pounds. In 
neither of these cases was tne iron per- 
fectly pure. That firom Saxony, besides 
92.50 of iron, contained €.0 of lead and U 
of copper ; that of Canaan was slighdy m- 
termingled with carbon, so as occasicmally 
to lose its malleability, approximating it tn 
the character of steel ; and that of Fenn^ 
sylvania was aUoyed vrith 1.56 per cent of 
arsenic. A piece, wei|^iing 7 oz., fr om th e 
large mass of North Carolina, was cryMal 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



IRON. 



lized in die form of the regulax octahedron, 
the sur&ces of which exhibited a plaited 
structure : it was examined for other met- 
als without success, though its imperfect 
malleability left no doubt of its containing 
a small proportion of arsenic. The me 
teoric iion diftenB very copsiderably from 
the terrestrial, native iron. Its color is a 
light steel-gray, resembling platina; it is 
easily cut with the knife, and it is flexible 
and perfectly malleable when cold. Spe- 
cific gravity, 7.768. It occurs in large 
masses, sometimes of many tons weight, 
marked externally by impressions, uke 
those produced by the hands and feet upon 
a soft, plastic mass ; also in small globular 
and fUubrm masses, disseminated through 
meteoric stones. Occasionally, it presents 
imperfectly-formed octahedral crystals. A 
crystalline texture becomes visible, how- 
ever, in cuttlne the large masses, and ex- 
, posing the sur&ces prtxluced to die action 
of nitric acid, or allowing them to tarnish 
by heat It invariably contains from 3 to 
12 per cent of nickel, and often traces of 
cobalt, neither of which metals have ever 
been found alloying terrestrial native iron. 
Meteoric iron is contained iii all meteoric 
stones; in some, it exists in a very feeble 
proportion ; in others, it forms one quar- 
ter of their weight ; and aj^ain in others, it 
constitutes neany the entue mass ; while 
th^larffest masses of it ever found consist 
of it \raollyf without the smallest mixture 
of foreign nWters. In the two first-men- 
tioned conditions, it has often been seen to 
fiJifiromthe heavens, while in the soUd 
state, it never has been observed, by credi- 
ble wimesses, to M, but on one occasion, 
at Agram in Croatia. Some of the largest 
masses of meteoric iron known, are the 
fi>Ilovring : that found by PaUas, in Siberia, 
weighing 1680 Russian pounds; that dis- 
covered by Rubin de Celis, in the district 
of Chaco-Gualamba in South America, 
and which weighs 15 tons ; and that found 
near Red river, in Louisiana, weighinff 
3000 pounds, and which is now deposited 
in the collection of the lyceum of natural 
history in New York. Besides these, 
other very considerable pieces have been 
noticed m Afiica, Mexico and Bohemia. 
(For additional particulars conceminff 
ffieteoric iron, and its origin, see Meteoric 
SUnus.) Meteoric iron has been worked, 
as an object of curiosity, into knives, 
swords, and other instrumentB.--8. Mag- 
netic Iron Ore, or Oxydvlated iron^ is of an 
iron-blaok color, more intense than be- 
tongs to metalUc ut>n ; its powder is of a 
pure bkck. It occurs crystallized, in the 
rann of the regular octahedron, which is 



its fundamental form ; it usually, however 
presents itself in larige lamellifbrm masses, 
witii distinct octuiedral cleavages, in 
sranular concretions, or compact It is 
brittle, has the hardness of feldspar, and a 
specific g^ravity of 5.094. It exerts a de- 
cided action on the magnetic needle ; and 
certain specimens, especially of a comp^rst 
variety, attract and repel, alternately, tlie 
poles of a needle, according as we present 
the same point of a fi:agment of the ore 
to one or the other of tlie extremities of a 
needle. This variety, which is found in 
Warwick, Orange county. New York, and 
at several places in New Jersey, as well as 
in other countries, is called the native 
loadstone. Its magnetic virtue strengthens 
by exposure to Uie air. The magnetic 
iron con^sts of 28.14 protoxide of iron, and 
71.86 of peroxide of iron. It is infusible 
before the blow-pipe, but assumes a brown 
color, and loses its attractory power, afler 
havinff been exposed to a ffreat heat It 
is soluble in nitric acid, and may be ob- 
tained crystallized by fusing it, as often 
happens in the roasting of it, in furnaces, 
to effect its reduction. It occurs m primi- 
tive rocks, chiefly in gneiss, mica-slate, 
hornblende-slate, and chlorite-slate, and 
rarely in limestone, when it forms veins, 
beds, or even entire mountains. It also 
composes the chief ingredient of certain 
sands, which have been washed and de- 
posited by the same currents which sepa- 
rated it tram its origmal beds. The dif- 
ferent varieties of this ore are exceedingly 
rich in metal, often yielding 80 per cent 
of iron, and are every where explored, 
when found in sufiicient quantities, and 
connected with abundance of fuel and &- 
cility of transportation. In Sweden, it 
forms the object of numerous important 
explorations, among which may be cited 
that of the mountain of Taberg, near 
Jonkoping, in Smoland, where it is so 
abundant as to be worked under the open 
sky ; that of the island of Utoe, where ex- 
cavations extend to a ffreat distance under 
the contiguous sea ; mat of Dannemora, 
in Upland, which is at present under tiie 
control of the English ; that of Gallivara, 
beyond the polar circle, where the ore 
forms an entire mountain; and, finally, 
tliose immense deports of ferruginous 
sand which are so extensively wrought in 
Dalecarlia, in Smoland and in Werme- 
land. The oxydulated iron is also ex- 
plored at several places m Siberia, Pied- 
mont, and the kingdom of Naples. In 
the U. States, it exists in the greatest 
abundance, and is wrought at numerous 
localities. The primitive range of rnoun^ 



Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



lEON. 



ttios upon the western side of lake Ohaui- 
piuEi, affords numerous veins and beds of 
jc, sometimes more than 20 feet in thick- 
nesB, and little intermingled with foreign 
gub^ance& The principal works for its 
reduction are at Peru, and near Crown 
Point. A valuable deposit of the compact 
magnetic iron, precisely similar to that 
worked at Daimemora in Sweden, occurs 
at Franconia in New Hampshire, upon a 
small mountain of gneiss, belongings to the 
White mountain range. In the Highlands 
of New York, it forms numerous beds, as 
also in dieir continuation through the 
northern part of New Jersey to the Dela- 
ware river, and is worked extensively 
at Munroe, Hamburg, and many other 
I^Bcea The present ore forms me best 
iron which is made for the manufiicture 
of steel ; and hence the employment of 
Swedish iron by the English for tliis pur- 
pose.--^ ChromaUdOiuu oftron ( CharomaU 
ofbrm) is found crystallized in regular octa- 
hedra, and massive. Lustre, imperfectly 
metallic; color, between iron-black and 
browniah-black ; streak, brovm; opaque; 
brittle ; hardness, the same with the preced- 
ing qiecies ; specific gravity, 4.496. Vau- 
queliii and Klaproth make it consist of 
Ozkle of chrome, .... 43.00 . . 55.50 
Protoxide of m>n, . . . 34.70 . . 3a00 

Alumina, 20.30 . . 6.00 

Silica, 2,00 . . 2.00 

Alone, before the blow-pipe, it is infusible, 
bat acts upon the ma^etic needle, afler 
having been exposed to the reducing 
flame. It is dissolved when heated with 
borax, to which it imparts a beautiful 
green color. It was first found in ^he de- 
partment Du Var, in France, in the form 
of nodules and kidney-shaped mai|ses. It 
was afterwards discoverea in Stiria and 
Scodand ; at the former place, imliedded 
hi serpentine, at the latter, in limestone. 
In the U. States, it exists abundantly in 
Maryland, near Baltimore ; also, in small 
quantities, in Connecticut, near New Ha- 
ven, in limestone, with serpentine. It is a 
highly valual)le mineral, when it occura 
in quantity, for extracting the oxide of 
chrome, which is employed either alone 
or in various combinations with the oxides 
of other metals, as cobalt, lead, mercury, 
&C., both for painting on porcelain, and 
for painting in oil. The quantity of chro- 
mate of lead, or chrome yellow, manufac- 
tured in Baltimore annually, is estimated 
at 50,000 pounds. (See C%n>me.)— 4. i^- 
rdar /ro» Ore^ and RedironOre, This se- 
cies, scarcely less interesting than the tast 
in economical importance, fMesents many 
difficulties Id the mineralogist, in conse- 
6* 



quence of the complicated forms of its crys- 
tals, and the diversified appearance of its 
compound varieties. It is crystallized in a 
ffreat number of forms, whose fundamental 
figure is a slightly-acute rhomboid of 86^ W 
and 93° 50", wliich may be derived from its 
crystals by cleavoge. The general ten- 
dency of its secondary forms is to hex- 
agonal prisms and irregular octahedra. 
Lustre, metallic; color, dark steel-cray, 
iron-black ; streak, cheny-red, or reddish 
brown ; sur&ce of the crystals frequently 
tarnished; opaque, except in very thin 
laminee, which are faintlv trusluceut, and 
show a deep blood-red color ; brittle ; 
hardness, the same vrith the preceding 
species; Gfpeoific gravity, 5i251. Itsactkm 
upon the magnet is feeble; it never at- 
tracts iron-fUings, or ofifers magnetic po- 
larity. Besides occurring in distinct crys- 
tals, and in lamelliform and compact 
masses, vritli a metallic lustre, it also pre- 
sents itself in reniform, botryoidal and sta- 
lactitic shapes, and earthy-looking masses, 
where, from the smallness of the individ- 
uals, no signs of the metallic appearance 
are discernible. These varieties hfive re- 
ceived distinct names, and have often becai 
treated of, in mineralogical systems, as 
belonging to a distinct ^ecies, which, on 
account of their color, has been designated 
red iron ore. But this distinction is now 
given up, as an uninterrupted transition 
has been noticed between all the varieties 
of the red iron ore and tbe crystalline 
qpecular iron. The fbllo^vhig are some 
of the varieties of the present species, 
according as they have acquired distinct 
appellations in mineralogical hocka, and 
among mankind in ffeneral: that in dis- 
tinct ciystals is called specular iron ; that 
in thin, lamellar concreUons, with a metal- 
lic lustre, is called micaeeouB iron ; the rest, 
with a metallic lustre, is denominated 
common specular inn. Those varieties 
which have lost their metallic appearance, 
are mcluded vrithin, 1. the red ut>n ore, 
divided into Jilnxnis red iron ore, or red 
hematite; compact and oekrsy red iron 
ore, which are massive, and consist of im- 
palpable granular individuals, more or 
less firmly connected; and sadjf red 
iron ore, or red iron friuh, consisting of 
very small, scaly, lamellar particles, which, 
in most cases, are but slighUy coherent: 
2. clay iron ore, divided into reddU, which 
possesses an earthy, coarse, slaty fracture, 
and is used as a drawing material ; jaspenf 
clay iron ore, which has a large, fllit, con • 
choidal fracture, and considerable hard- 



ness 
ties 



when compared with the other varie- 
of red iron ore; and columnm and 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



66 



IRON. 



lenticular clay iron ore, which are distin- 
cuished, the first bjr the coluainar form, 
3ie latter by the flattish, granular form of 
its particles. The niicaceous iwn, ana- 
lyzed by Bucholtz, and the red hematite, 
analyzed by D'Aubuiason, have been found 
to consist of 
Peroxide of iron, 100.00 90.00 94.00 
Oxide of maneanese, 0.00 a trace a trace 

Silica, 0.00 2.00 2.00 

Lime, 0.00 atrace 1.00 

Water, 0.00 2.00 3.00 

The propordon of metal to that of oxygen, 
in the species, is as 69.94 : 30.66. The 
clay iron ores, being more or less mixed 
with earthy substances, rwry in their con- 
tents, and several of their properties are 
dependent upon the nature of these ad- 
mixtures. The specular iron is infusible 
before the blowpipe, but melts with borax, 
and i^rms a ^preen or yellow giass, like 
pure oxide of ut)n. It is likewise soluble 
' m heated muriatic acid. The specular 
iron (in the crystalline, lamelliform and 
oorapact varieties, with a metallic lustre) 
forms very powerful beds, and even entire 
mountains, which are traversed by a mul- 
titude of fissures, and cavities lined with 
small, but exceedingly brilliant crystals of 
this substance. It yields, in the ordinary 
operations of reduction, 60 per cent of 
metal Its most celebrated locality is the 
island of Elba, which has afiTorded iron for 
16 centuries. Its mines are still believed to 
be inexhaustible. They annually yield 
32,000^)00 of French quintals of ore, 
which are transported for reduction into 
Tuscany, the Roman states, Liguria, and 
the kingdom of Naples. It is also found 
at Framont m the Vosges (where its ex- 
ploration occupies 200 miners), in Saxony, 
Bohemia, Sweden, Siberia, and in the U. 
States, at Hawley in Mass. Wherever it 
exists, it is explored with profit It de- 
serves to be mentioned, also, that specular 
iron, in exceedingly brilliant crystals and 
scales, occurs very firequently amonff the 
ejected matter of volcanoes, as in the lavas 
of Vesuvius and Auvergne, where it is, 
undoubtedly, a product of sublimation. 
The red hematite is found in beds and 
veins, in primitive and secondary coun- 
tries. It occurs abundandy in Saxony, 
the Hartz, Silesia, and in England, la 
the U. States, it is found very sparingly, 
and is nowhere reduced for the metal. 
It occurs at Ticonderoga, N. Y., where it 
is ground to powder, and employed as a 
pulisfaing substance. It afiTords excellent 
iron, and oflen in the large proportion of 
60 per cent Most of the plate iron and 
iron wire of England are made of it In 



Scodand, it is used, along witii the ore of 
that country, at the Carron and Glasgow 
works. The ocbrey red iron ore usually 
accompanies the other varieties of this 
species, and is treated comointly with 
them. In places where it is found in con- 
siderable quantities, it is sometimes col- 
lected, washed, and employed as a polish- 
ing substance. The compact red iron ore 
is found in France and some other Euro- 
pean countries, where it is reduced, and 
affords a good soft iron, yielding 50 per 
cent, of meral. But its most unportant 
use is as a polisher. It forms, when per- 
fectly compact, the burnisher of the button- 
maker, by means of which he imparts to 
ffilded buttons the highest polish of which 
tney are capable. The best specimens for 
button-poli^ers conmiand a very hifh 
price, and usually come fiom littie pebbles 
and rolled masses of this ore, found in sec- 
ondary countries. Those most esteemed 
have hitherto been brought from Spain. 
There are stit>ng indications, however, 
that it exists dispersed through the soil 
near Marietta, in Ohio. The lenticular 
or scaly red iron ore abounds in the sec- 
ondary region of New York, forming a 
thin stratum near the sur&ce of the 
ground. It is wrought at Utica, as well 
as at many other places. — 5. Hydrous Oxide 
of iron, and Brown Iron Ore, The present 
is a species nearly parallel to the foregoing, 
in the quantity of iron it affords to society*. 
It is very rarely obsen'ed in distinct crys- 
tals, more usually occurring in botrvoidal 
and stalactical masses, consisting of closely 
aggregated fibres, in which respect it re- 
sembles the most common varieties of the 
specular iron. The crystals are very 
small, externally black and brilliant, and 
in the shape of right rectangular prisms. 
The general character of the si)ecies is aa 
follows : lustre, adamantine ; color, vari- 
ous shades of brown, of which yellow- 
ish-brown, hair-brown, clove-brown and 
blackish-brown are the most common ; 
streak, yellowish brown; brittle; no ac- 
tion on the magnet; scratched by feld- 
spar ; specific gravity, 3.922. Besides oc- 
ciuring in cry^s, and in globular stake- 
titic and fruticose shapes, it is found iti 
masses whose composition is impalpa- 
ble ; sometimes, also, the particles are so 
slightly coherent, that the mass appears 
earthy and dull. It differs, chemically, 
from the specular iron, in containing a 
quantity of water, not merely interspereed 
tlirough its substance bv simple aosorp- 
tion, but intimately combined with it by 
chemical affinity. According to D'Au- 
buiason, it consists of (in t^vo analyses) 



Digitized by 



Goog 



Ik: 



IRON 



m 



Fieroxideoflron, .... 83.00 . . 84.00 

Water, 14.00 . . 11.00 

Oxide of manganese, . . 2.00 . . 2.00 

Silica, \M . . 3.00 

the propoition of peroxide of iron and 
water bein^ as 85^ to 14.70. Before the 
blow-pipe, It becomes black and magnetic. 
It melts, with borax, into a green or yellow 
giaas, and is soluble in heated nitro-mu- 
liatic acid. The divisioQ introduced 
among the varietiee of the present species, 
is somewhat similar to that which has 
been given to red iron ore. OnMBxxtd 
hwtvus oxide if inm embiaoes the small 
black ciystals, which sometimes occur in 
fibrous and radiating bundles. Cryslol' 
lized hrown iron on is that variety which 
presents itself in the form of the cube, 
rhomboid, or some modification of these 
foimfly and does not properly belong to 
this qpecies, beinff decomposed varieties 
of iron pyrites and spathic iron, to which 
tbey are more coirecdy referred. The 
fhroua hrown inm orty or brown htnatite^ 
contains the fibrous varieties, in stalac- 
title, reniform, and other imitative shapes. 
Compact hrown iron ore comprehends 
those imitative shapes and massive varie- 
ties, in which the composition or fibrous 
structure is no longer observable; while 
ocArty hrown iron ore, or 6q^ iron ore, is 
applied to those which have an earthy 
texture and are fiiable. As impure varie- 
ties of the species, we must consider some 
of the clay mm ores, such as the gTttntfior, 
the comfium, thepistform, and the rtmform 
clay iron ore. The granular variety is 
composed of compact, roundish, or globu- 
lar masses ; the reniform one, of alternat- 
ing coatB, of different color and consis- 
tency, diq)osed in a reniform sur&ce. In 
the pinform variety, we meet with a simi- 
lar composition, only in small ^obules, 
parallel to the sur&ce of which the lamel- 
lae are disposed. The conqmct pisiform 
clay iron ore, however, does not belong to 
the present species, but it is decompmed 
iron pyrites, as is demonstrated, not only 
by the crystalline forms which it affects, 
but likewise fix>m the nucleus of the im- 
decomposed pyrites, which the lugpst 
specimens of it often embrace. The 
crystallized hydrous oxide of iron is found, 
in' limited quantities, in England, France 
and Siberia ; it either occurs in quartzose 
geodes, in the form of mamillary masses, 
or is enclosed in quartz crystals. The 
fibrous brown iron ore is the most abun- 
dant and widely dispersed of all the varie- 
ties of this species. It is commonly found 
in large beds, in gneiss or mica-slate, and 
very frequently m immediate connexion 



with granular hmestooe. It is also foimd 
in Saxony and Thuri&gia, in beds and 
veins, embraced, in some instances, in 
newer roeks. it is uncommon in tha 
northern countries of Europe ; but in 
Gennany, France, and the Austrian do- 
minions, it is wroucfat in great abundance. 
Its most remaAsBle deposit in the U. 
States, is at Salisbury in €k>nn., where it 
has been wrought for nearly 100 years; 
the amount of pig iron yielded aimuaUy, at 
present, is about 2000 ton& Bfany other 
localities of brown hematite exist in Litch- 
field, Conn., as well as in the coatiguou9 
countiesof Dutchess, N. Y^ and Beifcshue, 
Mass. The iron which this variety afibrds 
is superior m malleability to that yielded 
by the red ore of iron, and' is much 
esteemed, also, on account of its touffhness 
and hardness. The p||^ iron obtained fiom 
mehinf its purer varieties with charcoal, 
in particular, may be easily converted i«to 
steel. The compact variety of this spo* 
cies is usually found in the same localitisB 
with the fibrous hematite, and is equally 
employed with that variety for obtuning 
iron. The ochrey brown iron oi«, or bog 
iron ore, is the most recent in its formation 
of all the ores of iron, its deposition being 
continually g<»ng on, even now, in shallow 
lakes and in morasses. It is wrought in 
all countries, more or less extensivelv; 
but the iron it yields is chie^ used for 
caatingB. The pisiform cl^ iron stone 
occurs imbeded in secondary limestone, 
in large deposits, in France and Switzer- 
land, where it supplies considerable iron 
works; but the iron, like that from the 
other earthy varieties of the present spe- 
cies, is generally too Inittle to be wrought 
into bar-iron.— %. Anenical hon, or Mis- 
pickd, is found crystallized in right rhom- 
bic prisms of IIP ISy and 68» 4?. These 
are often termmated by dihedral summits, 
and liable to a large number of modifica* 
tions. It also occurs massive. Lustre, 
metallic; color, siiver-wfaite, inclining ta 
steel-gray ; streak, dark grayish-black ; 
brittle ; hardness, neariy that of feldspar f 
specific gravity,6.127. Its chemical com- 
position is, iron S^, arsenic 46.5, and 
sulphur 20. Before the blow-pipe, upon 
charcoal, it emits copious arsenical fumes^ 
and melts into a dobule, which is neariy 
pure sulphuret of iron. It is soluble in 
nitric acid, with the exception of a whitish 
residue. It sometimes contains a small 
proportion of silver ; when it is deuomi- 
imtM af^etil(^n>u«ar»ntoa/|»yriife<. Ar- 
senical iron is a pretty abundant substance, 
and occurs both in beds and veins, ofteii 
accompanied by ores of silver, lead and 



Digitized by ^UO^ VC 



IRON. 



zinc. It is vefy plentifii] in the mining 
districts of Saxony, in the silver mines of 
Joachimsthal and the tin mines of Schlag- 
senwald ; also in the Hartz, Sweden and 
Cornwall ; in the U. States, at Franconia 
in New Hampshire, with copper and iron 
pyrites, in gneiss ; at Worcester, in Mass., 
with spathic iron ore and blende, in quartz ; 
at Chatham in Conn., with arsenical co- 
balt, in imeiss; and in Ekienville, in New 
Yoric The accidental admixtmre of silver 
renders some varieties of the present spe- 
cies useful as ores of that metal The 
common arsenical pyrites, when occurring 
in larffe quantities^ is employed in the 
manufacture of white arsenic and of real- 
gar.— 7. Jbmiammu Anenkal PyriUs; a 
r»es differing from the preceding in 
inclination of the lateral faces, which, 
in the present case, meet under angles of 
122° 2& and 57° 34^, and in sp^fic grav- 
ity, which in this species is 7)228. It has 
not yet been analyzed, but is believed to 
consist wholly of iron and arsenic It 
has been found in beds, in primitive 
mountains, inCarinthia, Silesia and Sdria. 
— 6. Iron PwiUs is the most universally 
distributed of all the ores of iron, and, from 
its yellow color and metallic aspect, is the 
substance which is so frequently mistaken, 
by ignorant people, for gold. It is not 
uncommon to find it regularly ciystallized, 
thou^ the dimensions of the crystals are 
rarely such as to render them very con- 
spicuous. The prevailing figure among 
its crystals is the cube, {MuraUel to whose 
&ces the^ may be cleaved, as also parallel 
to the sides of the regular octahedrcHD. 
The last is assumed as the primitive form 
of the species by most mineralo^stB, as 
leading to an explanation of the numerous 
secondary forms with the sreatest simplici- 
ty. The most frequent of these seconda- 
ries are the cubo-octahedron, the pentago- 
nal-dodecahedron, and the icositetrahe- 
dron. The surfiices of the crystals are 
sometimes smooth, and sometimes alter- 
nately streaked. Fracture, conchoidal, 
uneven ; lustre, metallic ; color, passing 
through a few shades of a characteristic 
bronze yellow ; streak, brownish-black ; 
brittle ; hardness, such as to be impressed 
with the knife, and scratched by feldspar ; 
specific gravity, 4.96. The crystals are 
liable to be much grouped, often penetrat- 
ing each other so as to form globular 
masses. It occurs, also, in granular, col- 
umnar and impalpable masses ; and often 
cellular, in consequence of forming upon 
ciystals of galena, which have subse- 
quently become decomposed. Iron pvri- 
tes consists of iron 45.74, and sulphur 



54.26. In the extenor flame of the blow- 
pipe, it becomes red upon charcoal, the 
sulphur is driven o% and oxide of iron 
remains. In heated nitric acid, it is part- 
ly soluble, and leaves a whitish residi^. 
Some varieties are sul]gect to decomposi- 
tion, when exposed to the action of the 
atmosphere. \Vith resard to its geological 
relations, much diversity obtains ; it con- 
stitutes beds by itself of considerable mag- 
nitude, in gneiss, mica-slate, and primitive 
argiUite, and is oflen an important ingre- 
dient of those beds which contain ores of 
lead, iron, copper, &c. It is frequently 
mixed with coal seams and the beds of 
clay which accompany them. It is also 
met with, in considenible quantities, in 
veins, associated with blende, arsenical 
iron, galena and copper pyrites. It is 
found, likewise, with ores of silver, and is 
eontained in many organic remains, botli 
of vegetable and animu origin. Its locali- 
ties are too numerous to admit of being 
noticed with particularity. Some of the 
m6st beautiful crystallizations which adorn 
mineralogical cabinets, are brought from 
the island of Elba, Piedmont, Saxony, 
Hartz, Norway and Cornwall. Vast de- 
posits of iron pyrites, intermingled, in 
some instances, with magnetic iron pyrites, 
are found in the U. States, among which 
may be mentioned those in Vermont, at 
Strafibrd and Shrewsbury ; in Massachu- 
setts, at Hubbardston ; in Maryland, near 
Baltimore ; in Ohio, near Zanesville ; and 
the state of Tennessee. It also abounds in 
the gold region of the Southern States, and 
is wrought extensively in many places for 
the sake of the gold mechanically mixed 
vrith it, from the presence of which it 
receives a golden-yellow tinge. The uses 
of this species are as follows : it is roasted 
for extracting sulphur ; after having been 
exposed to the oxidating influence of the 
atmosphere, it yields sulphate of iron, or 
copperas, and sulphuric acid ; the remain- 
ing oxide of iron is used as a coarse pig- 
ment ; it is an importont agent in several 
metallurgical operations, and was formerly 
considerablv employed instead of flints in 
gun-locks, from whence the name pyrites 
was derived.—^. ffkUe Iron Pyrites differs 
finom the preceding species in its crystal- 
line characters, as well as in some other 
respects, though, in chemical constitution, 
the two appear to be perfectly identical. 
Its crystals are in the form of modified 
rhombic prisms, and of veiy flat crystals, 
having the appearance, at firat oght, of 
dodecahedrons with triangular planes, but 
which, however, are mades, consisting of 
similar portions of five ciystals. The pri- 



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lEON. 



tiMiy Ibnn is a right rbomlnc prism, of 
about 106^ and 79°, parallel to the planes 
of which it yields to mechanical division. 
The faces of the crystals are deeply 
streaked, in a vertical difection. Lustre, 
metallic; color, pale brc«ize>yellow, in- 
clining to gray ; streak, grayish-black ; 
haidDesB, eqiiu to that of leUspar ; spe- 
cific gravity, 4.67. It occun massive, and 
in various imitative ah^pes, in conse- 
quence of which, and the composition of 
its crystals, it has been distinguished into 
several varieties, as radiaUd pyHe^f ipear 
pyriUs^ coet^s-comb pwriU$f kefatie jn/rUe$f 
aod ee&cfar jBmtef • Before the Uow-pipe, 
it behaves uke common iron pyrites. 
Some of its varieties are peculiariy subject 
to decomposition. It is less fiequently 
met with in nature than the preceding 
speaeot thou^ very often found accom- 
panying it It occun more frequently in 
rocks of the coal fonnation, and in strata 
of clay. It is not abundant in the U. 
States; its principal k>calities are in 
France, Bohemia, and Hesria. It is use- 
ful for the manu&cture of sulphur, sul- 
phmic acid and copperss. — 10. Magnetk 
ivn Pyrites is rarely seen in well f<»mea 
crysnds. Count Boumon describes it as 
occurring in irr^^ular six-sided prisms. 
In general, it is massive and foBated, or 
fine granidar. Lustre, metallic; color, 
intermediate between Inonze-yellow and 
copper-red; streak, dark grayish-black; 
subfect to tarnish; slight action on the 
magnet; brittle; hanmeas, conaiderably 
inferior to that of common iron pyntw» or 
diat of white iron pyrites ; qiecmcgravi- 
ty, 463. It consists of iron 63.77, and 
sulphur 27^ It occurs in beds, along 
witn other minerate, usuaUy in primitive 
rocks. It exists plentifully at Bodeninais, 
in Bavaria, and several districts of Stiria. 
In the U. States, it occun at Munroe in 
ConiL, at Lane's mine, in quartz, along 
with blende, galena, tungsten, &c. ; and in 
Yennont, at Strafford and Shrewsbury, 
along with uron pyrites. Its uses are the 
same as have been mentioned in connex- 
ion with the other species of iron pyrites. 
— II. Phomhaie of mm, or VwianiU^ occun 
crystaUized, in the form of a riidit oblique- 
ancled prism of 125° 18^ and 5^42^, which 
is Siat of the primary crystal The ciys- 
tals are long and slender for the most part, 
though generally very small They are 
attached to their gangue by one of their 
broad lateral planes, or occur in aggre- 
gated groups. Lustre, pearly, approaching 
to memllic on certain faces ; on others, vit- 
reous ; color, pale blackish-green, seme- 
times approaching indigo-blue ; streak, 



bluish-white; die powder produced hf 
cnishmg the mineral m a dry state, » 
liver-brown; tranahicent, and rarely trance- 
parent; sectile ; thin laminae are flexible; 
specific ^vity, 2.66. It also occurs 
massive, m small, reniform and globular 
shapes, and imbedded nodules; also in 
impeificial coafbgs of dusty particlea 
The earthy varietiea are dull, opaque^ 
meagre to the touch, and li^L Their 
color, on first exposure to flie light, is 
grayish, yeUowish, or greenish-white, or 
some pale tinge of blue; but it soon passes 
to a dark indigo-blue. In two varietiea 
of vivianite (a fiiable one analyzed 1^ 
Kkippoth, and a ciystallized one from Bed- 
enmais in Bavaria, bjr Vegel), the fofiow- 
ing chemical composition was discovered : 
Protoxkle of iron, . . . 47.50 . . AIM 

Phosphoric acid, 93:00 . . 26.40 

Water, 20i)0 . . 21M 

It decrepitates before the blow-pq)e, but 
meha, if^ first reduced to powder, into a 
dark-brown or Mack scoria, which movea 
the magnetic needle. It is sohible hi 
dilute sulphuric and nitric adds. It 
occun in a variehrof ceofegical situationa. 
The crystals are round m copper and tin 
veins, and sometimes in greywacke ac- 
companying native gold; also in basalt 
and trap rocks. The earthy and masave 
varieties are unbedded in day, and often 
accompany hoc hon ore. The cmtalline 
varietiea come nom Cornwall and Bavaria; 
the foliated and earthy varietiea abound 
(especially the former| in the U. Slates, in 
Monmoutii county, flew Jeraey. It is 
confined to argillaceous and ferrugmons 
deposha, and ia sometimes found in con- 
nexion with bones, and veiy nsuaDy filling 
up the castB of belemnites and other foe- 
BUS. The earthy vivianite ia somethnea 
employed as a pigment — 12. JhweniaU if 
iron occun in smdl cubic crystds^ which 
are either unmodified, or have their alter- 
nate andes or their edges truncated* 
Lustre, sdamantine^not very distinct; col- 
or, ohve-green, pasBing into yeUowish- 
bit>wn, bwderinff sometimea upon hya- 
cinth-red and bttckish-brown, also into 
grass-green and emerald-green; streak, 
similar to the colon; tranalucent on the 
edges; rather sectile; scratched byfiuor; 
specific gravity, 3.00. According to twa 
andysea, it consists of 

Oxide of iron, 45J50 . 4aOQ 

Arsenic, 31.00 . 18.00 

Oxide of copper, .... 9.00 . 0.00 

SUica, 4M . . 0.00 

Carbonate of hme, . . . OjOO . . 2.00 

Water, 10i» . . 32.00 

Exposed to a gentle heat ha cohv ia 

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TRIM. 



changed into red. In a higher degree of 
lempereture, it intomeeces, gives fittle or 
no arsenic, and leaves a red powder. Up- 
(m charcoal, it emits copious fiimes of 
araenic, and melts, in the inner flame, into 
a metallic scoria, which acts upon the 
magnetic needle. It principally occurs 
in veins of copper ores, treveraing the 
older rocks, ana its chief localities are 
Corowall and Saxonv. — 13. CcofinmaU of 
ironjoe S^aaOae hvn On, occurs dystailine 
and massive. Its crystals are acute rhom- 
boids, sometimes pemct, or only havins 
die terminal angles replaced, six-sided 
prisms^ and lenticular ciystab. Ther are 
veiy easily cleavable, yielding obtuse 
rhomboids of 107° and 73^. Lustre, vitre- 
ous, inclining to pearly; color, various 
shades of yeUowish-grey^ passing into ash 
and ereenish-gray, also mio several kinds 
of yellow, white and red ; streak, white ; 
tnnslucent in di^rent degrees; brittle; 
hardness, neariy identical with that of 
fluor; specific gravi]^, 3.629. It occinrs 
massive, in bmd, foliated and mnukr 
dso in fibrous botiyoidarshapes. 



whence it has received the name of jp^ 
nMkriU. Two varieties of ifus species, 
1. the spherofliderite, and 3. a cleavable 
variety nom Newdoif in -the Hartz, have 
yielded to Kkprotfa, (1^ i%) 

Protoxide of iron, . . . ^75 . . 57.50 

Carbonic add, 34.00 . . 3a00 

Onde of manganese, . . 0.75 . . aSO 

lime, 0.00 . . 1.35 

Magnesia, 0.S2 . . OM 

Before the bk>w-pipe, it beeomes black, 
and acts upon tro magnetic needle, but 
does not mek. it ooIms glass of borax 
green. It is sotnble widi difficulty in 
nitric acid, particulariy if not reduced to 
powder. On being exposed to tlie air, it 
IS gradualhr decomposed: first the color 
of the surmce becomes brown or bladk ; 
afterwards, also, the streak is chanaed into 
red or brown ; hardness and specific grav- 
ity are diminished; and even the chem- 
ical constitution is dtered, the whole being 
converted into hydrate of iron. It fre- 
(juently occure, along vrith carbonate of 
hme, in veins and beds, in primitive rocks ; 
also in metalliferous veins, accompanied 
by galena, fjmj copper ore, and iron and 
copp^ pyntes. Immense beds of it exist 
in Stiria and Carinthia, as well as in 
Prance, Switzeriand, and Siberia. In the 
U. States, we have a poweriul vein of it at 
New Mifford in Conn., crossing, with the 
breadth of six feet, an entire mountain ; 
and in Vermont, at Plymouth, an appar- 
ently rich deposit of this ore has, within 
a few yean^ been opened. In France, 



Stiria and Carinthia, laige quantities of 
cast and virrought iron are obtained fix>m 
the nierry iron ore, but particulariy steel, 
for the production of which it is biffhiy 
valuable. — 14. Oxalate of Jhm, or Hum- 
holdfime is an ore of iron found near Ber- 
lin, in Bohemia, hi a moor-coal, or friable 
lignite. It consistB of protoxide of iron 
53.56, and oxalic add 46.14. It is sup- 
posed to owe its origin to the decoropoea- 
tion of succulent plants. It occurs in 
small fiattish masses, of a light yellow 
color ; is soft, yielding to the nail, and of 
the specific gravity of 1.3. By rubbing, 
it acquires resinous electrici^. It decom- 
poses eaaly on live coals, giving out a 
vegetable odor. It is insoluble in boiling 
water and alcohol. — 15. StdpMe of iron, 
or Coppenu. This salt is not frequendy 
found in nature, in distinct crystals, but 
usually occurs in stalactitic, botrycndal and 
reniform masses, and occasionally pulve- 
rulent The crystals are in the form of 
right oblique-angled prisms, considerably 
modified by replacements ; fracture, con- 
choidal; lustre, vitreous; color, several 
shades of green passing into white; 
streak, white ; semitransparent and trans- 
lucent; brittle; hardness, that of gypsum; 
specific gravity,1.83 ; taste, sweetish-astrin- 
gent and metallic. It consists of 

Oxide of iron, 125.7 

Sulphuric acid, 28.9 

Water, 45.4 

It is easily soluble in wate^ and the solu- 
tion becomes Mack on b^g mixed with 
tincture of calls. If exposed to the open 
air, it soon oecomes covered widi a yel- 
low powder, which is persulphate of iron. 
Before the blow-pipe, it becomes magnetic^ 
and colore glass of borax green. In most 
instances, it is produced by the decompo- 
sition of other minerals, particularly of 
iron pyrites and magnetic iron pyrites ; 
and the crystallized varieties are rarely 
found, except in those places where artin- 
ctal heaps of these stiostances have been 
formed. It is also found incrusting slate 
rocks, and dissolved in the waters or cer- 
tain mines. In the U. States, it is often 
observed, especially in New England, 
upon the surface of mica-slate rocks, in 
thin coatinffs, and is sometimes made use 
of for dyemg, without being redissolved 
and crystaUized. 

JVeatment of the Ore*.— Of the 15 spe- 
cies of iron ore just described, but four 
are employed for obtaining metallic iron 
and steel, viz., magnetic iron ore, specular 
iron ore, brown iron ore, and carbonate 
of ircm. The metallurgical details be- 
longing to the treatment of these ores^ 



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IRON. 



n 



be dcKiibed within the limits 
ef the praeDt weifc. We shall there- 
fyn meroly give some genefal notions 
of the P t o oM B os to which they are sub- 
jected n>r obtaining the metal in question. 
After nuingy the ores are nicked, to sepa- 
nte^ as ftr as posable, the oonsideniDle 
pieces of earthy or otherwise refiactoiT 
matters with ^Huoh they may be associated. 
They are next submined to a roesting, in 
lai|pB heaps^ in the open air, to expel the 
suiphur and arsenic which they may con- 
tun, as well as to render them more fna- 
hie and easy of further reduction to pow- 
der. Hie roasdnff is peribrmed, in Eng- 
land, cenenlly 1^ nituminous coal, whicn 
19^ at &e same time, converted into coke ; 
bat the oree of the continent of Europe 
and of the U. States are roasted by char- 
coal and wood fires. Laige trunks of 
trees are hud at the bottom, upon which 
brushwood and charcoal are tnrown and 
kniaed, over which the ore is heaped to 
£e hoght of seveial feet, occasionally 
with ahemating layen of charcoal. The 
rcsuk of the operation is, that the ore be- 
comes full of fissures, fiiaUe, and loses 
altogether its vitreous lustre. It is now 
tnuferred to the cnishing-millj where it 
undeigoes a further pulverization, after 
which it is transported to the smehmg fiir- 
moe, to be converted into iron. Here it 
passes throuflh two distinct operations — 
1. die reduction of the oxide to the metal- 
fie state ; 2» the separation of the earthy 
in the fenn of scoria. These 
nsist in exposing the ore, or- 
/ mixed with certain fluxes^ to the 
action of caifoon, at an elevated tempera- 
ture, in fiimaces urged by beUows, hence 
called hhtt^fiamaees^ or sometimes high 
Jwrnaeea. These furnaces vaiy in heisnt 
finom 13 to 60 feet, and have, externally, 
the ahapcfof a finir-sided pyramid, tnm- 
caied at top^and terminating in a cyUndri- 
cal chimney, whose internal diameter is 
fimn feur to six feet The interior body 
of these fiimaces is usually in the circu- 
lar fiNrm, except the lalxMnatorv at its bot- 
tom, where the liquid metal ntnerB. This, 
called sometimes the crueAfe, or kear^ 
m a rif^rectangular prism, oblong in the 
direction perpendicuMr to the bust ori- 
fices, or tuyeres of the bellows. The sides 
of the cnicible are commonly made of a 
fine grifiBtone, composed of quartzose 
grains;, which, in the U. States, is a mica- 
riste,or ^iss rock, in which quartz is 
the chief ingredient Above the crucible 
dw boshes are placed, in the form of an 
inwrted quadrangular pyramid, aporoach- 
iDg to the prismatic shape; and above 



these stone boshes rises the conical body 
of the fiimaee, lined with fire-bricks, 
contracting as it ascends, like the narrow 
end of an esg^ until it terminates in the 
chimney. Hie enthe fiimace is buik in 
a veiy solid manner, and strengthened by 
bands and cross bars of iron. The bel- 
lows are usualljf cyBndrieal, and their pis- 
tons woiked either by water or a steam- 
engine. The blast-holes, which are atu- 
ated in the upper part of the crucible, are 
two in number, and fiequentlv placed on 
opposite sides, but so angled that the cur- 
rents of air do not impinge on each oth- 
er. At the lower part of the cnicible are 
openings for the discharge of the metal 
and scoria. These openings are kept 
stopped by accumulations of clay and 
sand upon the exterior when the fiimace 
is in operation. The process of reduc- 
tion commences by first (paduaDy heatiiiff 
up the fiimace, until it will bear to be filf 
ea entirely with fuel, after which, as the 
contents of the furnace begin to sink, al- 
ternate charges of ore minted with flux, 
and of charcoal or coke, are added ; the 
blast is let on, and the metal in the ore, 
parting with its oxygen, flows by degrees, 
and subsides to the bottom of the craci- 
ble covered with a melted slag. The 
slag is occaaionaDy allowed to flow off by 
removing the clay fit>m some one of the 
apertures in the cmcible ; and when the 
bottom of the fiimace becomes filled with 
the metal, which it ordinarily does^ after a 
apace of 9 or 12 hours, the iron itself is 
dnchaiged, by one of these openings, into 
a fiMse of sand mineled with day. As 
soon as the iron has m>wed out the aper- 
ture is closed again ; and thus the fiimace 
is kept in incessant activity during the 
first six months in the year, the other six 
months being usuaUy employed in repair- 
ing the fiirnaces, making charcoal, and 
collecting the requisite provision of wood 
and ore. The flux employed to assifit the 
fiision of the ore, by vitrifying the earths 
associated in it with the oxide of iron, is 
limestone of the best quality. The iron 
which has run out from the blast fumace 
is in the condition of cast iron, or iron 
with a conaidenible portion of carbona- 
ceous matter intermingled with its parti- 
cles, and a small proportion of oxygen, 
firom which causes it has a coarse grain, 
and is brittle. In converting it mto bar 
iron, it undergoes one or the other of the 
following processes, ordinarily according 
as charcoal or coke is employed. In the 
former case, a fiimace is made use of re- 
sembling a smith's hearth, vrith a sloping 
cavity sunk from 10 to 12 inches below 



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moN. 



tbe blast-pipe. This cavity is iiUed with 
charcoal and scoria, and on the side op- 
}KMite to the blast-pipe is laid a pigof 
cast iron, well covered with hot fuel. The 
bbst is then let in, and the pif of iron, 
being placed in the very focus ofthe heat, 
4M>on begins to melt, and, as it liquefies, 
runs down into the cavity below. Here, 
being out of the direct influence of the 
blast, it becomes solid, and is then taken 
4>ut and replaced in its former position, 
tbe cavity being again filled with char- 
coal It IS thus fuiwd a second time, and 
after that a third time, the whole of these 
three processes bein^ usually effected in 
between three and v>wc hours. As soon 
«s the iron has become solid, it is taken 
out and very slightly hammered, to free 
it from the adhering scoria. It is then 
returned to the furnace, and is placed in a 
comer, out of the way of the blast, and 
well covered with charcoal, where it re- 
mains till, by fiirther gradual cooling, it 
becomes sufficiently compact to bear the 
tilt, or trip-hammer, whose weight varies 
from 600 to 1200 pounds, and which is 
moved by water. Here it is well beaten 
till the scoria are forced out, and is then 
divided into several pieces, whicli, by a 
repetition of heating and hammering, are 
drawn into bars, and in this state it is 
ready for sale. The proportion of pig 
iron or cast iron firom a given quantity of 
ore is subject to considereble variati6n 
from a diflerence in the metallic contents 
of different parcels of ore, and odier cir- 
cumstances ; but the am<9int of bar iron 
that a gfven weight of pig iron is expect- 
ed to yield, is regulated veiy strictly, tbe 
workmen being expected to furnish four 
puts of the former for five of the 
latter, so that the loss does not exceed 
^ per cent The other process for 
the manufacture of bar iron, and which 
is the one chiefly employed in Eng- 
land, is executed in part in reverbera- 
tory furnaces, known by the name of 
puddling furnaces. The operation com- 
mences with melting down the cast iron 
in refineiy furnaces, like the one above 
described. When tlie cast iron is fullv 
melted, a tap-hole is opened in tlie cruci- 
ble, and the fine metal flows out, along 
with the slag, into a fosse bedewed with 
water mixed with clay, which forms a 
coating, to prevent the metal from stick- 
ing to the ground. The finer metal forms 
a plate 10 feet long by 3 feet broad, and 
fit>m two inches to two and a half thick. 
A great ^uanti^ of cold water is sprin- 
kM on it, in order to make it brittle, and 
also to oxxlize it slightly. The loss of 



weight, in the iron, by this opemtioo, 10 
fiom 12 to 17 per ceoL It is broken to 
pieces, and laid!^ on the hearth of a rever- 
beratorv furnace, in successive portions, 
being heaped up towards its sides in 
piles which mount near to the roof. Th;) 
middle space is left open, to give room 
for puddlmg the metal as it flows down in 
successive streams. When the whole is 
reduced, by the heat of the furnace, to a 
pasty state, the temperature is lowered, 
and a little water is sometimes thrown on 
the melted mass. The workman stirs 
about the semi-liquid metal with his pud- 
dle, during which it swells up, emits a 
considerable quantity of oxide of carbon, 
which bums with a blue flame, so that 
the mass appears to be on fire. The 
metal, as it refines, becomes less fusible, 
or, in the language of the workmen, it 
begins to dry. The puddlinff is continued 
till the whole charge is reduced to the 
state of an incoherent sand ; then the tem- 
perature is gradually increased, so as to 
impart a red-white heat, when the parti- 
cles begin to agdutinate, and the charge 
works heavy. The refining is now fiii- 
ished, and nothing remains, but to form 
the metal into bafls, and condense it un- 
der the rolling cylinders, an operation for- 
merly, and still sometimes performed 
under trip-hammers, but with much lesa 
expedition. When the lump of iron has 
psased &ve or six times through the 
grooved rollers, it assumes an elliptic fig- 
ure, and is called a bloom. Loose frag- 
ments of the ball, with the slag, fiill down 
about the cylinder. The metal thus 
roughed down is called mSl bar iron. It 
is subjected to a second operation, which 
consists in welding several pieces togeth- 
er, whence it derives the valuable proper- 
ties of ductility, uniformity and cohesion. 
Afler welding laterally four pieces together, 
the mass is run through between a series of 
cylinders, as at first, and becomes English 
bar iron. Iron, for laminating into sheets, 
is treated in the refinery fumace with a 
charcoal, instead of a coke fire. The 
objects of these operations, as respects the 
treatment of cast iron, to convert it into 
tough iron, it is obvious, are to get rid of 
the slag, the oxygen, and the carbon, it 
contains. The first of these is separated, 
in part, by the long-continued fasion and 
the repose of the melted metal, in conse- 
quence of which the slag, being lighter 
than the bath, floats on its surface ; but its 
more effectual removal is produced by 
the comprestton, in which process tbe 
earthy glasses are forced through the 
pores of the bloom, or lump, as water 



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IRON 



73 



exudes from a sponge. Among the dif- 
ferent varieties of cast iron, 3iere are 
sDroe which contain exactly the propor- 
tion of oxygen and carbon proper to form 
a gaseous combination. For the refinery 
of tliese, an elevated temperature, without 
access of air, is all that is necessary. 
These elements, reacting upon one anoth- 
er, are dissipated in the aerial state : but 
there are likewise other varieties of cast 
iron, in which tlie carbon is in excess. 
In this case, the free access of atmospheri- 
cal air is requisite. In order to under- 
stand how the carbon is abstracted from 
ilie interior of a mass of tlie liquefied 
nietal by the oxygen of. the atmosphere, 
which can only be in contact with the 
S7irfibce of the iron, we have merely to re- 
flect upon the reverse process in the man- 
tifactare of steel, which consists in the 
propagation of carbon into iron. At first, 
afi outer coat of iron, by being surrounded 
with cltarcoal powder, gets partially satu- 
rated witli cart)on. If, by pushing the 
i^naentinp process, we wish to arrive at 
the comptete saturation of that coat, we 
can succeed only by making a previous 
p-jLTihion. The layer immediately be- 
neaA the first carries oflT from it a por- 
L-on of its carbon ; and it is not tiD itself 
r-- partly saturated, that it suffers the outer 
n*&L to absorb its maximum dose of car- 
bon, when it remains stationaiy ; but an 
f fffrct quite similar takes place with the 
»**-cond coat in reference to the third ; that 
i-S tjie one immediately within or beneath 
it. To apply these ideas to the refinery 
processes, the decarburation of the cast iron 
^ merely a restoration of the cai*bon to 
the surface, in tracing inversely the same 
progressive steps as had carried it into the 
interior during the smelting of the ore. 
Thus the oxygen of the air, fixing itself 
s: first at the surface of the cast metal on 
tlte carbon which it finds there, bums it. 
Fresh charcoal, issuing from the interior, 
fomes then to occupy the place of what 
hiid been dissipated, till, finally, the whole 
rarfoon is transferred from the centre to 
:ho surface, and is then converted into 
riiher carbonic acid gas, or oxide of car- 
<m — an alternative which may fairly be 
il't.wed, since no direct experiment has 
{litheno proved what is the precise prod- 
'^•: of this combustion. Malleable iron 
» frequently obtained directly from tiie 
(<rts b}** one fusion, when the metallic ox- 
tie is not too much contaminated with 
fciTfiign sabstances« This mode of work- 
ing, which is allowed to be vastly more 
cf^aomical tliaii the one just described, 
hoth on account of the saving of time 



and combustibles, has, for a long period, 
been employed in Catalonia, in the Pyr- 
enees, from which circumstance it is 
called the method of the Catalan forge* 
Those ores best adapted to its treatment, 
are the pure black oxide, red and brown 
oxide, and carbonate of iron, to extract 
the metal from which, it is sufficient to 
expose them to a high temperature in 
contact with charcoal, or carbonaceous 
gases. The furnace employed is similar 
to the refiner's forge above described. 
The crucible is a kind of seznlcireular or 
oblong basin, 18 inches in diameter, and 
8 or 10 in depths excavated in an area, or 
small elevation of masonry, 8 or 10 feet 
long, by 5 or 6 broad, and covered in with 
a chimney. The tuyere stands five or 
six inches al)Ove the ba^, and has a little 
inclination downwards, and the blast is 
given by a water-blowing machine. The 
first step consists in expelling the water 
combined with the oxide, as well as the 
sulphur and areenic, when these contami- 
nations are present This is done, as 
usual, by roasting in tlie open air. The 
roasted ore is crushed to a tolerably fine 
powder, and thrown by the shovel-full, at 
mter\^als, upon the charcoal fire of the 
forge hearth, the sides and bottom of 
the basin being pre\iousiy lined with two 
or three Irasques (coats of pounded char- 
coal). It gradually sotlens and unites 
into lumps more or less coherent, which 
finally melt and accumulate in the bottom 
of the cnicible or basin. A thin slag is 
occasionally let off from the upper sur- 
face of the melted iron in the basin, by 
means ofholes which are oi)ened and closed 
according to the discretion of the work- 
men. The melted iron preser\'es a pasty 
condition, owing to the heat communicat- 
ed firom above ; and when a mass of suf- 
ficient dimensions has accumulated, it is 
removed, put under the hammer, and 
forced at once. A lump or bloom of 
malleable iron is thus produced in the 
space of three or four hours. The iron 
is generally sofl, very malleable, and little 
steely. Four workmen are employed at 
one forge ; and, by being relieved every 
six hours, they are enabled to make 86 
(•\%t. of iron per week. In the Catalo- 
nian forges, 100 pounds of iron are ob- 
tained from 300 pounds of ore (a mixture 
of sparry iron, or carbonate, and hema- 
tite) and 310 pounds of charcoal, being a 
produce of S3 per cent. The foregoing 
method of obtaining bar iron is in gen- 
eral use in all the southern countries of 
Europe, and is beginning to be practised 
extensively in the U. States, for the ores 

Digitized by ^UO^ It! 



74 



IRON. 



of which, especially the magnetic iron, 
and hematite and sfiathic iron ore, it is 
romarkably well suited. As yet, how- 
ever, our spathic iron ore has been 
wholly neglected. (For an account of 
the production of that modification of 
iron called ated, see the article under that 
head.)— Respecting the statistics of iron, 
we have but fevr ^neral details which 
are wordiy of conhdence. In 1827, the 
fiimaees of England and Scotland pro- 
duced 690,000 tons. These furnaces 
amounted to 284, of which d5 were in 
Staffordshire, and 90 in South Wales. In 
1828, the total production of France in 
tliis metal was estimated at 176,000 tons ; 
and in the same year, the exports of Swe- 
den amounted to 35^12 tons, of which 
9409 tons were imported into the *U. 
Statea Russia, including Siberia and 
Norway, may he supposed to yield a 
quantity equal to France; while the an- 
nual product of all the other countries of 
Europe together, probaUy but httle ex- 
ceeds that of Britain. The whole amount 
yielded by the U. States cannot be esti- 
mated beyond 50,000 tons. 

Pure iron, la specific gravity is 7.7, 
but it may be made 7.8 by hammering. The 
specific gravity of cast iron is 7.281 ; that 
of steel, 7.795. Under the article Coheaion, 
the tenacity of iron, compared with that 
of some of the other metals, is ^ven. 
In malleability, it is much inferior to gold, 
silver and copper ; but in ductility, it ap- 
proaches these metals, iron wires of y^^ of 
an inch being frequently drawn. It melts in 
the extreme heat of chemical fumaced, 
which equals 158** Wedgewood. We have 
noticed, under the head of JVH(we iron, the 
crystalline texture of this metal, as fotmd 
in nature. A mass of bar iron, which has 
undei^one all the operations of puddling 
and rolling, afler being left in liquid mu- 
riatic acid till saturation, presents the ap^ 
pearance of a bundle of fasces, whose 
fibres run parallel through its whole 
length. At the two ends of the mass, the 
points appear perfectly detached fi^m 
each other, and the fibres are so distinct 
as to seem to the eye to be but loosely 
compacted. Iron by friction acquires a 
peculiar smell, and it possesses the color 
distinctively called irod-gray. Bars of it, 
kept in a vertical position, or at an angle 
of 70^ to tlie horizon, become magnetic 
spontaneously. They may also be mag- 
netized by percussion, or an electric 
shock, either from a conunon machine or 
a thunder cloud. The magnetic e0ect is 
rendered most powerful, hi a bar of iron, 
by allowing galvanic electricity to circu- 



late in circles round it, afier being bent 
into the shape of a horse shoe. A bar, 
weighing 21 pounds, has, in this manner, 
been made to support a weight of 750 
pounds; and the galvanic battery em- 
ployed consisted merely of two conceu 
trie copper cylinders, with a third, of 
zinc, between them, which were immers- 
ed in half a pint of dilute acid. The 
magnetism of soft iron, however, is not 
permanent, like that of steel. Iron bums 
with the greatest fiicility, as may be seen 
in the shops of the smiths, where, on 
withdrawing a bar of iron from the Ore, 
at a white heat, it emits brilliant sparks in 
every direction. It is also visible by pro- 
jecting iron filings upon a lighted candle 
or a common nre. Its combustion in 
these coses is the result of its combina- 
tion with the oxygen of the atmosphere. 
When it is heated and introduced mto a 
vessel of pure oxygen gas, its combustion 
is vasdy more rapid, and the scintillation 
which it occasions is extremely brilliant. 
There are only two non-metallic combusti- 
bles, hydrogen and nitrogen, which have 
not hitherto been combined with iron. Car- 
bon, boron, phosphorus, sulphur and sele- 
nium, form witii it compoun^ds more or 
less intimate. The same thing holds of 
most of the metals. When cold, it is 
without action on pure water, but decom- 
poses it rapidly when* heated to the de- 
gree of incandescence. The rusting of 
iron in a damp atmosphere has been as- 
cribed to the joint agency of carbonic 
acid and water. 

Cifmpounda of Iron. Iron unites with 
oxygen to form three, and, possibly, four 
oxides* The first oxide is obtained either 
by digesting an excess of iron filings in 
water, by the combustion of iron wire in 
oxygen, or by adding pure ammonia to a 
solution of green copperas, and drying 
the precipitate out or contact of air. It 
is of a black color, bccominff white by its 
union with water in the hymute, attracta- 
ble by the magnet, but more feebly than 
iron. Its composition is, 

Iron, . . . 100.0 77.82 3.5 

Oxygen,. 38.5 ... . 22.18 1.0 

The second or deutoxide of iron is form- 
ed by expoang a coil of fine iron wire, in 
an ignited porcelain tube, to a current 
of steam, as long as any hydrogen comes 
over. Its composition is, 

Iron, 100 72.72 

Oxygen, 37.5 27iJ8 

The fourth oxide is obtained by igniting 
the nitrate, or carix>nate of iron, by cal~ 
cining iron in open vessels, or simply by 
treating the metal with strong nitric acid^ 



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IRON. 



75 



theo wtshinff and drying the residuum. 
Coicotfaar of yitriol, or thorouffhiy cal- 
cined copperas may be consiaered as 
peroxide of iron. This oxide exists 
abandandy in nature, as may be seen by 
refemng to the preening account of the 
Ores of Irtm. It is a compound of iron, 
100, and oxygen, 42, The third oxide has 
not been satisfiictorily established. If the 
expetiments upon its nature are correct, its 
re&don to the others may be perceived in 
the following statement of M. Berthier, in 
which the quantities of oxygen combined 
with the same quantity of metal, in the 
four oxides, are to each other as the num- 
bers 6, 7, 8, 9. There are two chlorides 
€fi iron ; the first consisting of iron 46.57, 
and chlorine 53.43; the second of iron 
35.1 , and chloride 64.9. The proto-chloride 
is a fixed, the deutochloride, a volatile sub- 
stance, bdms forms with iron a com- 
pound of a light green color, soluble in 
water. There are two stdphwrets of inm. 
The proto-Bulphuret is formed by heating 
equal weights of iron filings and sulphur 
in a crucible or iron vessel, to incandes- 
cence. It is of a dark gray color, britde, 
feebly magnetic. Its composition is 
iron 28, sulphur 16. It abounds in na- 
ture. (See MagneHe Iron Pyrites^ among 
the Ores of iron,) The artiticial sulphu- 
ret varies in composition from the excess 
of one or the other of its ingredients. It 
is employed in eudiometry, and is used 
fi>r the production of sulphureted hydro- 
gen gas, which it evolves copiously on 
the addition of diluted muriatic or sul- 
phuric acid. The pereulphuret of iron is 
the common iron pyrites found so abun- 
dantiy in nature.. It is composed of iron 
28, and sulphur 32. There is also a 
plMsphuret of iron, formed by calcining 
four parts of phosphate of iron, and one of 
lan^black, in a covered crucible. It does 
not act on the magnetic needle ; remains 
unchanged in the air; is not afiected by 
nitric acid, except it be strong and hot ; 
and is decomposable by charcoal. 

Caihatis of hnm. Carbon unites with 
iron to fonn steel, cast iron, and graphite, 
orfriumbago. The proportions of car- 
bon corresponding to difierent carburets 
(^ iron, according to Mr. Musket, are as 
follow: 

yj^ sofl cast steel. 

-xhj common cast steel. 

■^ the same, but harder. 

-^ the same, too hard for drawing. 

jfV white cast iron. 

T^ mottled cast iron. 

tV black cast iron. 



Graphite contains about 10 per cent of 
iron. It was remarked above, that the 
magnetism of pure iron is transient. 
When it is combined with oxygen, car- 
bon, or sulphur, however, it acquires the 
magnet*^ coercive virtue, which attains 
a maximum of force with certain propor- 
tions of the constituents, hitherto unde- 
termined^ Of the alloys which iron 
unites with other metals to form, tin plate 
is the most useful. The sur&ce of the 
iron plates is cleaned, first by steeping 
in a crude bnuvvinegar, and men in di- 
lute sulphuric acid, afier which they are 
scoured bright with hemp and sand, and 
deposited in pure water to prevent oxida- 
tion. Into a pot, containing equal psr&s 
of grain and block-tin, in a state of fu- 
sion, covered with tallow, the iron plates 
are immersed hi a vertical portion, hav- 
ing been previously kept n>r about an 
hour in melted tallow. From 300 to 400 
plates are tinned at a time. E^h parcel 
requhes an hour and a half for the mutual 
incorporation of the metals. After lifting 
out the tinned plates, the striaB are remov- 
ed from their surfaces and under ed^pes 
by subsequent immersion in melted tin, 
and then in melted tallow, wiping the 
surfaces at the same time with a hempen 
brush. Allovs of steel with platinum, 
rliodium, gold and nickel, may be obtain- 
ed when the heat is sufficientiy high. 
The alloy with platinum fuses when in 
contact with steel, at a beat at which the 
steel itself is not afiected. But the most 
curious circumstances attend the alloy of 
silver. If steel and silver be kept in fu- 
sion toother for a length of time, an alloy 
is obtained which appeals to be very per- 
fect, while the metals are in the nuid 
state, but, on solidifying and cooling, 
clobules of pure silver are expressed 
m)m the mass, and appear on tne sur- 
face of the button. If an alloy of 
this kind be forged into a bar, and then 
dissected by the action of dilute sulphuric 
acid, the silver appears, not in combina- 
tion with the steel, but in threads through- 
put the mass, so that the whole has the 
appearance of a bundle of fibres of silver 
and steel, as if they had been united by 
welding. The appearance of these silver 
fibres is very beautiful They are sometimes 
one eighth of an inch in length, and sug- 
gested the idea of giving mechanical 
toughness to steel, where a very perfect 
edge may not be required. When I of 
silver and 500 steel are property fused 
together, a very perfect alloy is produced, 
which, when forged, and dissected by an 
acid, exhibits no fibres, even when view 

Digitized by ^UO^ VC 



7S 



IRON. 



ed with a high maguifying power, tliough, 
by dissolving any portion of the mass in 
acid, and applying a delicate test, the sil- 
ver is recognised as being every where 
present This alloy proves decidedly su- 
perior to the very best steel, and its ex- 
cellence is unquestionably due to tlie 
presence of the silver. Vaiious cutting 
instruments, as razors, penknives, surgical 
instruments, &c., are now manufactured 
from it. It is known under the name of 
silvered sttel. Equal parts, by weiffht, of 
platinum and steel, form a beautiful alloy, 
which takes a iiue polish, and does not 
tarnish. The color is the finest imagina- 
ble for a mirror. The specific gravity of 
the compound is 9.862. The proportions 
of platinum that appear to improve steel 
for edge instruments are from one to 
three per cent. The alloys of steel with 
rhodium would prove highly valuable, were 
it not for the scarcity of the latter metal. 

Salts of Bvn, These are possessed of 
the following general properties: Most 
of them are soluble in water ; those with 
the protoxide for the base are generally 
erystallizable ; those with peroxide, for the 
most part, are not so : the former are in- 
soluble, the latter soluble in alcohol. 
From solutions of these salts ferroprus- 
siate of potash throws down a blue pre- 
cipitate, or one becoming blue in the air ; 
infiision of galls gives a dark blue precipi- 
tate, or one becoming so in the air ; hy- 
drosulphuret of pota3i or ammonia gives 
a black precipitate ; but sulphureted hy- 
drogen merely deprives the solutions of 
iron of their yellow-brown color; succi- 
nate of anmionia gives a fiesh-colored 
precipitate with salts of the peroxide. 
We shall notice these salts individuaUy, in 
an alphabetical order. ProtoaceUUe of 
iron rorms small prismatic ciystals, of a 
green color and a sweetish taste. Per- 
acetate of iron forms a reddish brown un- 
ciystallizable solution, much used by the 
caJlco printei's, and is prepared by keep- 
ing uron turnings, or pieces of old iron, 
for six months, immersed in redistilled 
pyroligneous acid. ProtarseniaU of iron 
exists native in cirstals (see Iron Ores), 
and may be formed in a pulverulent state, 
by pourinff arsentate of ammonia into 
sulj^hate of m)n. It is insoluble. Perar- 
semate of iron may be formed by pouring 
arseniate of ammonia into peracetate of 
uron, or by boiling nitric acia on the prot- 
arsenlate. It is msoluble. AntivwniaU 
of iron is white, becoming yellow, insolu- 
ble, boroUef pale, yellow, and insoluble; 
lenzocUef yellow and insoluble ; protocar- 
honaU, greenish and soluble; percarho- 



naUj brown and insolubie; ekromate, 
blackish and insoluble; protodtraU^ 
lirown, crystals soluble; protqferropruS' 
giaUf white, insoluble. The paferro- 
prusjlaU is the beautiful pigment called 
Prussian blue. When exposed to a heat 
of 400° Fahr., it takes fire in the open 
air ; but in close vessels, it is decomposed, 
apparendy, into carbureted hydrogen, 
water, and hydrocyanate of ammonia^ 
which come over, while a mixture of 
charcoal and oxide of iron remains in tlie 
state of a pulverulent pyrophonis, ready 
to become uifiamed on contact with the 
air. Prussian blue is of an extremely 
deep blue color, insipid, inodorous, and 
considerably denser than water. Neithei 
water nor alcohol have any action on it 
It is usually made by mixing together one 
part of the ferrocyanate ot potash, one 
part of copperas, and four pints of alum, 
each previously dissolved in water. Prus- 
sian blue, mingled with more or less alu- 
mina, precipitates. It is afterwards dried 
on chalk stones in a stove. When sul- 
phuric acid is added to Prussian blue, it 
makes it perfectly white, apparently by 
abstracting its water; for the blue color 
returns on dilution of the acid; and if 
the strong acid be poured oS, it yields no 
traces of either prusaic add or iron. 
Protogalldk of iron is coloriess and solu- 
ble ; per^aUaitf purple and insoit^ie ; 
proUmur'ate^ green and erystallizable^ 
very solu./ie ; permuriate^ browB, uncryB- 
taUizable, very soluble {seeChlmides ofErmt, 
previously described); protonUndef pale 
green, soluble ; pemUraie^ brown, soluble ; 
pratoxalate/m green prisms, soluble ;jMr(Kc- 
alaUy yellow, scarcely sol^^ble ; pro&phos^ 
fkate, blue, msoluble ; perpho^phate^ whiter 
msoluble ; protosuccinaUj in brown dTstalfl^ 
soluble ; /»erracc«na(e, brownish red, insolu- 
ble. Protostdfhaie, or green Wbrud^ or cop- 
peraSf is obtamed by putting iron into an 
aqueous sulphurous acid, and letting* 
them remain together for some time out 
of contact with the air. It is generally ob- 
tained, however, for the purposes of the 
arts, not perfectly Gcee fit>m tne peroxide, 
by tlie following processes : Native iron 
pyrites is exposed to* air and moistune, 
when the sulphur and iron both absorb 
oxygen, and fonn the salt; or metallic 
iron is added to sulphuric acid, when di- 
luted, when the union takes place at once. 
Both methods are practised : the latter is 
more economical in point of time, and 
affords a purer salt, but the former is the 
one most generally adopted. The pro- 
duction of copperas fiY>m pyrites is con- 
ducted in tlie following manner : The ore 



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IRON— IRONY. 



77 



is broken down into pieces of a few 
iodies in <yftnieter, and thrown into large 
beds, or heaps, of several feet in thickness, 
dii^oeed on an inclined soil Water is 
DOW let on to the heaps, in moderate 
quantities, or they are left to derive mois- 
ture from run. The vitriolization imme- 
diately commences, and is often attended 
with a considerable degree of heat 
Sometimes the whole mass ktndks, which 
is a disadvantage, as it bums off the sul- 
phur in sulphureous acid vapor, instead of 
converting it mdually into sulphuric acid 
to form the su^hate desired. The process 
goes on well when the pyrites is seen crack- 
ing open and becommg covered with a 
whitish efflorescence. This efflorescence 
is continually dissolving, from time to time, 
by the efiect of the rains, and the solution 
trickles down through the heaps, and 
flows off by gutters to a common reser- 
voir, which is a leaden vessel, generally 
^ut 7 feet deep, 12 to 14 long, and 6 or 
7 wide, where it is evaporated for several 
daysL As an excess of sulphuric acid 
often exists in the liquor, a quantity of 
iron plates or turnings is frequently add- 
ed for its saturation. From this reservoir 
ic is run into a crystallizing vat, and there 
remains for several weeks, at the end of 
which time the mother liquor is pumped 
back into the boiler, and the crystals, idter 
draining, are removed from the frames of 
wood-work on which they Imve formed, 
and pecked in hogsheads for sale. In- 
stead of going directly from the boiler to 
the crystallinng pools,' the liquor is some- 
times allowed to stand 24 hours, in a ves- 
sel intermediate between these, for the 
deposition of a sediment of ochre viiiich 
it contains. Copperas forms beautiful 
green crystals, whose fbnns and other 
nanind historical characters, as well as 
composition, have been given under the 
Iron Ores in the commencement of this 
article. It is used in dyeing and making 
ink, in the formation of PrusBian blue, 
&c. The persvlphaU of iron is form- 
ed by the simple exposure of copperas 
to the air, especially if in the state of solu- 
tion, or by boiling the green sulphate 
^ith nitric acid. Its color is yellowish 
red; uncrvstallizable ; taste sharp and 
st}'ptic. The tartrate and pertartraU of 
iron may also be formed ; and, by digest- 
ing cream of tartar with water on iron 
filings, a triple salt is obtained, formeriy 
caU^ tartartzed tincture of Mars, 

Iron is one of the most valuable articles 
of the materia medUa* Tlie protoxide 
acts as agenifli stimulant and tonic in all 
of chronic debility not coimected 
7* 



vrith organic congestion or inflammation. 
It is peculiariy efficacious in chlorosis. 
The peroxide and its combinations are 
almost uniformly irritating, causing heart- 
bum, febrile heat and quickness of pulse. 
Man^ chalybeate waters contain an ex- 
ceedmgly minute quantity of protocarbo- 
nate of iron, and yet exercise an aston- 
ishingly recruiting power over the ex- 
hausted frame. Their qualides may be 
imitated by dissolving 3 grains of*^ sul- 
phate of iron, and 61 of bicarbonate of 
potash, in a quart of cool water, with agi- 
tation, in a close vessel 

laoif Crown. A golden crown, set 
with precious stones, preserved at Monza, 
in Milan, with which anciendy the kings 
of Italy, and afterwards the Roman empe- 
rors, were crowned, when they assumed 
the character of kings of Lombardy, has 
received the above name, from an iron 
circle, forged from a nail of the cross of 
Christ, and introduced into the interior of 
it Napoleon, after his coronation (1805), 
establisned the order of the iron crown. 
When tlie emperor of Austria (1815) took 
possession of the estates in Italy, which 
fell to him under the name of the Lorn- 
hardo- Venetian kingdom, he admitted the 
order of the iron crown among the orders 
of the house of Austria. 

Iron Mask. (See Mask.) 

Iron-Wood. This name is given, in 
some pans of the U. States, to the ostrya 
virgndca—a small tree, having the foliage 
of a birch, and the fruit somewhat re- 
sembling that of the hop. It is found 
scattered over the whole of the U. States, 
even as far westward as the base of the 
Rocky mountains, and is remarkable for 
the hardness and heaviness of the wood, 
which, however, has not hitherto been 
applied to any very unportant uses, partlv 
on account of its small size. The trunk 
usually does not exceed six inches in di- 
ameter; but the excellent qualities of the 
wood may, at some future day, be better 
appreciated. The term hop-hondteamj de- 
rived from the form of the finit, is fre- 
quently applied to the species of osfi^^a. 

Irony; a term invented by the re- 
fined Athenians [itpt^ma, dissimulation). 
By irony, we understand, in common life, 
that more refined species of ridicule, 
which, under the mask of honest simpli- 
city, or of ignorance, exposes the fttults 
and errors of assuming folly, by seeming 
to adopt or defend them. It neither pre- 
supposes a bad heart nor a malicious pur- 
pose, and is consistent with so much kmd- 
nesB and true urbanity, that even the ob- 
ject of ridicule may be forced to join in 



Digitized by 



^uogle 



7S 



ntONY— IRRITABILITY. 



the laugh, or be disposed to profit bj the 
leflsoD. One mode of irony is, when a 
person pretends to hold the false opinion 
or maxim as true, while, by stronger and 
stronger illustration, he so contrasts it 
with the true, that it must inevitably ap- 
pear absurd. Another mode is, when he 
assumes the mask of innocent tuweU^aikd 
excites ridicule by the unreaervedness of 
his profe^ons. But humor, concealed 
under seriousneas of appearance, is the 
foundation of both. On the use and 
treatment of irony, in comic and satirical 
poetiy, Jean Paul has nven the best di- 
rections, in his Forscktdt dor AesUieUk, 
Sir the Socratic irony, see Socrates.) 
ere is a certain sort of malicious irony 
(perMage\ the object of which is merely 
to ridicule, without the desire of correc- 
tion. 

laoquois ; the name given by the French 
to the confederacy of North American 
Indians, called, by the English, the Fwe^ 
and, afterwards, the Six MUionSn The 
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, 
Senecas and Tuscaroras were tlie mem- 
bers of this confederacy. They formerly 
resided on the Mohawk river and the 
lakes which still bear their names, and ex- 
tended their conquests to the Mississippi, 
and beyond the St. Lawrence. Their val- 
or and successes have procured them the 
name of the Romans of America. Their 
territory abounded with lakes well stored 
with fish; their forests were filled with 
game, and they had the advantage of a 
fertile soil. The sachems owed their au- 
thority to public opinion : the general 
affidrs of the confederacy were managed 
by a great council, composed of the 
chiefi, which assembled annually at Onon- 
daga. They exterminated the Eries, drove 
out the Hurons and Ottawas, subdued the 
Illinois, Miamies, Algonquins, Lenni Len- 
napes, Shawanese, and the terror of tiieir 
arms extended over a great part of Canada 
and the northern and north-eastern parts of 
the U. States. In the lon^ wars between the 
Englisband French, which continued with 
some interruptiona, for nearly a centuiy, 
until 1763, they were generally in the 
English interest ; and, in the revolutiona- 
ly war, they were also mostly in favor of 
the British. Their numbers have much di- 
minished. Some of the tribes are extinct ; 
some have made considerable advances in 
civilization, while otliers have fallen into 
a state of squalid misery. Some of the 
nations remained in New York; others 
removed to Canada. The number in 
New Yoric, in 1818, was 4575, including 
the Moheakunnuk or New Stockbridge, 



the Mohicans and Namgaosetta^ who had 
been adopted into the confederacy. They 
owned 265,315 acres of land. (See Col- 
den's I£story qfthe Five JSTations ; Morse's 
JZeporf on maian Affairs, New Haven, 
1822 ; InduMSf and Indian Languages.) 

Irrational Quantities are those 
which cannot be measured by unity or 
parts of unity ; for example, the square 
root of 2, 1,4124 .... which, by contin- 
ued approximation, can be obtained more 
and more exactly, without end, in parts 
of unity, but can never be exactly deter- 
mined. The relation of two quantities 
is also called trraHonaly when one cannot 
be exactly measured by the whole and 
parts of the other. The circumference 
and diameter of a circle stand in such an 
irratiorud relation to each other, because 
we can only find by approximation, how 
many times the latter is contained in the 
former. 

Irrawaddt, or Irawaodt ; a large 
river of Asia, in the Chinese and Birman 
empires. Crawfurd {Embassy to Ava, 
London, 1829) thinks it has its source in 
tlie provinces of Lao and Yunan. Ac- 
cording to Wilcox, it is 80 yards broad in 
lat 27^ (MX, where he visited it, and he 
vras informed by the natives that he was 
50 miles from its source. It fidls, by 14 
mouths, into the bay of Bengal, ator hav- 
ing divided into two principal branchesy 
in Pegu, lat 17^ 45^. The most easterly 
branch passes by Rangoon ; the most 
westerly, by Bassien or Persaim. Ac- 
cording to Crawfurd, it is navigable for 
boats to Bhamo, about 300 miles above 
Ava. The intermediate space between 
the eastern and western branches forms a 
Delta, covered witli trees and long grass, 
and inhabited chiefly by buffidoes, deer 
and tigers. In lat 2P ^, it receives the 
Keen-Dwem, a considerable river, from 
the north-west 

Irritabilitt (irntabUii^ ; fromirrito, to 
provoke ;— m insita of HaUer ; vis vitalis 
of Gorier ; osciUaiion of Boerhaave ; tome 
fower of StDihl ; musctdar power of Bell ; 
tnhennt power of Cullen) ; the contractil- 
ity of muscular fibres, or a property pecu- 
liar to muscles, by which they contract, 
upon the application of certain stimuti^ 
without a consciousness of action. This 
power may be seen in the tremulous con- 
traction of muscles when lacerated, or 
when entirely separated from the body hi 
operations. Even when the body is dead, 
to all appearance, and the nervous power 
is gone, this contractile power remains 
till the organixadon yiekb^ and begins to 
be dissolved. It is by this inherent power 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



IRRITABILITY. 



that a cut muscle cootracte, and leaves a 
gapp that a cut artery shrinks, and grows 
stffr after death. This initability of mus- 
cles is so far independent of nerves, and 
so little connected with feeling, which is 
the province of the nerves, that, upon 
fldmulatin^ any muscle by touching it 
with causoc, or irritating it with a sharo 
point, or driving the electric spark through 
it, or exciting with the metallic conduct- 
ors, as those of silver or zinc, the muscle 
instantly contracts, although the nerve of 
that muscle be tied; although the nerve 
lie cut so as to separate the muscle entire- 
ly from all connexion with the mtera ; 
although the muscle be separated from 
the bmly; although the creature, upon 
which the experiment is perf6rraed, may 
have lost all sense of Heehnst and have 
been long apparently dead. Thus a much 
cle, cut from the limb, trembles and palpi- 
tates a long time afler ; the heart, separat- 
ed fiom the body, contracts when irritated ; 
the bowels, when torn from the body, 
continue their peristaltic motion, so as to 
roll upon the table, ceasing to answer to 
siimtdi only when they become stiff and 
cold. Even in vegetables, as in the sen- 
sitive plant, this contractiie power Hves. 
Thence comes the distinction between the 
irrilalnHhf of muscles and the sensibUUy 
of nerves ; for the irritabihty of muscles 
survives the animals, as when it ia active 
afker death ; survives the life of the part^ 
or the feelinffs of the whole system, as in 
universal palsy, where the vital motions 
continue entire and perfe-:t, and where the 
muscles, thoujB^h not obedient to the wiU, 
are subject to irregular and violent actions ; 
and it survives the connexion with the 
rest of the system, as when animals very 
tenacious of life, are cut into parts ; but 
sennbUityy the proper^ of the nerves, 
gives the various modmcations of sense, 
as vision, hearing, and the rest ; gives also 
the general sense of pleasure or pain, and 
makes the system, according to its various 
conditions, feel vigorous and healthy, or 
weary and low^ The eye feels and the 
skin (qdIs ; but their appointed itirmdi pro- 
duce no motions in these parts : tliey are 
sensible, but not uritable. The heart, the 
intestines, the urinary bladder, and all the 
muscles of voluntary motion, answer to 
stimuli with a quick and forcible contrac- 
tion ; and yet they hardly feel tlie stimuU 
by which these contractions are produced, 
or, at least, they do not convey that feel- 
ing to the brain. There is no consciousness 
ofTpreatnt stimulus in tliose parts which 
are called into action by the impulse of the 
nerv^ and at ibe command of the ^vill ; so 



that muscular parts have all the iiritabili^ 
of the system, with but little feeling, and that 
httle owing to the nerves which enter into 
theur substance ; while nerves have all the 
sensibility of the system, but no motion. 
After every action in an irritable part, a 
state of rest, or cessation from motion, 
must take place before the irritable part 
can be again incited to action. I^ by an 
act of volition, we throw any of our mus- 
cles into action, that action can onl^ be 
continued for a certain space of time. 
The muscle becomes relaxed, notwith- 
standing all our endeavors to the contrary, 
and remainsa certain time in that relaxed 
state, before it can be again thrown into 
action. Each irritable part has t^kmtU 
which are peculiar to it, and which are 
intended to support its natural action: 
thus blood is the stimulus proper to the 
heart and arteries ; but i^ by an v accident, 
it gets into the stomach, it produces sick* 
ness or vomiting. The urine does not 
irritate the tender fiibric of the kidnevs, 
ureters or bladder, except in such a de- 
gree as to preserve their healthy action ; 
but if it be elRised into the cellular mem- 
brane, it brings on such a violent action 
of the vessels of these parts, as to produce 
gangrene. Such stimuU are called habit- 
ual sUnnuli of parts. . Each irritable part 
differs fiom the rest in regard to the quan- 
tity of initability which it possesses. This 
law explains to us the reason of the great 
divezsity which we observe in the action 
of various irritable parts : thus this mus- 
cles of voluntary motion can remain a 
long time in a state of action, and, if it be 
continued as long as possible, another 
consid^able portion of time is required 
before they regain the irritability they lost; 
but the heart and arteries have a more 
short and sudden action, and their state of 
rest is equally so. The circular muscles 
of the intestines have also a quick action 
and short rest. The action of eveiy stim- 
ulus is in an inverse ratio to the frequency 
of its application. A small quantity of 
spuits, taken into the stomach, increases 
the action of its muscular coat, and also 
of its various vessels, so that digestion is 
thereby facilitated. If the same Quantity, 
however, be taken frequently, it loses its 
efiect In order, to produce the same 
effect as at first, a larger quantity is neces- 
sary ; and hence the origin of drun-drink- 
ing. The more the irritability of a part 
is accumulated, the more that part is dis- 
posed to be acted upon. It is on this ac- 
count tliat the activity of all animals, 
while in perfect health, is much livelier in 
the morning than at any other part of the 

Digitized by VjUO^ It! 



80 



IRRITABILITY— ISABELLA. 



d&y; for during the niffht, the irritability 
of the whole ihune, and especially that of 
the muscles desdned for labor, viz. tlie 
muscles for Yoluntaiy action, is reaccu- 
inuiated. The same law explains why 
digestion goes 'on more rapidly the first 
hour after food is swallowed than at any 
other time ; and it also accounts for the 
great danger that accrues to a famished 
poison upon fint taldngin food. — ^In Ger- 
man philosophy, irrfta6t2«fy, nfuibUitytrnd 
r$pro(huiwUy constitute the whole of or- 
ganic life. Since the time of Schelling, 
trnieMUy is much considered in the men- 
tal philosophy of that country. The 
French, treating the subject merely with 
reference to physiology, generally use, at 
present, the worn contraMity instead of 
irritabiiUy. 

Ieus ; a mendicant of Ithaca, employed 
by the suitors of Penelope in subordinate 
offices. On Ulysses^ remm, when he ap- 
proached his mansion in the habit of a 
beggar, in order to surprise those uninvit- 
ed guests, Irus attempted to prevent his 
entering, and challenged Ulysses to a 
contest, in which Inis was beaten. 

Irviite, William, an officer in the revo- 
lationaiy war, was bom in Ireland, and 
educated for the profession of medicine. 
During the war between France and Eng- 
land, which commenced in 1754, and 
ended in 1763, he served for a time as a 
surgeon on board of a British ship of war, 
and, soon after the conclusion of peace, re- 
moved to America, and continued the prac- 
tice of his profession in Carlisle, Pennsylva- 
nia. He was a member of the convention 
which met at Philadelphia, July 15, 1774, 
and recommended the meeting of a gen- 
eral congress. In January, 1^6, he was 
authorized to raise and command a regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line, which, in 
a few montiis ofierwards, was fully equip- 
I)ed. In the following June, he was taken 

Erisoner in the unsuccessful attempt made 
y general Thompson, to surprise the van- 
gufutl of the British army, then stationed 
at the village of Trois Rivieres, in Canada, 
and was carried to Quebec, where he re- 
mained in durance until April, 1778, when 
he was exchanged. Immediately after 
his release, he was promoted to the com- 
mand of the secx>nd Pennsylvania brig- 
ade, and, in 1781, he was intrusted with 
the defence of the north-western frontier, 
which was threatened by the British and 
Indians. The charge was one that re- 
quired not only coura^ and firmness, but 
great prudence and judgment, and was 
executed by ^neral Irvine in a manner 
which fully justified the choice of him 



made by general Wafibington. After the 
war, he was elected a member of congress 
under the confederation, and he was also 
a member of the convention which framed 
the constitution of Pennsylvania. When 

' the whiskey insurrection broke out in that 
state, in 1794, two sets of commiasioners, 
the one representing the U. States, and the 
other the commonwealth, were first de- 
spatched to the insurgents, in order to 
induce them to return to their duty, and 
amongst the latter was general Irvine. 
This measure, however, proving ineffect- 
ual, force waa resorted to, and general 
Irvine was placed at the head of the 
Pennsylvania militia, and contributed 
greatiy to the successful result of the affeir. 
About this time, he removed, with his 
family, from Carlisle to Piiiladelphia, 
where he became intendant of military 
stores, and president of the Pennsylvania 
society of Cincizmati. He continued to 
reside in that city, universally respected 
for his public and private virtues, until the 
summer of 1804, when a period was put 
to his life by an inflammatory disorder, in 
the 63d year of his age. 

Is ; the Turkish corruption of the 
Greek tls^ prefixed to many geographical 

. names ; as Ismyr, from eli ifibpvav (Smyr- 
na), Ismk (Nice), Ismid (Nicomedia). 

I9A.AC ; the son of Aoraham, remarka- 
ble for his birth, which was long promised 
to his parents, and took place when they 
were far advanced in age, and for his 
having earlv been destined to perish as a 
victim on the altar. (See Mrahatn,) He 
escaped death by a miracle, and resembled 
his father in faith and steadfastness in the 
worship of the true God in the midst of 
heathens, but not in activity and magna- 
nimity. In him the patriarchal character 
shone milder and softer than in Abraham, 
but purer and nobler than in his sou 
Jacob. Accustomed to a tranquil life, by 
the practice of agriculture, which he car 
ried farther than Abraham, and leading a 
more settled life than his predecessors, 
yielding and patient in difficulties, he ap- 
peared in his family a tender father, but 
prematurely aged, weak, and easy to l)e 
imposed upon, who preferred die quiet, 
crafty Jacob to the ruder but more honest 
Esau. 

Isabella of Castile, the celebrated 
queen of Spain, daughter of John II, wbs 
bom in 1451, and married, in 1469, Ferdi- 
nand V, king of Arragon. After the death 
of her brother, Henry IV, in 1474, she 
ascended the throne of Castile, to the 
exclusion of her elder sister, Joanna, who 
had the rightful claim to the crown. Our- 

Digitized by ^OOy l(:^ 



ISABELLAS-ISAIAH. 



ai 



ing the lifetime of her brother, Isabella 
hSi gained the favor of the estates of the 
kmgdom to such a degree that the major- 
itr, on his death, declared for her. From 
the others, the victorious arms of her hus- 
band extorted acquiescence, in the battle 
of Toro, in 1476. After the kingdoms of 
Arragon and Castile were thus united, Fer- 
dinand and Isabella assumed the royal 
tide of Spain. With the graces and 
chamis of her sex, Isabella united the 
courage of a hero, and the sagacity of a 
statesman and legislator. She was always 
present at the transaction of state af&iis, 
and her name was placed beside that of 
her husband in public ordinances. The 
conquest of Grenada, after which the 
Moors were entirely expelled from Spain, 
and the discovery of America, were, in a 
great degree, her work. In all her under- 
takings, the wise cardinal Ximenes was 
her assistant She has been accused of 
severity, pride and unbounded ambition ; 
but these feults sometimes promoted the 
wel&re of the kingdom, as well as her 
rirtues and talents. A spirit like hers was 
necessary to humble the hau^tiness of 
the nobles without exciting their hostility, 
to conquer Grenada without letting loose 
the hordes of Africa on Europe, and to 
restrain the vices of her subjects, who had 
become corrupt by reason of the bad 
admimstration of the laws. By the intro- 
duction of a strict ceremonial, which sub- 
sists till the present day at the Spanish 
court, she succeeded in checking the 
haughtiness of the numerous nobles about 
the person of the king, and in depriving 
them of their pernicious influence over him. 
Private warmre, which had formerly pre- 
vailed to the destruction of public tran- 
quillity, she checked, and introduced a 
vigorous administration of justice. In 
l&Q, pope Alexander VI conhrmed to the 
royal pair the tiUeof Cot^^tc ibng, ahead y 
conferred on them by Innocent YIII. 
The zeal for the Roman Catholic religion, 
which procured them this tide, gave rise 
to the mquisition (see IrupdsiUon]^ which 
was introduced into Spain in 1480, at the 
suggestion of their confessor, Toix^uemada. 
Isabella died in 1504, having extorted 
from her husband (of whom she was very 
jealous) an oath that he would never 
marry again. (See Ferdinand F, XvnenM, 
and Columbus.) 

Isabella ; wife of Edward II of Eng- 
land. (See EduKurd IL) 

Is ABET, Jean Baptiste ; miniature paint- 
er ; a pupil of David, distinguished for the 
delicacy and grace of Ids pencil. Isabev 
invented the very handsome style of chalk 



and crayon drawings k PeHampeyin which 
he is unequalled. He frequently draws, 
with Indian ink, compositions of several 
figures, which are all portraits. His most 
famous {Necee of this kind are, the Visit 
of Napoleon at Oberkamp,* Napoleon on 
the Terrace at Makmaison, and many 
parades and presentations. He after- 
wards sketched all the princes and states* 
men assembled at the eongress of Vienoa. 
One of his most beautiful pieces is hia 
Skifl* (/a noceUe), where he is hinoa^ 
delineated with hia £uuily. The style 
h Vutampe^ which stronj^iy resembles stip- 
pling, was for some tmie the prevalent 
fashion, but Isabey's master hand was re- 
quired to give it character. His miniature 
paintings are extraordinarily fine. He ia 
the only artist in Paris who can compare 
with Augustin ; and if the lattec possesses 
more strength and warmth of color, Isabey 
has greater dehcacy and softnesa 

IsjBUS, an Athenian oiatOK, bom at 
Chalcis in EuboBa, lived in the first half 
of the fourth century before Christ, till 
afier 357. Lvsias and laoeraies. were hi» 
teachers. Wholly uneonnected with pub- 
lic ajQiiirs, he devoted himself to instruc- 
tion in eloquaice, and wrote speeches for 
othenL Of his S&dm^ons, 11 are^iant, 
which are recommended by tbeir simple 
and oflen forcible s^le, and are general^ 
on causea respecting inheritance. They 
are to be found in tl^ 7th vdL of Eeiske'a 
OnOortM Grmei Sir W. Jones transfafeed 
10 oratioDs of Isasus, with a commeBtaiy 
(London, 1779). The 11th, now known, 
nas been discovered since^ 

IsAXAB, the fisst of the four gieai 
prophetB, prophesied durinff tb» x^ipoB 
of the kings of Judah, nook Uzziah 
to Hezekiah^ at least 47 years. Of the 
circumstances of his life nodiing \b known, 
but that he had an important influence 
over the kings and people. Of the sacred 
compositions which pass under his name 
in the Old Testament, that part which is 
unquestionably his gives him a high rank 
amon^ the greatest poets. His style is 
peculiarly impropriate to the subjects of 
which he treats ; it unites simplicity and 
clearness with the highest dignity and 
majesty; and in fulness and power^ his 
poetry fkr surpasses that of all the other 
prophets. Hub writings are efaiefly denun- 
ciations and complaints of the sina of the 
people, menaces of approaching ruin, and 
animating anticipations of a more glorious 
future. The whole bears the stamp of 
genius and true inspiration, and is marked 
throughout by nobleness of thought and 
feeling. (See Lovnh's Mjbw Trandaiwa 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



ISAIAH— ISHMAELTTES. 



o^ hmahj and his Ledures on the Sacred 
Poetry of the HAretos; also, the article 
Prophets,) 

IsAURiA, in ancient geography ; a coun- 
tiy in Afda Bfinor, forming a p(£rt of Pi- 
adia, lying on the west of Cilicia, and on 
the south of Lycaonia* The inhabitants 
vrere shepherds and herdsmen, and for- 
midable as robbers, llieir capital, Isaura, 
was a mere haunt of bandits. The con- 
sul Publius Senrilius destroyed it; but 
another Isauro was built not far from 
it. Hence Strabo mentions two. 

IscRiA (anciently PUhecuaoy Mnmia, 
Jtrime^ and buarisM) ; an island in the 
Mediterranean, m. miles from the coast 
of Naples, about ten miles in circuit 
Lon. 13^56^ E.; lat 40» 5(y N. ; popula- 
tion, 24,000; square miles, 25. It contains 
aevoral high lulls, one of which is 2300 
feet above the sea. It is fertile in fniits, 
and abounds in came. The white wine 
is much esteemeiL The air is healthy, on 
which account it is much resorted to by 
invalids, as it is but a small distance from 
the continent, and hardly more tha^ four 
leagues fitxn Naples. It is volcanic ; and 
an earthquflJce in 1828 destroyed several 
villages on the island. The porcelain clay 
of Ischia was prized by the andents, but 
the true terra d^bchAa is rare. Ischia, the 
capital town, is situated on the N. coast 
of the island, and is an episcopal see with 
3101 mhabitants. 

IsEHBURe, or Upper Isenburo ; a prin- 
cipality in Germanv, atuated in the Wet- 
terau, about 30 miles long and 10 wide, 
oh the borders of the county of Hanau ; 
subject partly to Hesse-Cassel, and partly 
to Hesse-Darmstadt Population, 47,457 ; 
square miles, 318^ — betAwrg^ a principal- 
ity belonging to Hesse-C^ssel, erected 
since 1816, contains 16^200 ihhabitants, 
and 137 square miles. 

IssNBURo, New; a town of Hesse- 
Dormstadt, in Isenburg, founded in 1700 
l^ French refugees; three miles S. of 
Frankfort on the Maine ; four S. W. of 
Offenbach ; lon. 8° 38^ E. ; kt 5a> 3^ N. ; 
population, 1170. 

, Isi^RE (anciently, bora) ; a river which 
rises in the Alps, about 12 miles from 
mount Cents, in a mountain called Iseran^ 
in the duchy of Savoy. After entering 
France, it passes by Grenoble, St Quen- 
tin, Romans, &c., and joins the Rhone 
about three miles above Valence. 

Is JER£ ; a department of France, consti- 
tuted of the former Dauphiny. It takes 
its name from the river Is^, which 
crosses it It is divided into four arron- 
dissements. Grenoble is the capital. Square 



miles, 3440; population, 525,964. (See 
Departmevii,) 

isERLOuif ; a town in the Pnissiaii 
county of Mark, province of Westplialia, 
on the small river Baaren, with 5500 in- 
habitants, in 730 houses. The inhabitants 
are mostly Lutherans, but there are also 
some Catholics and Calvinists. There is 
a gymnasium here. It has manufactures. 
of iron, brass, wire, and small wares, as 
needles, brass Scales, &c. More than 60 
considerable commercial houses keep up 
an intercourse with Italy, France and 
Germany. There are also woollen and 
silk manufactories and bleacherics in the 
environs. Iseriohu is about 15 leagues S. 
of MAnster. 

IsRMAELiTEs,in sncieut geography and 
history ; the descendants of Isnmael, the 
son of Abraham by Hagar. (q. v.J Ish- 
mael was bom 1910 B. C. Afler tne dis- 
mission of Hagar from the house of Abra- 
ham, she wandered with her son to the 
wilderness of Paran, which bonlered on 
Arabia, and here Ishmael became an ex- 
pert hunter and warrior. His mother 
procured him a wife from Egypt, by 
whom be had 12 sons, who became the 
heads of so many Arabian tribes. — ^The 
name of Ir^maeZttea, or Isntadians, is also 
^ven to a Mohammedan sect which orig- 
mally belonged to tho Shiites, the adhe- 
rents of All and the opponents of the Sun- 
nites. In the first century of the Heffira, 
the Iman Giafiir-el-Sadek, a descendant 
of Ali, on the death of his eldest son, 
Ishmael, having transferred the succession 
to his younser son, Mousa, to the prejudice 
of the children of Ishmael, a party refused 
to ackno wled^ Mousa, and considered Ish - 
maePs posterity as the legitimate ImaiiR. 
By the Oriental historians, they are reck- 
oned with the Nassarians, among the 
Bathenins, or Batenites, that is, adherents 
of the mystical, allegorical doctrines of 
Islamism. From the 8th to the 12th cen- 
tury, they were powerful in the East 
Under the name of Carmatians (as they 
were called, from Carmati, near Cufa, the 
birthplace of their chief Karfeh, in the 8th 
century), they devastated Irak and Syricu 
In Persia, which they likewise overran 
about this time, they were called Mela- 
dehs^thsl is, impious, or 7\dimites, because 
they profeesed Talim*s doctrine, that man 
can leam truth only by instruction. One 
dynasty of the Ismaelians, founded by 
Mohammed Abu-Obkid- Allah, conquered 
Egypt about 910, and was overthrown by 
Saladin,the caliph of Bagdad, about 1177, 
when the dynasty became extinct with 
Adbed-Udin-AUah. The other (still cx:- 



Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



ISHMAELITE&-I8INGLASS. 



ifldng) labinaeKte branch founded a king- 
dom in Syria in 1090, under the Inuui Has- 
san fien-sabbah, which became formidable 
in the East, by its military power. Hassan, 
with his seven successors, is known in the 
East under the name of the Old Man of 
the Mountain, because his residence was 
in the noountain festness of Mesiade in 
Syria. Thence he despatched his war- 
riors — ^who were caUed HaacMaMm, from 
their immoderate use of the henbane 
(Arab, haschischeh), which produces an ex- 
citement amounting to fury — on expedi- 
tions of robbeiy and murder. These is- 
maelians, therefore, acquired in the West 
the name of Assaanns (corruption of Ha- 
gchuekm), which thence became, in the 
western languages of Europe, a common 
name for murdarer. At the close of the 
12tb century, the Mongols put an end to 
the dominion of the Old Man of the Moun- 
tain, who, according to Von Hammer's re- 
searches, was not a prince, but merely 
the head of>a sect. From this time, 
only a feeble residue of the lamaelians, 
fit>m whom proceeded the Druses, about 
A. D. 1020, has survived in Persia and 
Syria. At Kbekh in Persia, an Ismaelian 
Iman still has his residence, who is revered 
as a god by the Ismaelians, who extend as 
far as Indian and is presented with the 
fruits of their robbery, from which he 
pays a considerable tribute to the shah of 
Persia. The Syrian Ismaelians dwell 
around Mesiade, west of Hamah, and in 
the mountain Seranack en Lebanon ; they 
are under Turkish dominion, with a sheik 
of their own, who, in consideration of a 
yeariy tribute to the Porte of 16,500 pias- 
tres, enjoys the revenues of the country, 
rendered productive and flourishing by 
agriculture and commerce (in cotton, 
honey, silk and oil). These people are 
commended by modfem travellers ror their 
hospitality, frugality, gentleness and piety. 
But their prosperity was interrupted in a 
war with the Nassarians (q. v.), who took 
Mesiade in 1809, and desolated the coun- 
try ; and, though reinstated, in 1810, in the 
possession of Sieir territory, they drag out 
a miserable existence. The Ismaeuans, 
with other Shiites, adore the prophet All 
as the incarnate God, and Mohammed as 
an ambassador of God and the author 
of the Koran. All Ismaelians term 
themselves SeH that is, descendants of 
the fiunily of Mohammed, and wear the 
green turban, in token of their pretended 
nobility. In accordance with their expo- 
sition of the Koran, they believe in super- 
natural communications of the Deity by 
the prophets (Imans), and in the transnu- 



gmtk>n of souls, deny a poiadise and belf^ 
do not observe the purifications and fttsts 
of the orthodox Mohammedans, and per- 
form their pilgrimages, not to Mecca, but 
to Meschid, the place of Ali^s interment, 
four days* journey from Bagdad. They 
have no nubhc temples, and their ample 
rites display more of pure theism than 
those of the Mohammedans, (See the trea- 
tise of Rousseau, consul-general in Aiep- 
po, respecting the Ismaelians and Nas- 
sarians.) 

IsrAc Table, or Bem bine Table (Mtma 
Lfiacaand Tabula BembmaU an ancient 
Egyptian monument, on winch is repre- 
sented the worship of the goddess Isis, 
with her ceremonies and mysteries. It is 
a square table of copper, divided into five 
conipartments, covered with silver Mosaie 
skiliuUy inlaid. The principal figure of 
the central group is Isi& After me cap- 
ture of Rome (1525), this table came into 
the possession of cardinal Bembo, firom 
whom the duke of Mantua obtamed it 
for his cabinet After the sack of Mantua 
in 1630, cardinal Pava obtained it, and 
presented it to the duke of Savoy. It is 
at present in the royal gallery at Turin. 
Several engravings of it nave been made ; 
the first byiEneas Vicus (Venice, 1559) in 
figures, the size of the original. Caylus 
has engraved and described it in his RKueU 
des AnUqtaUs, vii. p. 34. It is filled with 
all sorts of hieroglyphics ; and this mix- 
ture, with other reasons, Spineto consid- 
ers as a proof of its having been fabricated 
in Rome, at a late date, by some person 
who knew little about th^ science. 

IsinoRE ; the name of several martyrs, 
saints, monks and bishops ; among others, 
of a monk of Pelusium in Egypt, died 
about the year 449, whose letters are 
valuable, as illustrative of the Bible. In 
the history of the papal law, a ooDection 
of decretals is wortny of note^ which 
bears on its tide pace the name of Isidore, 
archbishop of Sevule (who died 636), bur 
whicli was corrupted in the 9th century 
by many s|[>urious additions, and was wide- 
ly circulated from the east of Germany. 

IsiifGLASS. This substance is almost 
wholly gelatine, 100 grains of good dry 
isinglass containing rather more than 96 
of matter soluble in water. It is brought 
principally fit>m Russia. The belluga 
vields the greatest quantity, being the 
largest and most plendfid fish in the rivers 
of Muscovy ; but the sounds of all fi^esh 
water fish yield more or less fine isinglass, 
particularly the smaller sorts, found in 
prodigious quantities in the Caspian sea, 
and several hundred miles beyond Astrsr 



Digitized by V^OO^ It! 



84 



ISINGLASS— ISIS. 



can, in the Wolga, Yaik, Don, and even 
as iar as Siberia. It is the basis of the 
Russian glue, which is preferred to all oth- 
er kinds for strength. Isinglass receives 
its different shapes in the following man- 
ner. The parts of which it is composed, 
particularly the sounds, are taken from 
thelish while sweet and fresh, slit open, 
washed finom their slimy sordes, divested 
of a very thin membrane which envelopes 
die sound, and then exposed to stiffen a 
little in the air. In this state, they are 
formed into rolls about the thickness of a 
finger, and in length according to the in- 
tended size of the* staple ; a thin mem- 
brane is generally selected for the centre 
of the roll, round which the rest are 
folded alternately, and about half an inch 
of each extremity of the roll is turned in- 
wards. Isinglass is best made in the 
summer, as frost gives it a disagreeable 
color, deprives it of its weight, and im- 
pairs its gelatinous principles. Isinglass 
boiled in milk forms a mild, nutritious 
jelly, and is thus sometimes employed 
medicinally. This, when flavored by the 
art of the cook, is the blancmanger of out 
tables. A solution of isinglass in water, 
with a very small proportion of some bal- 
sam, spread on blacK silk, is the court 
plaster of the shops. Isinglass is also 
used in fining liquors of the fermented kind, 
and in m&ing mock-pearls, stiffening 
linens, nlks, gauzes, &c. With brandy it 
fonns a cement for broken porcelain and 
glass. It is also used to stick together the 
parts of musical instruments. 

Isis ; the principal goddess of the Egvp- 
tians, the symbol of nature, the mother 
and nurse of all things. According to 
Diodorus, Osiris, Isis, Typhon, Apollo and 
Aphrodite (Venus) were the children of 
Jupiter and Juno. Osiris, the Dionysos 
(Bacchus) of the Greeks, married Isis (sun 
and moon), and they both made the im- 
provement of society their especial care. 
Men were no longer butchered, afler Isis 
had discovered the valuable qualities of 
wheat and barley, which had till then 
grown wild, unknown to mankind, and 
Osiris taught how to prepare them. In 
gratitude for these benents, the inhabitants 
always presented the first ears gathered 
as an offering to Isis. Whatever the 
Greek related of his Demeter (Ceres) the 
Egyptian attributed to Isis. As agricul- 
ture was improved, civilization advanced, 
and a taste for art and leners was develo])- 
ed. At least, we first hear among the 
Egyptians, of the building of cities and tem- 
ples, and the constitution of the priesthood, 
^flerthe time of Isis, who was also rever- 



ed as the inventress of sails. Acconl- 
ing to Plutarch's learned treatise (on Isis 
and Osiris), Osiris and Isis were the ille- 
gitimate offspring of Saturn and Rhea. 
When Helios (Sol), the husband of Rhea, 
discovered the intrisue, he pronounced 
judgment upon her, that she should not be 
delivered in any month nor in any year 
Mercury, who was then in love with 
Rhea, and was loved by her, having heard 
the curse, discovered a way in which she 
might be delivered, notwithstanding. In 
playing at draughts with the moon, he 
won from her Uie seventieth part of her 
light, of which he made five days, and, 
having added them to the 360, of which 
tlie yeai* had previously consisted, gave 
the goddess time for delivery. These 
were the mtercalaiy days of the Egyp- 
tians, which were celebmted by them as 
the birthdays of their deities. Osiris was 
bom the first, and at his birth a voice 
cried, ** The lord of the world is bom." 
On the second day, Rhea was delivered 
of Aroueris, or tiie elder Horns (Apollo), 
on the third of Typhon, on the fourth of 
Isis, and on the fifm of Nephthys, who was 
called J^deuUf the Consummation, though 
others give her the name of Apkro&e 
andJVUe (Victory). Of these five chil- 
dren, there were three fiuhers — HeUos, 
Satum and Mercury. Typhon married 
Nephthys ; Osiris and Isis loved each other 
even in their mother's womb. Osiris, the 
good spirit, was persecuted by Typhon, 
die bad spirit, who, by stratagem, shut him 
up in a ohest, and threw him into the sea. 
When Isis learned this, she cut off one of 
her locks, put on mourning garments, and 
wandered about disconsolate, in search of 
the chest. Meanwhile she learned that 
Osiris, on a certain occasion^ deceived by 
Nephthys, who was enamored of him, had 
mistaken Nephthys for herself, and that the 
child which was the fruit of this union 
hod been exposed by its mother. Isis 
therefore sought the child, and bred him 
up under the name ofAnvbis. The chest 
in which Osiris was shut up, was, mean- 
while, driven ashore at Byblos, and thrown 
on a bush, which, having suddenly grown 
into a beautiful tree, had entirely enclosed 
it. This tree was afterwards cut down 
by the king of the country as a curiosity, 
and U6e<l as a pillar in his palace. The 
chest was^ finally obtained bv an artifice 
of Isis, but the body, bemg ofterwords dis- 
covered by Typhon, was tom by him into 
14 pieces. On discovering this, Isis pro- 
ceeded to QoUect the fragments ; she found 
them all but one, an image of which she 
therefore formed; and thus the Phallus 

Digitized by ^UOyit^ . 



ISIS— ISLAM. 



came lo be held sacred, and a festival was 
eostituted in its honor by the Egyptians. 
OcQiis having returoed to life, Isis bore 
him, prematurely, Harpocrates, the god 
of silence, who was lame in his lower 
limbs. Honis, the son of Isis, afterwards 
vanquished T^hon in a war, and gave 
him lo his modier for safe-keeping. She 
set him at liberty, on which accowit Horns 
tore the crown from her head, instead of 
whidi Mercury gave her an ox's head. 
Ab the goddess oi fecundity, and the uni- 
versal benefactress, she superintended the 
cure of human maladies, and, even in Ga- 
len's time, several medicines bore her 
name. After her death, she was rever- 
enced as the 9hief of the divmities. Ac- 
cording to Herodotus, the £g}'ptians rep- 
resent^, Isis under the fbnn of a woman, 
with the horns of a cow, as the cow was 
sacred to her. Another tradition also re- 
lated, tliat Isis, in tlie shape of a young 
row, became the mother of Apis, by a ray 
finom heaven (Osiris); that is, tlie sun and 
moon sustain the earth. She is also 
known by the attributes of the lotus on 
her head, and the sistrum in her hand) a 
musical instrument, which the Egyptians 
used in the worship of tlie gods. The 
dress of Isis consists of a close under gar- 
ment, and a mantle drawn together and 
fastened in a knot o]i her breasL Her 
head is covered with the Egyptian hood. 
Sometimes, like the Diana of Ephesus, 
the universal mother, she is represented 
with a great number ofbreasts. Among the 
Romans, Isis afterwards received, in coun- 
tenance, figure and dress, somewhat of the 
character of Juno. A fbreien character is 
to be reco^ised only in the mantle and 
fringed veil, and other attributes. She 
was particularly worshipped in Memphis, 
but, at a later period, throughout all Esypt. 
A festival of eight days (the festival of 
Isis) was annuaUy soktnnized in her hon- 
or, consisting of a general purification. 
(See MfsUries,) It was introduced into 
Rome, but frequently prohibited on ac- 
count of the abuses which it occasioned. 
Under Augustus, the temples of Isis were 
the theatres of the grossest licentiousness. 
From Egypt, the worship of this goddess 
pasaed over to Greece and Rome. (See 
Yo, also Eeypiian M/thohgi/ in tlie article 
Hiaroglypmcs,) 

IsiiAM, or, as it is pronounced in Syria, 
Eslanij sagnifies an entire submission or 
devotion to the will of another, and es- 
pecially of God, and thence the attaining 
of securitv, peace and salvation. This 
act is performed, and these blessings arc 
obtained, according to the doctrine of the 

VOL. VH. 8 



Konm, by acknowledging the unity of 
God, and the apoetleship of Mohammed. 
Every man who makes this profession 
(aslama) is a Motiany i, e. has entirely 
given lumself up to the will of God, and 
is, on that account, in a state of salvation 
{salam). But as Mudimdni, the dual of 
MusKnij is commonly substituted for the 
singular by the Persians and Turks, the 
word Musubn&n^ or Afttfte^mon, has in 
those, as well as in the European lan- 
guages, now nearly superseded the shorter 
and more correct*^ term. — ^As Mam com- 
prehends the practical as well as the doc- 
trinal tenets orthe Moliammedan religion — 
every tiling which Moslems must believe 
and practise — ^it embraces the whole of 
tlieir ci\al and religious polity ; for the 
system of Mohammed relates more to this 
world than the next, and was designed, Hke 
the law of Moses, for the secular as well 
as the spiritual direction of his followers. 
But, taken in its more common and direct 
sense, it signifies the profession of the five 
fundamentol ddctrines, on which, accord- 
ing to a traditional declaration of the 
prophet (Reland, ReL Moh, 1. 1. p. 5^ the 
whole edifice of the faith is built. Those 
five points are — 1. the acknowledgment 
of the Divine Unity and of the prophetic 
mission of Mohammed ; 2. observance 
of prayer; 3. giving of alms ; 4. keeping 
the fiist of Ramadan ; and 5. the per- 
formance, if possible, of the pilgrimage to 
Mecca. They are oflen, also, subdivided 
and enlarged, m order to arrange them more 
conveniently into the two classes of belief 
(tmon) and practice (din). The former 
relates to — 1. God ; 2. the angels ; 3. the 
Sacred Book; 4. the prophets; 5. the 
last day ; and, 6. the divine decrees : the 
latter, to—l. purification ; 2. prayer ; 3. 
alms; 4. fasting; and 5. the pilgrimage. 
To tlie first article of this creed, the Per- 
aans and other adhercntsof Ah add, ** Ali 
is the vicar of God f and that is the only 
essential point in which they difiTer from 
the Sunnites, or orthodox Mus8elmans,who 
acknowledge the authority of the feur 
first khalifs. The disputes concerning 
the succession to the khalifete,or suprem- 
acy of the prophet, spiritual and civil, which 
arose immediately after his death, split his 
followers, as is well known, into two dis- 
tinct sects, the Sunnites and the Shiites, 
who have never since ceased to hate each 
other with a cordial tmimpsiw ; but they 
differ more in the degree of veneration 
paid to Ali, than m any other point ; and, 
professing the same creed, with the ex- 
ception of one article, they derive their 
doctrines firom the same sources. In their 

Digitized by V^OO^ Ikl 



86 



ISLAM— ISLAY. 



reepective rituals, and tbeir interpretatioQ 
of particular texte, there are many minor 
difiSsrences; but both agree in superadding 
a tFadltional to the written law of Mo- 
hammed, and both have sanctioned that 
departure from the orinnal simplicitr of 
his doctrine, the reestablishment of which 
was the professed object of the Waha- 
be6s. (See Mohammed.) 

Island ; a portion or land less than a 
continent, and which is entirely surround- 
ed by water. laiands are of very differ- 
ent extent, surface, &c There are some 
80 large, that authors have doubted wheth- 
er they should not be called contmefdSf as 
New Holland ; this, however, is a mere 
matter of definition. Borneo, Java, Mada- 
gascar, Sumatra, Sicily, Great Britain, Ire- 
fitnd, Iceland, Hayti, Cuba, Newfoundland, 
are among the most considerable islands, 
and are capable of containing powerful 
states ; while othen, speaking only of those 
which are inhabited, are only of a few miles 
in diameter. They differ not less in form 
Chan in extent ; some being indented with 
deep bays, and affording fine harbors, and 
o^ers presenting an almost unbroken line 
of coasL A cluster of several islands is 
called an arcMpelago. [q. v.) The princi- 
pal clusters in the Atlantic are the West 
Indies, the Azores, the Canaries, the Heb- 
rides, Oricneys, Shetlands, &c. But the 
great world of islands is in ' the Pacific, 
and modem writers have considered them 
as forming a fifth' division of the world, 
including the Eastern Archipelago, Poly- 
ne«a and Australia, to whicn they have 
given the name of Oceomiccu (See Oce- 
antca,) A larse island is a continent in 
miniature, wim its chaius of mountains, 
its rivers, lakes, and is often surrounded 
by a train of islets. The rivers of islands 
are in general litde more than streams or 
torrents, and the smaUer islands are often 
uninhabitable from want of water ; but 
they serve as haunts and breeding-{>lace8 
of innumerable sea-birds. There are 
islands in rivers and lakes, as well as in 
the sea. In rivers, they are often formed 
by the division of the stream into various 
branches, and often by accumulations 
of earth brought down and deposited 
around a rocky base. Examples are not 
wanting of floating islands, which are 
formed by die roots of plants and trees 
interlacing wiUi each other, and thus con- 
stituting a support for deposits of suc- 
cesMve layers of earth. Chains of islands 
in the neighborhood of continents seem 
to be oflen formed by the action of the 
waters washing away the leas solid parts, 
which once occupied the spaces between 



the mountams and locks which still ap- 
pear above the surfiice of the wavea. 
Single islands in the ocean, such as St. 
.Helena, Ascenaon, &C., and some clufi- 
ters, as the Canaries, the Azores, &c., ^>- 
pear to owe their oriein to the action of 
submarine fii^ which has raised them 
above the level of the sea. Considerable 
islands have been known to be suddenly 
raised from the bed of waters, and soon af- 
ter to have as suddenly disappeared in the 
ocean. The Pacific contains a great num- 
ber of low islands formed of coral reefii, 
which are sometimes covered with sand, 
on which a few plants find nourishment. 
These reefi are formed by the labors of 
innumerable zoophytes. Submarine isl- 
ands, as they have been sometimes called, 
or immense banks of sand, above which 
theie is no great depth of water, are not 
unfinequent It has been remarked that 
islanders have generally some peculiar 
traits of character, which distingiush them 
fix>m the inhabitants of continents : it is 
true that they have often been distinguish- 
ed bv their commercial activity, and their 
naval skill ; but this trait is common to 
other inhabitants of countries bordering 
on the sea. The great commercial powere 
of ancient times were the Phcenicians, 
the Carthaginians and continental Greeks ; 
of the middle ages, the Italian republics ; 
and the Normans were the most distin- 
guished naval warriors of their time. — ^A 
portion of country nearly included be- 
tween several rivers, is sometimes called 
an idandy as the ancient province of the 
hie de France* The Greeks called such a 
district by the expressive name of Meso- 
potamicL The Greek word for island is 
vilvott the Latin tnsvloj Italian tto^o, Span- 
ish isio, French Ue^ Uot^ German intel and 
eiland, Danish oe, and ey, Swedish <e, 
Russian oetrov. 
IsLAifD or IcEUkziD Spar. (See Lime.) 
Islands of the Blessed, or Fortu- 
nate Islands (InsuiUt Beatorumj^FMu- 
nake hntUBj «nm Majcapwy) ; the Elysium 
of Homer; according to the Grecian 
mythology, the happy islands which were 
supposed to lie westward in the ocean, 
where the favorites of Jupiter, snatched 
from death, lived in the midst of happi- 
ness. According to Heeiod, they were 
the residence of die fourth race of heroes. 
In the earliest mythology, the Islands of 
the Blessed, the Elysian Fields, and the 
lower world, were in general confounded 
with each other. 

IsLAT, Ilat, or Ila ; one of the Hebri- 
des, or Western Islands ofScotiand, to the 
southwest of Jura, and belonging to the 



Digitized by ^UO^ !(:! 



ISLAY— ISOCRATEa 



8r 



cooniy of Anyk. It 10 of an irregular 
Ann, about §1 miles in length, and M 
broad. It contains about 1M,000 acres, 
of which one seventh may be stated 
to be in cultivation. The Hnen manu- 
facture is carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent About 200 tons of kelp are manu- 
factured annually. Population, in 1801, 
6821; in 1811, 11,500; in 1821, 16,99a 
Its inhabitants are rapidly increasing. 
IsuB OF Francb. (See fVtmce, Me- 



su2feT05, a village of England, in 
the county of Middlesex, and neighbor- 
hood of London, is chiefly composed of 
the dwellings of retired citizens, and other 
peisons connected with the capital. The 
neighborhood abounds with pleasant 
wa&EB, the fields being unenclosed, and in- 
tersected by the meanders of the New 
river, while the adjacent tea-gardens and 
taverns, all in fine open situations, and 
fiunisbed with bowling-greens, are much 
visited from the metropolis. Population 
of the parish, 22,417. 

Ismail, or Iskailow ; a town in Rus- 
su, in Bessarabia, on the north side of the 
Danube, about 33 miles from the Black 
sea; 144 8. W. Otchakov, 268 N. Con- 
stantinople ; Ion. 28° 50^ E. ; hit 45° 21' 
N. Population, 10,000. The town of Is- 
mail contains 17 mosques, and measures 
about a mile towards the land, and half a 
mUe by the side of the Danube, and was 
fortified by eight bastions. The ramparts 
are, ingenenu, 18 feet in height, in some 
paitB 2^ This place was taken by storm 
(December 22, 1790), by the Rusnans, 
tmder general Suwarrow. The Russians 
were several times repulsed, and lost, in 
the siege, 10,000 men. According to the 
account, as published at Petersburg, the 
Tuikish garrison were put to death after 
the surrender, and 90,000 men massacred 
in cold blood. The booty found was im- 
mense-4230 pieces of cannon, many 
magazines, powder, bombs and balls, 345 
standards, an abundance of provisions, 
10,000 horses, &c., to the value, as calcu- 
lated, of 10,000,000 piastres. 

IsifARD, Maximin, was bom at Dni- 
guignan, in Provence, and his father, a 
rich tradesman, gave him an exceUent 
education. He was elected to the legis- 
lative assembly by the department of the 
Var(1791), and, as soon as he took his 
seat, he attacked the priests and emi- 
grants with the utmost severity. He also 
supported the impeachment of the king's 
brothera, voted against the minister Deles- 
sart, accused the court of counter-revolu- 
tionary projects, and, in a variety of other 



instances, displayed his hostility to the 
government He was returned as a depu* 
nr to the convention, and he voted for the 
death of the king. In that assembly, 
Iraard belonged to the Brissotine or Gi- 
rondist (q. V.) party, and, in the strugele 
which took place with the Jacobins, ne 
manifested an undaunted courage, and an 
impetuous and powerfld eloquence. May 
16, 1793^ he was chosen president of the 
convention. He was not comprised in 
the proscription of his party on the 2d of 
June ; but the revolutionary tribunal issued 
an order for arresting him, and, as he es- 
caped, they outlawed him. Isnard, how- 
ever, was concealed by a friend till after 
the ftJl of Robespierre. He then <]uitted 
his asylum, and resumed his seat m the 
convention. Shortly afler this, he was 
sent on a mission into the south of 
France; and he took a decisive part 
against the terrorists, who had committed 
such atrocious enormities in that quarter. 
He is even accused of having incited the 
oppressed to cany their vengeance be- 
yond all reasonable bounds. Some young 
men having complained to him that they 
had no anns with which to oppose the 
terrorists, he exclaimed ^'You nave no 
arms ! Open the ground, draw forth the 
bones of your Others, and rush on their 
npsossins!^ Isnard was elected a mem- 
ber of the council of five hundred, but 
quitted it in 1797, and was afterwards 
employed in the tribunals of the Var. 
He is the author of some political pam- 
pldets, of an account of his own proscrip- 
tion, of a woric On the Immortahty of the 
Soul, and of a Dithyrambic on the Im- 
mortelity of the SouL Not paving ac- 
cepted any office during the hundred 
days, he was allowed to remain in France. 
IsociLATEs; one of the most distin- 
guished Greek orators, bom at Athens, 
436 B. C. His principal teachers were 
Goigias, Prodicus and Protagoras. On 
account of his weak voice and natural 
timidity, he was reluctant to speak in 
public; but be applied himself with the 
greatest ardor to instruction in the art of 
eloquence, and preparing orations fbi; 
others. He derived a considenible profit 
from this occupation, as is evident fnim 
the foct, that he received a present of 20 
tfdents (about 18,000 dollars) for a speech 
that he wrote for Nicocles, king of Cyprus. 
In his childhood, he was the companion 
of Plato, and they remained friends dur- 
ing their whole lives. He had a great 
veneration for Socrates. Afler the deatlfc 
of Socrates, which filled his scholars witii 
fear and horror, he ak>Be had the courage 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



m 



ISOCRATES— ISPAHAN. 



to apj)eai- iii mouniiug. He gave another 
proof of his courage, by publicly defend- 
ing Theramenes, wlio bad been proiscrib- 
ed by the thirty t}rQnt8. This courage, 
however, seems to have deserted him ; 
fbr he never after ventured to appear 
publicly and take pait in the popular 
assemblies. This was the reason why he 
never attained to the offices, to which, in 
Athens, public eloquence afforded the 
only paanH)rt; but eloquence, neverthe- 
less, owed much to his services. He was 
particularly distinguished for a polished 
style and a harmonious construction of 
his sentences. The composition, revision, 
and repeated polishing of his speeches, 
occupied so much time, that he published 
litde. His celebrated panegyric on Ath- 
ens (Panaihenaicus) employed him 10 
years. The critics of his time objected 
to him, that his style was often prolix and 
overloaded with ornament ; that he aimed 
rather at pleasing the ear than moving the 
heart ; that he made the sense subservient 
to the sound, and often used unmeaning 
expressions and unappropriate figures to 
roimd off his perioda As all his speeches 
were modelled after the same pattern, 
their sameness excited weariness. His 
subjects were the most important points 
of morals and politics. His admonitions 
to princes were so gentle, that they could 
not be offended by them, and even be- 
stowed favors on the author. He knew 
how to flatter them in the most delicate 
manner. A proof of this is aftbrded by 
the letter which he wrote, when 90 years 
of age, to the Macedonian king Philip. 
Yet his desire fbr the freedom of Greece 
was so intense, that he starved himself to 
death, in his 98th year, from grief at the 
unhappy battle of Cheroneso. In Plu- 
tarch's time, 60 orations went under his 
name, not half of which were, however, 
deemed genuine. Twenty-one now re- 
main, of which the principal are the 
Pemegwicua (an oration in which he ex- 
horts tne Greeks to concord, and to war 
against the Peraians, edited by Morus and 
Spohn, Leipsic, 1817, Pinzger and Din- 
dorf, 1825 and 1826), and the PanaUumai' 
CU8. Ten letters are also extant. The 
latest editions of all his oradons are those 
of Lange (Halle, 1803) and of Coray 
(Paris, 1806, two volumes). Of the older 
editions, those of H. Wolf, of Henry Ste- 
phens, Bekker, and Battle are the best 

IsoGEAPHr (from the Greek Tvoi^ eqUal, 
similar, and yprf^u, to write); the imita- 
tion of handwriting. As it is too expen- 
sive and difficult for many persons to col- 
lect autographs (q. v.) of famous persons, 



it is agreenble to have ai least fac-similes 
or isographs. An interesting work was 
completed in the year 1830, called ho- 
graphit des Hommcs ciMn-es (Paris), con- 
taining several hundred fuc-simile copies 
of autograph letters and signature?. 
Some years ago, Mr. Thane published a 
work under the title British Autography^ 
containing a collection of portraits bf 
celebrated Englisli characters, with the 
fiic-simile of their autograplis under each ; 
and Mr. Nichols is pubUshing another 
work of the kind. It has been often as- 
serted, that some judgment could be 
fonned of a man's character from his 
handwriting, and there exists a small 
French publication — UAri dt jugtr Us 
Hommes par leitr Ecriiure—^ new reason 
for authors to be thankful for the invention 
of printing. 

IsouARD, Nicolo. (SeeJVicote.) 
Ispahan, Ispahan, or Spahawn (an- 
ciently Aspadona); a city of Persia, in 
Irak, formerly the capital of the whole 
country ; 260 miles N. E. Bassora ; Ion. 
5P SO' E. ; lat 32° 2y N. The popula- 
tion was formerly estimated by some 
traveUers, probably with much exaggera- 
tion, at 1,100,000. Chardin, in 1686, 
stated it at 600,000. Accordmg to Oli- 
vier, it was reduced, in 1796, to 50,000. 
In 1800, it was stated at 100,000. Morier 
stated it in 1808, from Peraian authorities, 
at 400,000 ; but, in his second journey, at 
60,000. Kinnier states it at 200^000. 
According to Chardin, the walls were 
24 miles m circuit, and contained 162 
mosques, 48 colleges, 1802 caravansaries^ 
and 273 public baths. A great part of 
the city is at present a mass of ruins, with 
here and there an inhabited house. It is 
situated on the river Zenderout Under 
the caliphs of Bagdad, it becanoe the cap- 
ital of the province of Irak. Being situ- 
ated in the centre of the empire, and sur- 
rounded by the most fertile territories, it 
soon became a place of jneat 'population, 
wealth and trade. In 1387, it was taken 
b^ Timur Bee, and the citizens were 
given up to indiscriminate massacre, and 
70,000 are said to have perished. Shah 
Abbas made it the seat of^ his empire, and 
spared no cost in embellishing it with the 
most splendid edifices. In 1722, it was 
taken by the Afghans; but, in 1727, it was 
retaken by Nadir Shah, since which It has 
not been a royal residence. The great 
palace built by Shah Abbes, is said to 
have been five miles in circuit, a great 
part of which space, however, was laid 
out in 10 gardens, adorned with sununer 
houses and other elegant structures^ 

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ISPAHAN— ISSUE. 



B9 



The walls and boildiDgs of this palace 
remain nearijr entire, but it baa been 
Btrijpped of nearly all its costly furniture, 
and every thmg valuable that could be 
removed. The square called Meyden 
was <>qually distinguished, one third of a 
mile in length, fonnerly enpircled by a 
canal, bordered with plane trees; but all 
vestiges of both are now obliteiated. 
AnoUier renyukaUe object is the Chaur 
Baug (four gardens), a name given to an 
avenue of more than a mile, reaching 
from the Meyden to the mountains east 
of Ispahan, composed of four rows of 
laree and beautiful plane trees, with ca- 
na& and basins to receive the waters of 
the Zenderout There are several hand- 
some Mdges in the city, and the mosques 
di^lay great magnificence. The private 
buildings have a mean appearance, built 
of bricks dried in the sun, but within they 
are handsome and convenient The 
streets are narrow, winding, irregular, un* 
paved, and very dusty. When Ispahan 
was in its prosperity, its suburbs were d]»- 
tinguished for their extent and beauty. 
The principal one, Julfa, is now reduced 
from 12,000 to 600 families — Armenians, 
Circaasians and Georgians. The manu- 
factures of the city are still extensive, and 
it is fiimous for its gold brocade. It is 
also the emporium of the inland com- 
merce of Perna. 

Israel and Israelites. (See Jacob, 
and Hebrews,) 

IsBAELiTE Christians ; the Jews con- 
verted to Christianity in Russia. An im- 
perial decree of March 23, 1817, imparted 
to tbem perfect freedom in the choice of 
their Christian confession, portions of the 
public lands for die establishment of colo- 
nies, freedom to exercise mechanical arts 
without restraint, full civil rights, inde- 
pendence of the local authorities, govern- 
ment by magistrates chosen by them- 
selves, who were immediately subordi- 
nate to an imperial board of control, ex- 
emption from military and civil service, 
fimii Aimishing quarters to soldiers, from 
supporting the posts, and from all taxes 
for 20 years, when they are to be placed 
on an equality with other subjects. Ac- 
cording to the denomination of the 
' Christian confeaaions selected by them, 
they must form distinct parishes, in 
which no foreign Christian or Jew may 
settle, though every foreign proselyte may 
be adraitted after the payment of his 
debts. 

IssiTE. The plaintiff and defendant, in 
a suit at law, are said to be of tMtt€, when 
something is affirmed by one of them, 
8* 



which is denied by the other. The sub- 
ject of this affirmation and denial may be 
either matter of feet or matter of law. If 
the defendant intends to dispute the truth 
of the statement whereon the plaintiff 
0ounds his complaint, he denies either 
the whole of the statement, or some one 
material feet contained in it, which, in 
technical language, is called traoenmg. 
He then appeals to the decision of a jury, 
which is called putting kmse^ tqfon mt 
cotaUry, Although the plaintiff's state- 
ment oe true, it does not necessarily fol- 
low that it discloses sufficient grounds for 
complaint against the defendant. If it 
does not so, the defendant admits the 
truth of the facts, but denies their suffi- 
ciency in law to support the action. In 
this case, he appeals to the decision of the 
judges ; for the jury merely decides ques- 
tions which involve matters of feet 
Questions of mere law fall beneath the 
cognizance of the judaes. When eitiier 
the phuntiff or the defendant admits the 
factfi^ but denies the law of the other, he 
is said to demur. Although the pJaintifTs 
statement, so far as it goes, be both true 
in point of fact, and sufficient in point of 
law, the defendant may still have a good 
defence ; for the plaintiff may have stated 
the truth, but not die whole truth. Some 
facts may be suppressed, which, when ex- 
plained by the defendant, may turn the 
scale in his fevor. If this counter-state- 
ment of the defendant is insufficient in 
point of law as a defence, the plaintiff 
demurs ; but if it is sufficient in point of 
law, he must either deny the facts, or al- 
lege some other fects to counterbalance 
them. By these means, the parties in the 
cause must ultimately arrive at some point, 
either of law or feet, at which they are at 
issue, and iudgment will be given for that 
party in whose fevor the issue is decided. 
The statements and counter-statements of 
the parties are called the pleading$f and 
each particular stage in the pleadinas has 
a name appropriated to itself These 
names are, 1. the deckaration ; 2l the ofea ; 
3. the repUeaJtum ; 4. the reminder; 5. the 
ertrr^ovndtr ; 6. the rebutter ; and 7. the but- 
rebutter. The first, third, fifth and seventh 
names belong to the pleadings of tiie 
plaintiff; the second, fourtli and sixth to 
the defendant Issue is generally taken 
before the parties arrive at a surrebutter. 
In former times, the pleadings were con- 
ducted, vwd voce, in open court, and the 
judges presided, like moderators, during 
the dispute, until the parties arrived at an 
issue ; but they are now drawn up in 
writing out of court and are then filed by 

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90 



ISSUE— I8TRIA. 



the attomeyB in theproper offices attach- 
ed to the court The judges now hear 
nothing of them until the issue of fact 
comes on for trial, or the issue at hiw for 
aigument If the existence of a particu- 
lar record is put in issue, it must be pro- 
duced by the party who affirms its exist- 
ence ; and the court, at the time appointed 
for its production, decides the issue with- 
out the intervention of a jury. This is 
one of the very rare cases where the jury 
are not the sole judges on questions of 
&ict There is a rule of pleading, that 
only one material fiict shall be put in is- 
sue in one plea. To this rule the general 
i»aw forms a wide exception. When a 
special plea is pleaded, evidence is only 
adnuBsible as to the truth or falsehood of 
the particular fact which is the subject of 
that plea ; but the general issue is a spe- 
cies of plea which usually compels the 
plaintiff to prove his whole case to the 
satisfaction of a jury, and, at the same 
time, enables the defendant to prove any 
circumstances whatever which discharge 
his liability. Thus, if an action be 
Inrought against a man for the ])rice of 
ffoods which the plaintiff alleges that the 
defendant bought, if the defendant has 
become a bankrupt since the purchase, 
he may plead that fiict specially, and then 
the evidence is confined to *^ the angle 
question — ^Has he or has he not become 
bankrupt ? But if he pleads the general 
issue, then he may prove either that he 
never bought the goods, or that he paid 
for them, or that he returned them to the 
plaintiff on finding them to be of an in- 
ferior (|[uality, or, in short, any thing else 
which IS a bar to the action. The form 
of the general issue, in this case, is sim- 
ply " that the defendant did not promise 
or undertake in manner and form as the 
plaintiff has complained aeainst him.'' 
Owin^ to this latitude allowed to the gen- 
eral issue, it sometimes happens that 
Elaintifi^s are taken by surprise at the trial, 
y the defendant setting up an unexpect- 
ed defence, which the plaintiff, on the 
spur of the moment, is unable to disprove. 
When this is proved to the satisfaction of 
the judges, they will, if the justice of the 
case require it, grant a new trial. 
IsTAKHAR. (See Persepolis.) 
IsTAMBOL. (See Conatantinople.) 
Isthmian Games ; so called because 
they were celebrated on the isthmus of 
Corinth, which joins the Peloponnesus to 
the continent. On it was a nimous tem- 
ple consecrated to Neptune, near which 
the Isthmian games were celebrated. On 
one side of the temple were the statues of 



the victors in these games, and on the oth- 
er was a grove of pines. In the temple 
stood four horses, gilded all over, with the 
exception of their ivory hoofs : by the 
side of the horses were two Tritons, the 
upper parts of which were gilt, and the 
rest of ivory. Behind the horses was a 
car, with the statues of Neptune and Am- 
phitrite, of gold and ivory. Not fkr from 
the temple were a conaderable theatre, 
and the stadium, of white stone, in which 
the games were celebrated. The whole 
isthmus was sacred to Neptune, who was 
thence called Isthmius, According to the 
common opinion, the Isthmian games 
were founded in honor of Paleemon or 
Melicerta. (See Ino,) Others relate that 
Theseus established them in honor of 
Neptune. They were originally held in 
the night, and had perhaps f^en into disuse, 
when Theseus restored them, and ordered 
them to be celebrated in the day. As 
Theseus was either the founder or the re- 
storer of these ^omes, the Athenians had 
the precedence m them. Ail Greece took 
part in them, excepting the Eleans, whose 
absence was thus explained : — ^As the sons 
of Actor were riding to these games, they 
were killed, near Elea, by Hercules. 
Their mother, Melione, discovered the 
murderer, who then resided in the territo- 
ry of Argos. She therefore demanded 
satisfaction of the Aleves, and, on their 
refusal to grant it, requested the'Corintli- 
ians not to admit them to the games, aa 
distmiiers of the public tranqmlliiy. As 
they would not yield to her solicitations, 
Melione pronounced direful curses on all 
the Eleans, if they should ever participate 
in these gomes. They were celebrated, 
with tlie some splendor ss the Olympian 
and other public ' games, twice in each 
Olympiad, probably in autumn : the ath- 
letic exercises were the same. The vic- 
tors were at first adorned with wreaths of 
pine branches, but afterwards with wreaths 
of dry and faded ivy. The pine wreaths 
were afterwards resumed. 

IsTRiA (anciently Histria); peninsula, 
Austrian empire, in Jllyria ; bounded on 
all sides by the sea, except towards the 
north, where it is joined to Camiola. It 
was anciently a part of Illyricum. Popu- 
lation, 140,749 ; square miles, 1570 ; of 
this, more than two thirds formerly be- 
longed to the republic of Venice. It is a 
rich, fertile tract. The occupation of the 
inhabitants consists in agriculture, the cul- 
ture of wine and oil, the rearing of bees, 
the manufacturing of silk, leather, tallow, 
sak, and also in fiishing. The chief towns 
are Rovigno, Capo d'Istria, and Fiume. 



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ITALY. 



91 



Isdia was confirraed to Austria in 
1814. 

Italy, ooce the seat of universal em- 
pire, but which, since the overthrow of 
the Roman power, has never formed an 
independent whole, the pride of its in- 
babitanlB and the admiratipn of foreigners, 
on account of its delicious climate and 
former renown, is anarrow peninsuia, ex- 
tending from the Alps (46° to 38^ N. lat) 
into the Mediterranean sea, which, on the 
cast side of Italy, is called the Adriatic^ 
on the west, the Tuuean sea. The Apen- 
nines (q. yX rising near the maritime Alps 
(q. v.), are tne principal chain of mountains, 
and stretch mrough the country, divid- 
ing Lomhardy from the Genoese territo- 
ries and Tuscany, and Tuscany from Ro- 
magna, intersecting the States of the 
Church, and running through the king- 
dom of Naples to the strait of Messina. 
Upper Italy , (Lomhardy) is remarkably 
well watered. The Po, which receives a 
great number of rivers from the large 
lakes at the foot of the Alps (lago Mag- 
giore, di Lugano, di Como, dlseo and di 
Garda), and the Adi|^, are the principal 
rivers. They both rise in the Alps, and 
flow into the Adriatic sea. In Middle It- 



aly (Tuscany and the States of the 
Church), are the Arao and the Tiber, 
which rise in the Apennines, and flow into 
the Tuscan sea. In Lower Italy (Naples) 
there are no large rivers, on account of the 
shortness of the course of the streams 
from the mountains to the sea : the Ga- 
rigliano is the principal. The climate is 
warm, without excessiye heat, and gener- 
ally salubrious. The winter, even in Up- 
per Italy, is very mild: in Najdes, it hara- 
ly ever snows. The abundance and ex- 
cellence of the productions of the soil cor- 
respond with the beauty of the climate. 
In many places, both of the north and 
soudi, there are two and even three crops 
a year. The volcanic character of the 
coasts of Lower Italy is particuhurly re- 
markable in a geological point of view, 
especially in the resion of Puzzuoli and 
Vesuvius. The nei^boring islands of the 
Mediterranean are disdnguished by the 
same character. The present number of 
inhabitants is much inierior to the former 
populationof this delightful country. The 
following table, copi^ fit>m Mr. Balbi^ 
difierent publications, is taken from the 
Revue Bntanmque : 



Political Diviiioiu. 



independtnt Italy, 

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 

Kingdom of Sardinia,* 

States of the Church, 

Grand-duchy of Tuscany, 

Duchy of Parma, 

Duchy of Modena, with Maasa and Carrara, 

Duchy of Lucr>a« '. . 

Republic of St. Marino, 

Principality of Monaco, 

ita(y subject to Foreign Powers, 

Austrian Italy (Lombardo-Venedan king- 
dom, Italian Tyrol, and part of the 
government of Trieste), 

French Italy (island of Corsica), 

Swiss Italy (canton of Tessin, some parts 
of the Grisons, and of the Valais), . . . 

English Italy (the group of Malta), .... 

Total, 



Surface in 
sq. Miles, 
60 to the 
Degree. 



72^ 

31,800 

18,180 

13,000 

6,324 

1,660 

1,571 

312 

17 

38 

22,030 



17,800 
2,852 

1,250 
128 

94,932 



Pbpalation at 
the Beffhmins 



16^060,500 

7,420.000 

3,800,000 

2,590,000 

1^5,000 

440,000 

379,000 

143,000 

7,000 

6,500 

5,337^)00 



4,930,000 
185,000 

126,000 
96,000 

21,397,500 



Rerenue 

in Dollars, 

•bout 



36,035,800 

15,000,000 

10,700,000 

5,350,000 

3,030,000 

820,000 

713,000 

340,000 

11,500 

71,300 

22,623,000 



21,800,000 
208,000 

98,000 
517,000 

58,658,800 



Armyin 
1^. 



66»940 

30,000 

23,000 

6,000 

4,000 

1^20 

1,780 

800 

40 

52,120 



50,000 

2,120 
119,060 



The national character of the Italians, 
naturally cheerful, but always marked 
by strong passions, has been rendered, 

* Savoy !■ not incladed here, not being conaid- 
eied a part of Italy by the Bevue. 



by continued oppression, dissembling and 
selfish. The Italian, moreover, possesses 
a certain ocuteness and versatility, as well 
as a love of money, which stamp him for 
a merchant. In the middle ages, Venice, 



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m 



ITALY, HISTORY OF. 



Genoa, Florence and Pku were the chief 
marts of the European commerce with 
the East Indies ; and Italians (then called 
Lofnbcardsy without distinction, in Germa- 
ny, France and En^and) were scattered 
ail over Europe for the purposes of trade. 
The discovery of a paasafe by sea depriv- 
ed them of the India trade, and the pros- 
perity of those republics declined. The 
Italian, restricted almost solely to traffic 
in the productions of his own country, has 
nevertheless always remained an able and 
active merchant Before Rome had (2100 
years a^] absorbed all the vitaj power of 
Italy, this countiy was thickly inhabited, 
and, for the most part, by civilized nations. 
In the north of Italy alone, which offered 
the longest resistance to the Romans, 
dwelt a baziwrous people, the Gauls. Far- 
ther south, on the Amo and the Tiber, a 
number of smAll tribes, such as the Etrus- 
ci, the Samnites and Latins, endeavored 
to find safety by forming confederacies. 
Leas closely united, and often hostile to 
each other, were the Greek colonies of 
Lower Italy, caUed Magna Grtcia, The 
stoiy of the subjection of these nations to 
the Roman ammtion, belongs to the his- 
toiy of Rome. Italy, in the middle ages, 
was divided into Upper, Middle and Low- 
er Italy. The first divimon comprehend- 
ed all the states situated in the b^sm of 
the Po ; the second extended lietween the 
former and the kinsdom of Naples, which 
formed the third. At present, it is divided 
into the following mdependent states, 
which are not connected with each other 
by any political tie, and of which an ac- 
count will be ffiven under the separate 
heads— 1. the Kingdom of Sardinia ; 2. 
Lombardv, or Austrian ludy (including 
Milan and Venice) ; 3. the duchy of Par- 
ma ; 4. the duchy of Moclena (including 
Massa) ; 5. the ffrand-duchy of Tuscany ; 
6. the duchy of Lucca ; 7. the republic 
of San Marino ; 8. the papal dommions 
(see Churchy Staler of t&e) ; 0. the king- 
dom of Nicies or the Two Sicilies. Raha 
did not become tlie general name of this 
country until the age of Augustus. It had 
been early impenectly kno^vn to the 
Greeks under the name oiHtsptria, Au- 
soma^ Saiwnia and (EtnUna were also 
ruunes applied by them to tlie southern 
part, with which alone they were at first 
acquainted. The name Raiia was at first 
merely a partial name for the southern 
extremity, until it was gradually extended 
to the whole country. It was probably 
derived from lialiia^ an CEnotrian chiei^ 
though others give a different etymol 
(See, in Niebuhr's Roman History, 



dad Jb%.) Ancient Italv is generally 
described under the 13 following heads: 

I. Llguria (see GauJh 3l Gallia Cisalpi- 
na; S. Venetia; 4. Etruria; 5. Umbria 
and Picentun ; 6. the Sabini, iGqui, Mar- 
si, Peligni, Vestini, Manrucini ; 7. Rome ; 
8. Latium ; 9. Campania ; 10. Samnium ; 

II. Apulia; 12. Lucania; 13. the Bruttii. 
The ancient geography of Italy has been 
learnedly illustrated by Mannert ^Leipsic, 
1823, 2 vols.) and Cramer {Dtscrvptum of 
.^iiaefi<i^y,2vo]s.,Oxfbixl,1826). The 
modem history of Italy begins with the 
fiill of the Western Empire. 

First Period, from Odoaeer (476) to M- 
hwa (5681 comprises the time of the do- 
minion ot the Herulianaand Rugians and of 
the Ostrogothic kingdom. Romuliis was 
the fouuder of the city, that became the mis- 
tress of the' world ; Augustus founded its 
universal monarchy, and Romulus Augus- 
tulus was the name of its last feeble em- 
peror, who was dethroned by his German 
guards. Odoaeer, their leader, assumed 
the tide of Hng ofltabf, and thus this coun- 
try was separated from the Roman empire. 
ISiitt this valiant barbariancould not commu- 
nicate a spirit of independence and energy 
to the degenerate Italians ; nothing but 
an amalgamation with a people in a state 
of nature could effect their legeneratioQ. 
Such a people already stood on the fron- 
tiers of Italy. Theodoric (q. v.), king of 
the Ostrogoths, instigated by Zeno, empe- 
ror of the East, overthrew (493) the king- 
dom of Odoaeer, and reduced all Italy. 
His Goths spread fix)m the Alps to Sicily. 
In the lagoons of the Adriatic alone, some 
fugitives, who had fled fit>m the devasta- 
tions of Attila, and obtained a subsistence 
as sailors, and by the manufiicture of salt, 
maintained their freedom. Theodoric, who 
combined the vigor orthe north with the 
cultivation of the south, is justly termed the 
Gfreot, and, under the name of Dietrickqf 
Bern (Verona), has become one 4>f the 
principal heroes of old German story, 
but the energy of his peoi>le soon yielded 
to Roman corruption. Totila, for 10 yearB, 
contested in vain the almost completed 
conquest with tlie military skill of Belisari- 
us. He fell in batde in 552, and Teias ia 
553, after which Italy was annexed to the 
E^astem Empire, under an exarch, who re- 
sided at Ravenna. But the firat exarch, 
Narses, a eunuch, sunk under the intrigues 
of the Byzantine court, and his successor 
neglected the defence of the passes of the 
Alps. The countiy was then invaded by 
the Lombards, a German people which 
had emifprated from the Elbe to Pannonia. 
Under kmg Alboin, they eonquered Lom- 

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ITALY, HISTORY OF. 



» 



bardy, wliich received its iiame from them, 
aloioBt without a blow. Their govern - 
ment was leas favorable to the arts and 
sciences than that of the Goths. 

Second Period, — From Alboin te Char- 
Usta^rne (774), or Period of the Lombard 
Ejimire. The kingdom of the Lombards 
included Upper Itoly, Tuscany and Um- 
bria. Albom also created the duchy of 
Benevento, in Lower Italy, with which 
lie invested Zotto. The whole of Lorn- 
Itardian Italy was divided into 30 great 
fiefi, under dukes, counts, &c., which 
soon became hereditary. Together with 
the new kin^om, the confederation of 
the fugitives in the lagoons still suhasted 
in undisturbed fi-eedom. The islanders, 
by the election c^ their first doge, Anafes- 
to, in 0^, established a central govern- 
ment ; and the republic of Venice was 
founded. (See Venice.) Ravenna, the seat 
of the exarch, with Romagna, the Pentap- 
oUs, or the Ave maritime cides (Rimini, 
Peaaro, Fano, Sinigaglia and Ancona), 
and almost all the coasts of Lower Italy, 
where Amalfi and Gaeta bad dukes of 
their own, of the Greek nation, remained 
unconquered, together with Sicily and the 
capita], Rome, v^ich was governed by a 
patrician in the name of the emperor. 
The aligfat dependence on the court of 
Byzantium disappeared almost entirely in 
tlie beginning of the eighth century, when 
Leo the Isaurian exasperated the orthodox 
Itahaos, by his attack on images. (See 
Jcotioda^.) The cities expelled his offi- 
cers, and chose consuls and a senate, as in 
ancient times. Rome acknowledged, not 
indeed the power, but a certain paternal 
authority or its bishops, even in secular 
afSuTB, in consequence of the respect 
which their holiness procured them. The 
popes, in their efforts to defend the free- 
dom of Rome against the Lombards, for- 
saken by the court of Byzantium, gener- 
ally had recourse to the Prankish kings. 
In consideration of the aid expected 
against king Astolphtis, pope Stephen III 
(753) not only anointed Pepin, who had 
been made king of the Franks, in 752, 
^vith the approbation of popeZacharios, but, 
with the assent of the municipality of 
Rome, appointed him patrician, as the 
imperial governor had hitherto been de- 
nominated. Chariemagne made war upon 
Desklerius, the king of the Lombards, in 
defence of the Roman church, took him 
prisoner in his capital, Pavia, united his 
empire with the Frankish r^ionarchy (774), 
and eventually gave Italy a king in iiis 
»n Pepin. But his attempts agonist the 
duchy of Benevento, the independence of 



which was maintained by duke Arichis, 
and against the republics in Lower Italy, 
where Naples, Amalfi and Gaeta in par-, 
ticular, had become rich by navigation 
and commerce, were unsuccessful. The 
exarchate, with the five cities, hod already 
been presented to the pope by Pepin, in 
756, and Chariemagne eonfbmed the gifl, 
but the secular supremacy of the popes 
was first completed by Innocent III, about 
1200. 

TOtrrf Period, — FVom Chariemagne to 
Otho ihe Ch-eat (961), or Period of the Car- 
lovingians and InUrregnunL Leo III be- 
stowed on the king of the Franks, on 
Christmas day, A. D. 800, the imperial 
crown of the West, which needed a Char- 
lemagne to raise it from nothing. But 
dislike to the Franks, whose conauest wtM 
looked upon as a new invasion or barbari- 
ans, united the free cities, Rome excepted, 
more closely to the ' Eastern Empire. 
Even during the lifetime of Charienuigne, 
Frankish Itely was given to hn grancbon 
Bernard (810). But, Bernard faaviii^ at- 
tempted to become independent or his 
uncle, Louis die Debonnaire, he was de- 
prived of the crovm, and his eyes were 
torn out Italy now remained a constitu- 
ent part of the Frankish monarchy, till the 
partition of Verdun (843), when it was 
allotted, with the imperial dignity, and 
what was afierwards called Lorraine, to 
Lothaire I, eldest son of Louis. LothairB 
left the government (850) to his son Louis 
II, the most estimable of the Italian 
princes of the Carlovingian line. Aftet 
bis death (875), Italy b^same the apple 
of discord to the whole family. Charles 
the Bold of France first took poMession 
of it, and, after his death (877), Carioman, 
king of Bavaria, who was succeeded, in 
880, by his brother Charles the Fat, king 
of Suabia, who united the whole Prank- 
ish monarchv for the last time. His de - 
thronement (887) was the epoch of an - 
archy and civil vrar in Italy. Berengarius^ 
duke of Friuli, and Guide, duke of Spole- 
to (besides the marquis of Ivrea, the only 
ones remaining of the 30 great vassals)^ 
disputed the crown between them. Guido 
%vas crowned king and emperor, and, after 
his death (Sd4\, his son Lambert Arnold, 
the Carlovingian king of the Germans, 
enforced his claims to the royal and impe- 
rial crown of Italy (896), but, like most of 
his successors, was able to maintain them 
only during his residence in the country. 
After the death of Lambert and Arnold 
(898 and 899),Loui8, kha^ ofLower Burgun- 
dy, becon^e the competitor of Berengorius 
I ; and this bold and noble prince, although 

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ITALY, HISTORY OP. 



crowned king in 8d4, and emperor in 915^ 
did not enjoy quiet till be had expelled 
the emperor Louis III (9051 and van- 

2uiahed another competitor, Kodolph of 
fppor Burgundy : he was even then un- 
able, on account of the feeble condition of 
the suite, to defend the kingdom effect- 
ively against the invasions of the Saracens 
(fiv>m ^) and the Hungarians (&om 899). 
AAer the aasassination of Berengarius 
(934), Rodolpb II relinquished his daims 
to Hugh, count of Provence, in exchange 
for that countfy . Hugh sought to strength - 
en the insecure throne of Italy by a bloody 
tyrannv. His nephew, Berengarius, mar- 

auis of Ivrea, fled fit)m his snares to Otho 
le Great of Grermany (940), assembled 
an army of fugitives, returned, and over- 
threw Hugh (945), who was succeeded 
by his son Lothaire. Berengarius be- 
came his firat counsellor. But, ajfler the 
death of ](jothaue, in 950 (poisoned, it was 
said, by Berengarius), the latter wished to 
compel his widow — ^the beautiful Ade- 
laide—contrary to her inclination, to mar- 
ry his son. Escaping from his cruelty 
and her prison, sne took refuge in the 
castle of CanoBsa, where site was besieged 
b^ Berengarius II. She now applied for 
aid to Chho I, king of Germany, who 
passed the Alps, liberated her, conquered 
Pavia, became king of the Franks and 
Lombards (in 951), and married Adelaide. 
To a prompt submission, and the cession 
of Friuli, the kev of Italy, which Otho 
gave to his brother Heniy, Berengarius 
was indebted for permission to reign as 
the vassal of Otho. But, the nobles of 
Italy preferring new complaints asainst 
him, 10 years after, Otho returned [961), 
deposed him, and led him prisoner to 
Bambeiv, and, aAer having been himself 
crowned kine of Ital^ with the iron crown, 
in 961, tmited this kingdom with the Grer- 
man. Otho gave the great imperial fie6 
to Germans, and granted to me Italian 
cities privileges that were the foundation 
of a free consdtuti<», for which they soon 
became ripe. The growing wealth of the 
papal court, owing to the munificence of 
the French kings, which had promoted 
their influence on the government, so 
beneficial under Leo IV, and popes of a 
similar character, became, through the cor- 
ruption of the Roman court, in the 10th 
century, the fi»t cause of its decline. 
The clergy and the people elected the 
popes according to the wifl.of the consuls 
and a few patricians. In the first half of 
the 10th century, two women disposed of 
the holy chair. Theodora elevated (914) 
her lover, John X, and Maruzia, the 



daughter of Theodora, elevated her son, 
John XJ, to the papal dignity. The 
brother of the latter, Alberic of Camerino, 
and his son Octavian, were absolute mas- 
ters of Rome, and the last was pope, under 
the name of John XII, when 20 years of 
age (956). Otho the Great, whom he had 
crowned emperor in Rome, in 962, de- 
posed him, and chose Leo VIII in his 
stead ; but the peonle, jealous of its right 
of election, chose Benedict V. From mis 
time, the popes, instead of ruling the peo- 
ple of Rome, became dependent on them. 
In Lower luUy, the republics of Naples, 
Gaeta and Anialfi stul defended their 
ind^>endence against the Lombard duchy 
of Benevento, with the more ease, since 
the duciiy had been divided (839) between 
Siconolphus of Salerno and Radelgbisius 
of Benevento, and subsequently anyone a 
sreater number, and once with the dukes 
Siey had had a common enemy in the 
Saracens, who had been previously invited 
over from Sicily by both parties (about 
830), as auxiliaries against each other, but 
who bad settled and maintained them- 
selves in Apulia. The emperore Louis II 
and Basillus Macedo had, with comfasned 
forces, broken the power of the Mussul- 
mans (866) ; the fi>rmer veas, nevertheless, 
unable to maintain himself in Lower Ita- 
ly, but the Greeks, on the contrarv, gained 
a firmer footing, and formed, of the re- 
gions taken from the Saracens, a senarate 
province, called the Thema of Lombardy^ 
which continued under their dominion, 
though without prejudice to the liberty of 
the republics, upwards of a hundred 
years, being governed by a catapan (gov- 
emoi^general) at Bari. Otho the <jmat 
himself did not succeed in driving them 
altogether firom Italy. The manria|(e of 
his son, Otho II, with the Greek princess 
Theopbania, put an end to his exertions 
for this purpose, as did the unfiHtiuiate 
battle at BasenteUo to the similar attempts 
renewed by Otho II (980). 

Fowrih Period.—Ihnn (Xho the Grtai to 
Gregory VII (1073). The Dominion of 
tht German Kings, In opposidon to the 
designs of the count of iSisculum, who 
wished to supplant the absent emperor at 
Rome, a noble Roman, the consul Cres- 
ccnduB, attempted to govern Rome under 
the semblance of her ancient hbcity (960^ 
Otho II, king since 973, occupicMi with 
his projects of conquest in Lower Italy, 
did not interfere with this administration, 
which became formidable to the vicious 
popes Boniface VII and John XV. But, 
when Otho III, who bad reigned in Ger- 
many since 963, raised his kinsman Greg- 



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ITALY, fflSTOfiY OF. 



00 



ay V to the popedom, Crescentius 
cmned the Imer to be ezfteUedy and John 
XVI, a Greek, to be elected by the peo- 
ple. He abo endeayond to pbce Bome 
again under the namiiial aupremacy of 
the Bymantine empire. Otho, however, 
reinfllaftBd Qn»ory, beaieged Crescenlius 
9D the eaatfe of St Aagelo, took him pria- 
ooer, and cauaed him to be beheaded 
with 13 other DoUe Romana (986). But 
the Eomana again threw off tneir allegi- 
ance to the emperor, and yielded only to 
foree. On the death <^Othom (1002), 
the Italians eonadered their conneiion 
with the German empire as diaBolved. 
Httdiun, marquia of Ivrea, waa elected 
kinff, and crowned at P^via. Thia waa a 
aomcient motive for Milan, the enemy of 
Pkvia, to declare for Heniy II (in Itahr, I) 
of Germany. A dril war enaued, in 
wfaidi ereiy city, relying on its walk, 
took a mater or leai part Heniy was 
choaen nnc of Italy, fy the noblea a»- 
aemUed inFavia ; but dfltuibancea aroae, 
in which a nait oi the dty waa destroyed 
by fire (A. D. 1004). Not till after Haidu- 
m^ de«ith (1015) waa Heniy recognised as 
king by all Lombardy ; he was aueceeded 
t»y Connd II (m Italy, I). At a diet held 
at P^Bi^^^igiU^ near Piacenza, in 1037, Con- 
md made the fiefi hereditaiy by a ftinda- 
mental law of the empire, and endeavored 
to give Btabili^ and tranquilfi^ to the 
alalB, hot without auccesB. llie citiea 

ah^h were daily becoming more power- 
) and liie biahope were enflnged mcon- 
timial quaneb with the nomlitv, and the 
nobility with their vasaals^ which could not 
be repressed. Republican Rome, under 
the influence of the fiunily of Crescentius, 
could be reduced to obedience neither by 
Henry II and Conrad II nor by thepopee. 
When Hemy III (m Italy, II), the son and 
sncoeasor of Conrad (1039)^ entered Italy 
(1046)^ he found three popes in Rome, all of 
whom he deponed, appcwited in their stead 
Clement II, and ever after filled the papal 
chair, by his own authority, with virtuous 
German ecclesiastics. This reform gave 
die popea new consequence, which afier- 
became fatal to his successor. 



Henry died in 1056. During the k>] 
minority of his son Henry IV (in Italy, III,, 
the poBi^ of the popes, directed by the 
monk ifilddMand (afierwards Gregoiy 
VII)b aucoeedeid in creating an opposition, 
wUeh soon became formidable to the 
aeenlar power. (See Pope.) The Nor- 
mans also contributed to thia result As 
early as 1016, waniorB from Normandy 
had eatalilished themselves in Calabria and 
Apdla. Allica sometimea of the Lom- 



bards, sometimes of the repub&cs, some- 
times of the Greeks against each other 
and against the Saracens, they constant^ 
became more powerful by petty vrars. 
Hie great prepanitionaof lieoIX for their 
ezpulaion terminated in his defeat and 
capture (1053). On the other hand, Nico- 
las II unitea vrith the Norman princes, 
and, in 1099, invested Robert Uuiscard 
with all the territories conquered by him 
in Lower Italy. From that time, the 
pope, in his conflicts with the imper^ 
power, relied on the support of his fkithful 
vassal, the duke of Apulia and Calabria, 
to which Sicily was soon added. While 
the small statea of the south were thus 
united into one kifpe <me, the kingdom in 
the north vras dissolving into smaller 
statea. Hie Lombard cities were laying 
the foundation of their ftiture importance. 
Venice. Genoa and Pisa were alreadv 
powaful. The Pisanese, who, in 960, 
had given to Otho II effident aid against 
the Greeks in Lower Italy, and, in 1005, 
boldly attacked the Saracens there, ven- 
tured, in connexion with the Genoese (no 
less warlike and (billed in navigation), to 
assail the infideb in their own territoiy, 
and twice conq^uered Sardinia (1017 and 
1050), which they divided into several 
hr^ fiefi, and mstributed them among 
their principal citizens. 

lytk PeriodL—Ihm Oregory Vliio UU 
IWqfiheHokmtUMfm. Strvgi^ of the 
Popes and RepuUUs wUh Uie Emperon. 
Gregory VII humbled Henry IV in 1077. 
Urban II instigated the emperor's own 
sons against their &ther. Conrad, the 
eldest, was crovmed kinff of Italv in 1098, 
after whoee death (1101) Heniy, the second 
son, succeeded in deposing his &ther firom 
the imperial throne. Heniy V, the crea- 
ture of^ the pope, soon became his oppo- 
nent; but, after a severe conflict, con- 
cluded with him the concordate of Worms 
(1122). A main point, which remained 
unsettled, gave rise to new difficuldes m 
the 12th and 13th centuries— the estate of 
Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, who 
(died 1115), by a will, the validity of which 
was disputed by the emperor, bequeathed 
all her properly to the papal see. Mean- 
wMe, in the southi the Norman state 
(1130), under Roger I, was formed into a 
lungdom, fi^om the ruins of republican 
liberty and of the Greek and Lombard 
dominion. (See SiciKes^ tiie 3\ao.) In 
the small republics of the north of Italy, 
the government was, in most cases, divia- 
ed between the consuls, the lesser council 
(credcnza), the creat council, and the oop- 
ular assembly {pariamenioy Petty feuds 

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96 



ITALY, HISTORY OP, 



developed their youthful en&r^fes. Such 
were tnoee that tenniiiated with the de» 
stroction of Lodi by Milan (1111), aod tlie 
ten years' siege of Como by the forces of 
all the Lombard cities (1118--1128). The 
subjugation of this city rendered Milan the 
fiist power in Lombardv, and most of the 
neighboring cities were her allies. Others 
formed a counter alliance with her antag- 
onist, Pavia. Disputes between Milui 
and Cremona were the occasion of the 
first war between, the two unions (1129), 
to which the contest of Lothaii-e II and 
Conrad of HolSenstaufen for the crown. 
Boon gave another direction. This was 
the origin of the Qibellnes (favorers of 
the eniperor) and the Guelfs (the adhe- 
rents or the &mily of Gkielfs (q. v.), and, 
in general, the partv of the popes). In 
Rome, the love of liberty, restrained by 
Gregoiy VII, rose in proportion as his 
successors ruled with less energy. The 
schisms between Grelasius II and Gregory 
VIII, Innocent II and Anaeletus II, re- 
newed the hopes of the Romana Arnold 
of Brescia, formerly proscribed (1139) for 
his violent attacks against the luxury of 
the clei^ in that country, was their 
leader (1146). After eight years, Adrian 
IV succeeded in effecting his execution. 
Frederic I of Hohenstaufen (called Barbor 
roasa) crossed the Alps six times, in order 
to defend his possessions in Italy against 
the republicanism of the Lombcud cities. 
Embracing the cause of Pavia as the weak- 
er, he devastated (1154) the territory of Mi- 
lan, destroyed Tortona, and was crowned 
in Pavia and Rome. In 1 158, he reduced 
Milan, demolished the fortifications of Pia- 
cenza, and held a diet at Roncaglia, where 
he extended die imperial prerogatives con- 
formably with the Justinian code, gave the 
cities chief magistrates {podesta), and 
proclaimed a general peace. His rigor 
tiaving ' excited a new rebellion, he re- 
duced Crema to ashes (1160), compelled 
Milan to submission, and, ha^dn? driven 
out all the inhabitants, demolished the 
fortifications (1162). Nothing, however, 
but tlie terror of his arms upheld liis 
jpower. When the emperor entered ItiJy 
(1163) vrithout an army, the cities con- 
cluded a union for maintaining their free- 
dom, which, in 1167, was converted into 
the Lombard confederacy. The confed- 
erates restored Milan, and, to hold in 
liieck the Gibeline city of Pavia, built a 
new city, called, in honor of the pope, 
,^He3sandna, Neither Frederic's govern- 
or, Christian, archbishop of Mentz, nor 
he himself, could effect any thing against 
the confederacy ; the former failed l^fore 



Anoona (1174), with all the power of 
Gibeline Tuscany ; and the latter, with 
the Germans, before Alexandria (1175). 
He was also defeated by Milan, at Legna- 
no, in 1176. He then concluded a con* 
cordate with Alexander III, and a truce 
with the cities (1176), at Venice, and a 
peace, which secured their independence, 
at Constance (1183). The republics re- 
tained the podegUt (foreign noblemen, now 
elected by themselves) as judges and gen- 
erals. As formerly, all were to take the 
oath of fealty and allegiance to the empe- 
ror. But, instead of so^ngthening their 
league into a permanent confederacy (the 
only safety for Italy), they were soon split 
into new motions, when the designs of the 
Hohenstaufen on the throne of Sicily 
drew Frederic and lieniy VI (V) from 
Lombardy. The defeat of the united 
forces of almost all Lombardy, on the 
Offlio, by the inhabitants of Brescia, though 
interior in numbers, is celebrated under 
the name of Zioifiatomorfo (1197). Amons 
the nobles, the Da Romano were the chiefs 
of the Gibelines, and the marquises of 
Este of the Gkielfe. During the minority 
of Frederic II, and the disputes for tlie 
succession to the German throne. Inno- 
cent III (Frederic's guardian) succeeded 
in reestablishing the secular authority of 
the holy see in Rome and the suirounding 
country, and in enforcing its claims to the 
donations of Charlemagne and Matilda. 
He also brought over almost ail Tuscany, 
except Pisa, to the piurty of the Guelfs 
(1197). A blmd hereditary hatred, rather 
than a zeal for the cause, inspired the par- 
ties ; for when a Guelf (Otho IV) ascended 
the imperial throne, the Quem became 
his party, and the Gibelines the pope's; 
but the reversion of the imperial crown to 
the house of Hohenstaufen, in die parson 
of Frederic II, soon restored the ancient 
relations (1212). In Florence, this party 
spirit gave pretence and aliment (1215) to 
tiie disputes of the Buondelmonti and Do- 
nati with die Uberti and Amidei, originat- 
ing in private causes; and most cities 
were thus internally divided into Guelft 
and Gibelines. The Giielf cities of Lom- 
bardy renewed tiie Lombard confederacy, 
in 1226. The Dominican, John of Vi- 
cenza, attacked these civil wars. Tlie 
assembly at Paquara (12^) seemed to 
crown his exertions with success ; but his 
attempt to obtain secular power in Vicen- 
za occasioned his fall. Afler the emperor 
had returned from his crusade (1230), he 
waged war, with varying success, against 
the cities and against Gregory IX, heed- 
less of the excommunication, while Ezze- 

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ITALY, HISTORY OF. 



^ 



lin da fiomaoo, under the preteoce of 
fiiToriDg the Gibelinee, estaolished, by 
eveiy kind of violence, his own power in 
Padua, Verona, Vicenza and the neigh- 
borhood. ThejMpal court succeeded in 
seducinj^ the Pisanese family of the Vis- 
conti of Gallura in Sardinia, finom the re- 
public, and rendenng them its vaasak, 
notwithstanding the resistance of the re- 
public, an^ especially of the counts of 
Ghenudesca. Thence Pisa, too, was di- 
vided into Gibelines (Conti) and Guelft 
(Visccmti). Frederic, however, married 
his natural son, Enzius, to a Visconti, and 
gave him the title of JEnng'o/'Siirtiima. The 
plan of Grecory IX^ to depose Frederic, 
was succesBtulIy executed by Innocent IV, 
in, the council of Lyons (1245). This 
completely weakened the Gibeline party, 
which was already nearly undermined by 
the intrigues of the mendicant orders. 
The feithfiil Parma revolted ; the triumph 
<^ the Gibelines in Florence (1248) lasted 
only two years ; and their second victory, 
after the battle of Monte Aperto (1260), 
gave them the ascendency but six years. 
The Bolognese united all the cities of Ita- 
ly in a Guelf league, and, in the battle of 
the Panaro (1249), took Enzius prisoner, 
whom they never released. IntheTrevi- 
san Mark alone, the Gibelines possessed 
the supremacy, by means of Ezzelin, till 
he fell before a crusade of all the Guelis 
against him (1255). But these contests 
were fatal to liberty ; the house Delia 
Scala followed that of Romano in the do- 
minion, and Milan itself, with a great part 
of Lombordy, found masters in me house 
Delia Torre. Tyrants every where arose ; 
the maritime republics and the republic 
of Tuscany alone remained free. 

Sixth Period.-^From the FaU of Ike Ho- 
henataufm to theFormoHon of the modem 
9UxU$. In this period, difierent princes 
attenrpted to usurp the sovereignty of 
Italy.— 1. The Pnncts of Ar^ou, After 
Charles I of Anjou had hecome, by the 
favor of the pope, king of Naples, senator 
of Rome, papal vicar in Tuscany, and had 
directed his - ambition to the throne of 
Italy (a policy m which his succesBors 
persevered), Uie names of G%i4fs and 
Qibdinea acquired a new signincation. 
The former denoted the friends, the latter 
the enemies, of the French. To tliese 
Actions were addocH in the republics, the 
Dailies of the nobility and the people, tlie 
latter of which was almost universally 
victorious. The honest exertions of the 
noble Gregory X (who died 1276) to 
estaUiahpeace, were of no avail ; those of. i 
Nicolas III, who feared the preponderance , 

VOL. VII. 9 



of Charies, were more efficient ; but Mar- 
tin IV (1280), servilely devoted to Charies, 
destroyed every thing which had been 
effected, and persecuted the GibeUnes 
with new animosity. A different interest*^ 
that of trade and navigation — impelled the 
maritime republics to mutual ware. The 
Genoese assisted Michael Palseologus 
(1261) to recover Constantinople from the 
Venetians, and received in return Chios) at 
Meioria, they annihilated (1284) the navy of 
the Pisans, and completed their dominion 
of the sea by a victory over the Venetians at 
Curzola (1298). Florence rendered its 
democracy, complete by the banishtnent 
of all the nobles (1282), and strengthened 
the Guelf party by wise measures; but a 
new. schism, caused by the insi^ificant 
Pistoia, soon divided the Guelfs m Flor- 
ence and all Tuscany into two.fiictions — 
the Neri (Black) and BianchI (White) 
(1900). The latter were ahitost all expel- 
led by die intrigues of Bonifiice VIII, and 
ioined the Gibelines (ld02\. . In Lom- 
oardy, freedom seemed to have expired, 
when the people, v^eary^of the everiasting 
feuds of their tyrants, rose in most of the 
cities, and expelled,, them (1302 — 6), ui- 
ciudinff the Visconti, who had supplanted 
the Delia Torre (1277) in the government 
of Milan.— 2. The Gemutna and At Detta 
Scala, Henry VII, the first emperor who 
had appeared in Italy for 60 years (1310), 
restorea the princes to their cides, and 
found general submission to his requisi- 
tions, peace among the parties, and hom- 
age to the empire. Florence alone under- 
took the glorious part which she so nobly 
sustained for two centuries, as the guardian 
of Italian fieedom, chose Robert of Naples, 
the enemy of Henry, her protector for five 
years, and remained free while Italy 
swarmed with tyrants. The Gibeline 
Pisa received a master after the death of 
Heniy, in Uguccione della Faggiuola 
(13141 Ailer his expulsion, Lucca, which 
he also ruled, received another lord in 
Castruccio Castraconi (1316); Padim fell 
(1318) to the house of Carrara; Alexan- 
dria, Tortona (1315) and Cremona (1322) 
to die Visconti of Milan ; Mantua (gov- 
erned, since 1275, by the Bonacossi), de- 
volved,' by inheritance, to the Gonzagas 
(1328); in Ferrara, the long-contested do- 
minion of the Este was established (1317U 
and Ravenna vras governed, firom 127a, 
by the Polenta. In the other cities, the 
same tyranny existed, but frequently 
changing finom family to fSunily, and 
therefore more oppressive. These petty 
princes, especially Delia Scala, Matteo 
Visconti, and Castniccioy were a counter- 
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98 



ITALY, HISTORY OF. 



poise to the ambitious views or Robert of 
Maples, appointed by Clement V imperial 
vicar in ludy. Robert, however, acquired 
for his son, Charles of Calabria, the gov- 
ernment of Florence and Sienna, which 
he retained till his death (1328). Louis 
of Bavaria, who came to Italy (1327) to 
reduce the Anjous and the Guelm, became 
himself at variance with the Gibelines, 
whom he alienated by his caprice and 
perfidy ; and the character of John XXII 
BO cooled the zeal of the Guelfs, that both 
parties, recognising the common interest 
of liberty, became somewhat more friend- 
ly. The amiable adventurer . John, king 
of Bohemia^ suddenly entered Italy (1330). 
Invited by the inhabitants of Brescia, 
favored by the pope, elected lord of Luc- 
ca, eveiy where acting the part of a medi- 
ator and peacemaker, he would have suc- 
ceed^ in establishing the power at which 
he aimed, had he not been opposed by the 
Florentines. On his second expedition to 
Italy (1333), Azzo Visconti, Mastino della 
Scaila, and Robert of Naples, united against 
him and his ally, the papal legate Ber- 
trand of Poiet, who aspired to the domin- 
ion of Bologna. After the downfall of 
both (1334), when the Pepoli began to 
rule in Bologna^ Mastino delta Scala, mas- 
ter of half Lombaidy and of Lucca, began 
to menace the freedom of Lombardy. 
Florence led the opposition against him, 
and excited a war or the league, in which 
it gained nothing but the security of its 
libwty. After the baffled Mastino had 
sold Lucca to the Florentines, the Pisans 
arose, and conquered it for themselves 
(1342). In Rome, torn by aristocrats, 
Cola Rienzi (1347) sought to restore order 
and tranquillity ; he was appointed tribune 
of the people, but was forced, afler seven 
months, to vield to the nobility. Having 
returned, after seven years of banishment, 
with the legate cardinal Albornoz (1354), 
he ruled axain a short time, when he was 
murdered m an insurrection. The Geno- 
ese, tired of the perpetual disputes of the 
Gibeline Spinolas and Dorias with the 
Guelf Grimaldi and Fieschi, banished all 
these fiimilies in 1339, and made Simon 
Boccanegra their first doge. In Pisa, the 
Gibelines, the council of the captain-gen- 
eral, Ricciani doUa Gherardesca, separated 
into two new parties, Bergolini and Ras- 
panti, of whom the former, under Andrea 
Gambacorti, expelled the latter (1348). 
About this time, Italy sufiered by a terrible 
ftmine (1347) and a stiU more terrible 
{lestileDce (1348), which swept away two 
thirds of the population. No less terrible 
was the soourge of the bcmde (banditti)^ or 



laiige companies of soldiers, who, after 
every peace, continued the vrar on their 
own account, ravaging the whole countxy 
with fire and sword ; such as the bands of 
the count Werner (1348) and of Montreal 
(1354J.--3. Hie VtscorOL John Visconti, 
archbishop and lord of Milan, and his suc- 
cessors, were checked in their dangerous 
projects for extending their power, not so 
much by Charles Prs expedition throudbi 
Italy, and by the exertions of innumerable 
papal legates, as by the wisdom and in- 
trepidity of the repubfics, especially of the 
Florentine. Charles appeared in 1355, 
overthrew in Pisa the Gambacorti, elevat- 
ing the Raspanti, destroyed in Sienna the 
dominion of the Nine, to which succeeded 
that of the Twelve, subjected for the mo- 
ment all Tuscany, and compelled Florence 
itself to purchase the title of an imperial 
city. In 1363, he effected but litdeY^gainst 
the Visconti, fi'eed Lucca fix>m the risan- 
ese power, and overthrew the Twelve in 
Sienna ; but his attacks on the liberty of 
Pisa and Sienna failed in consequence of 
the valor of the citizens. Pope Innocent 
VI succeeded in conquering the whole of 
the States of the Church by means of the 
cardinal legate Egidius Albornoz (1354 — 
60) ; but, reduc^ to extremities by the 
oppressions of the legates, and encour- 
aged by Florence, the enemy of all tyran- 
ny, the conquered cities revolted in 1375. 
xhe cruelties of cardinal Robert of Gene- 
va (afterwards Clement VII), and of bis 
band of soldiers fit)m Bretagne, produced 
only a partial subjuffation; and in the 
great sclusm, the freedom of these cities, 
or rather the power of their petty tyrants, 
was fully confirmed. The Visconti, 
meanwhile, persisting in their schemes of 
conquest, arrayed the whole strength of 
Italy in opposition to Uiem, and caused 
the old fistctions of Guelfs and Gibelines 
to be fbreotten in the impending danger. 
Genoa submitted to John Visconti (ldo3), 
who had purchased Bologna fiK>m the Pe- 
poli (1350) ; but his enterprise against Tus- 
cany failed through the resistance of the 
confederated Tuscan republics. Another 
league against him was concluded by the 
Venetians (1354) with the petty tyrants of 
Lombardy. But the union of the Floren- 
tines vrith the Visconti asainst ibe papal 
legates (1375), continued but a short time. 
In Florence, the Guelf^ were divided into 
the parties of the Ricci and the Albizzi. 
The sedition of the Ciompi (1378), to which 
this save rise, was quelled by Michad di 
Lando, who had been elected gonfiJoni- 
ere by themselves, in a vray no less manlj 
than disinterested. The Venetiaiifl^ Im- 

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tated mith Gamra on account of the as- 
fliatBDce he had ffiven the Genoese in the 
war at ChiosEza (1379), looked quietly ou 
while John Galeazzo ViBconti deprived 
the Delia Scala and Carrara of all their 
posBeesions (1387 and 1388), and Florence 
alone aasistBd the unfortunate princes. 
FiBucis Carrara made himself agam mas- 
ter of Padua (1390), and maintained his 
advanta^eSy till he sunk under the enmity 
of the Venetians (1406), who, changing 
their policy, became henceforth, instead 
of the opponents, the rivals of the ambi- 
tious views of the ViscontL John Gale- 
azzo obtained from the emperor Wences- 
laua the invesdture of Milan as a duchy 
(1395), purchased Pisa (which his natural 
son Gabriel bargained away to Florence, 
1405) from the tyrant Genird of Appiano 
(who reserved only the principality of Pi- 
omlnno), and subjugated Sienna (1399), 
Perugia (1400) and Bologna (1402), so that 
Florence, fearfully menaced, alone stood 
against lum in the cause of liberty. On 
his death (1402), the prospect brightened, 
and, during the minority of his sons, a 
neat pordon of his states was lost When 
Ladislaus of Naples, taking advantage of 
the schism, made himself master of all the 
Ecclesiastical States, and threatened to 
conquer all Italy (1409), Florence acain 
alone dared to resist liim. But this dan- 
ger was transitoiy ; the Visconti soon rose 
up again in opposition. Duke Philip Ma- 
ria reconquered all his states of Lombardy, 
by means of the great Carmagnola (1416 
>-20). Genoa, also, which was sometimes 

g'ven up, in nominal freedom, to stormy 
ctions (of the Fregosi, Adomi, Montaho,' 
Guarco), and at other times was subject to 
France (1396), or to the marquis of Mont- 
ferrat (1411), submitted to him (14211 
Florence subsequently entered into an al- 
liance against him with the Venetians 
(1425) ; and by means of Carmagnola, who 
had now come over to them,they conquered 
the whole country as fiir as the Adda, and 
retiuned it in the peace of Ferrara (1428). 
In Perugia, the great condottiere firaccio 
da Montone, of me party of the Baglioni, 
succeeded in becoming master of this city 
and of all Umbria, and, for a period, even 
of Rome (1416). In Sienna, the Petrucci 
attained a permanent dominion (1430). 
—4. Balance of Iks RaHan States. After 
Milan had been enfeebled by the Vene- 
tians and Florentines, and while Alphonso 
of Arragon was constantly disturbed in 
Naples (see M^des) by the Anjou party, 
no dangerous predominance of power 
existed in Italy, though mutual jealousy 
still excited frequent wars, in wluch two 



parties among the Italian mercenaiy soi- 
diers, the Biacheschi (from Braccio da 
Montone) and the Sforzeschi (so called 
from Sforza Attendolo), continued always 
hostile to each other, contnuy to the cus- 
tom of those mercenary bands. After the 
extinction of the Visconti (1447), Francis 
Sforza succeeded in giuning possession 
of the Milanese state (1450). (See Miian,) 
The Venetians, who aimed at territorial ag- 
grandizement, having formed a connexion 
with some princes agiunst him, he found 
an ally in Florence, wluch, with a change 
of circumstances, wisely altered her policy. 
About this time, the ftmily of the Medici 
attained to power in that city by their 
wealth and talent (BeeMetHcL) MHan 
(where the Sforza had established them- 
selves), Venice (which possessed half of 
Lombard yl Florence (wisely managed bv 
Lorenzo Medici), the States of the Chureh 
(for the most part restored to the holy tee), 
and Naples (which was incapable of em- 
ploying its forces m direct attacks on 
other states), constituted, in the 15th cen- 
tury, the pohtical balance of Italy, which, 
during the manifold feuds of these states, 
permitted no one to become danaerous to 
the independence of the rest, till l^,when 
Charles VIII of France entered Ital^ to 
conquer Naples, and Louis More Sforza 
played tlie part ftrat of his ally, then of his 
enemy, while the pope, Alexander VI, 
eagerly sought the friendshi{> of the 
French, to promote the exaltation of his 
son, Ceesar Borgia. — 5. ConUgt offjsreign 
Poiten for Provmcea in Jtofy. Chmee 
Vin was compelled to evacuate Nades 
and all Italy; his successor, Louis All, 
was also expelled, by Ferdinand the Cath- 
olic, from Naples (conquered in 1504). He 
was more successftil against Miian, which, 
supported by hereditary claims, he sub- 
jected to himself in 1500. Ceesar Boma's 
attempts to acquire the sovereignty of Ita- 
ly were frustrated by the death of his 
frither (1505); when the warlike pope, 
Julius II, completed the subjugation of 
the States of the Church, not, indeed, for a 
son or nephew, but in the name of the 
holy see. He concluded with Manmilian 
I, Ferdinand the Catholic, and Louis XII, 
the league of Cambray (1506) against the 
ambitious policy of the Venetians, who 
artfully succeeded in dissolving the lea^e, 
which threatened them with destruction. 
The pope then formed a league with the 
Venetians themselves, Spain, and the Swiss, 
for the purpose of driving the French 
from Italy. This holy league (150D) did 
not, however, then attain its object, al- 
though Julius was littie aflfected by die 



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ITALY, HISTORY OF. 



FVencli and Oennan council held at Pisa 
to depose him. Max. Sfohsa, who had re- 
acquired Milan (1512), ' relmquished it 
without reserve to Francis I (1515) ; but 
the emperor Charles V assumed it as a 
reverted fief of the empire, and conferred it 
onFranccsco Sforza, brother of Maximilian 
(1520). This was the cause of violent 
wars, in which the efforts of Francis were 
always unsuccessful. He was taken priso- 
ner at Pavia (1525|, and, with his other 
claims, was compelled to renounce those 
on Milan, which remained to Sforza, and, 
after his death (1540), was granted by 
Charics V to his son Philip. The Medi- 
eean popes, Leo X (1513) and Clement 
VII (1523), were bent, for the most part, 
OD tne ai^grandizement of tlieir &mily. 
Charles V, to whom all Italy submitted 
a^r the battle of Pavia, frustrated, indeed, 
the attempts of Clement VII to weaken his 
power, and conquered and pillaged Rome 
(1587); but, being reconciled with tlie 
pope; he raised (1530) the Medici to prince- 
ly authority. Florence, incensed at tlie 
foolish conduct of Pietro towards France, 
had banished the Medici, in 1494, but 
recalled them in 1512, and was now 
compelled to take a station among the 
'principalities, under duke Alexander I de' 
Medici. Italian policy, of which Florence 
had liitherto been the soul, from this pe- 
riod, is destitute of a common spirit, and 
the oistory of Italy is therefore destitute 
of a central point 

Seventh Period, — Mutations of the Balian 
States douni to the French Revolution, Af- 
ter the extinction of the male branch of 
the marquises of Montferrat, Charles V 
gave this country to the Gronzaca of Man- 
tra (1536). Maximilian II subsequently 
(i573) raised Montferrat to a duchy. The 
Fiorentines fidled (1537) in a new attempt 
to emancipate themselves after the mur- 
der of duke Alexander. Cosmo I suc- 
ceeded him in the government, by the 
influence of Charles V. Parma and 
Piacenza, which Julius II had con- 
<]uered for the papal see, Paul III erected 
into a duchy (1545), which he gave to his 
natural son, Peter Alois Famese, whose 
son Ottavio obtained the imperial investi- 
ture in 1556. Genoa (see Genoa), subject 
to the French since 1499, found a deliv- 
erer in Andrew Doria (1528). He found- 
ed the aristocracy, and tlie conspiracy of 
Fiesco (1547) failed to subvert him. In 
1553, besides Milan, Charles V conferred 
Naples also on his son Philip II. By the 
peace of Chateau-Cambre8is(1559), Philip 
ll and Henry II, of France, renounced 
all their claims to Piedmont, which was 



restored to its rightful sovereign, duke 
Emanuel Philibert of Savoy, me brave 
Spanish general. The legitimate male 
line of the house of E^ste l^came extinct 
in 1597, when the illegitimate Csesaro of 
Este obtained Modena and Reggio from 
the empire, and Ferrara was confiscated 
as a reverted fief by the holy see. In the 
second half of the 16th century, the pros- 
perity of Italy was increased by a long 
peace, as much as the loss of its commerce 
allowed, — ^Heniy IV of France having, 
by the treaty of Lyons, ceded Saluzzo, the 
last French possession in Italy, to Savoy. 
The tranquillity continued till the contest 
for the succession of Mantua and Montfer- 
rat, afler the extinction of the Gonzaga 
family (16!^ Misfortunes in Germany 
compelled Ferdmand II to confer beth 
countries (1631), as a fief on Charles of 
Nevers, the protigi of France, whose 
family remained in possession till die war 
of Spanish succession. In the peace of 
Chierasco (1631), Richelieu's diplomacy 
acquired also Pignerol and Casale— strong 
points of support, in case of new inva- 
sions of Italy^hough he had to relinquish 
the latter (1«J7). By the extinction of tha 
house Delia Rovera, the duchy of Uri)ino, 
with which Julius II had invested it, de- 
volved, in 1631, to the papal see. la tiie 
second half of the 17th centuiy, tlie peace 
of Italy was not interrupted, excepting by 
the attempts of Louis XIV on Savoy and 
Piedmoiu, and appeared to be secured for 
a long time, by the treaty of neutrality at 
Turin (1696), when the war of Spanish 
succession broke out Austria conquered 
Milan, Mantua and Montferrat (17061 re- 
tained the two first (Mantua was forfeited 
by the felony of the duke), and gave the 
latter to Savory. In the peace of^Utrecht 
(1714), Austria obtained, moreover, Sar- 
dinia and Naples ; Savoy obtained Sicily, 
which it exchanged with Austria for Sar- 
rlinia, from which it assumed the royal 
title. Mont Genievre was made the 
boundaiy between France and Italy The 
house of Famese becoming extinct in 
1731, the Spanish Infant Charles obtained 
Parma and Piacenza. In the war for the 
Polish throne, of 1733, Charles Emmanu- 
el of Savoy, in alliance with France and 
Spain, conquered the Milanese territory, 
and received therefinom, in the peace of 
Vienna (1738), Novara and Tortona. 
Charles, In&nt of Spain, became king of 
the Two Sicilies, and ceded Parma and 
Piacenza to Austria. The Medici of 
Florence, entitled, ance 1575, grand-dukes 
of Tuscany, became extinct in 1737. Fran- 
cis Stephan, duke of Lorraine, now re- 
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ITALY, mSTOAY OF. 



101 



ceired Tuscany by the preUminari^s of 
YMona, and, liecoaiiiig emperor in 1745, 
made it the appanage of the younger line 
of the Auatro-Lorraine house. In the 
war of Austrian succeeenon, the Spaniards 
conquered Milan (1745), but were expelled 
thence by Charles Emmanuel, to whom 
Maria Theresa ceded, in reward, some Mi- 
lanese districts, viz. all of Vigevanasco 
and Bobbio, and part of Anmiera and 
Pavese. Massa and Cairara fell to Mo- 
dena, in 1743, by right of inheritance. 
The Spanish In&nt, don Philip, con- 
quered Parma and Piacenza in his own 
name, lost them, and obtained them again 
as a bereditaiy duchy, by the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle (17481 Thus, in the 18th 
century, the houses ot Lorraine, Bourbon 
and Savoy uossesBed all Italy, with the 
exception ot the ecclesiastical territories, 
Modena and the republics, which, like a 
superannuated man, beheld widi apathy 
operations in which they had no share. 
A quiet of 40 years ushered in their do wn- 

Eighlh Period. — From tht French Rernh- 
lutian to iheprtaent Time, In September, 
1792, the French troops first peueUated 
into Savoy, and planted the trae of liberty. 
Though expelled for some time, in 1793, 
by the Piedmontese and Austrians, they 
held it at the end of the year. The na- 
tional convention had already declared 
war against Naples, in February, 1798. 
In April, 1794, the French advanced into 
the PiedmoiUese and Greuoeae territories, 
but were expelled from Italy in July, 
1795^ by the Austrians, Sardinians and 
Neapolitans. In 1796, Napoleon Bona- 
parte received the chief command of the 
French army in Italy. He forced the king 
of Sardinia to conclude a treaty of peace, 
by which the latter was obliged to cede 
Nizza (Nice) and Savoy to France ; con- 
quered Austrian Lombardy, with the ex- 
ception of Mantua ; put the duke of Par- 
ma and the pope under contribution ; and 
struck such constemadon into the king of 
Naples, that he begged for peace. After 
Mantua had also fallen, in 1797, Bonaparte 
fonned of Milan, Mantua, the portion of 
Parma north of the Po, and Modena, the 
Cisalpine republic {SeeCisalpineRqmblic.) 
France likewise made war on the pope, 
and annexed Bologna, Ferrara and Ro- 
magna to the Cisalpine republic (1797), by 
the peace of Tolentino. The French 
then advanced towards Rome, overthrew, 
the ecclesiasdcal government, and erected 
a Roman republic (1798). In Genoa, Bo- 
naparte occasioned a revolution, by which 
a democratic republic was formed after 
9* 



the model of the French, under the name 
of the Ligtaian repMic. Tlie French 
had, meanwhile, penetrated into Austria, 
through the Venetian territory. The Ve- 
netians now made common cause with 
the brave Tyrolese, who gained advantages 
over the French in theur Alps. Bonaparte, 
therefore, occupied Venice without strik- 
ing a blow, and gave the republic a demo- 
cratic constituticm ; but, by the peace of 
Campo-Formio (17th Oct, 1797), the V^ 
netian territory, as far as the Adige, was 
relinquished to Austria, and the rest in- 
corporated with the Cisalpine repubhc. 
The king of Sardinia concluded a treaty 
of alliance and subttdy with France, Oc- 
tober 25 ; but, in 1796, the directory, as- 
sailed in Rome from Naples, deemed it 
expedient to com|>e] him to resign his ter- 
ritories on the main kmd. Notwithstand- 
ing its tteaty of amitv with France, 
Naples concluded an alliance, in 1796, 
with England and Russia. The French, 
therefore, occupied Naples, and erected 
there the Parthenopean republic. The 
ffrand-duke of Tuscany had likewise 
formed an alliance with Naples and Eng- 
land, and his country was, in return, com- 
pelled by the French to receive, like Pied- 
mont, a militarv administration. After the 
congress of Kastadt (q. v.) was broken 
off, Austria and the German empire, un- 
der Russian support, renewed the war 
against the French, who again lefl Naples 
and Rome to the English Russians and 
Turks. The king and the pope returned 
to their capitals in Lombai'dy ; the French 
were defeated by the Austrians, under 
Kray and Melas, and by the Russians, un- 
der Suwarroff, and lost all their fortresses, 
except Genoa, where Maasena sustained a 
vigorous siege, while his countrymen had 
to evacuate all Italy. But, in the mean- 
while, Bonaparte was made first consul 
after his return from Egypt. (See Egypt, 
Campaign of the Drench in.) He marched 
with a new army to Italy, defeated the 
Austrians at the memorable batde of Ma- 
reuffo (1800), and compelled them to a 
capitulation, by which all the Italian for- 
tresses were again evacuated. By the 
peace of Luneville (q. v.), Feb. 9, 1801, 
the possession of Venice was confirmed 
to Austria, which was to indemnify the 
duke of Modena, by the cession of Bris- 
gau. The duke of Parma received Tus- 
cany, and afterwards, from Bonaparte, the 
title of king of Etruria. Parma was 
united with France. The Cisalpine and 
Ligurian republics were guarantied by 
Austria and France, and with the Lisurian 
territories were united the imperial fids 



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ITALY, HISTORY OF. 



included within their limits. The king 
of Naples, who had occupied the States of 
the Church, was obliged to conclude peace 
at Florence (aSth of March). By Russian 
mediation, he escaped with the cession of 
Piombino, the Slalo degli Prtsidj, and 
his half of the island of Elba,' together 
with the promise of closing his harbors 
against the Hofflish. The other half of 
Elba Tuscany had already relinquished 
to France, tfut the whole island was ob- 
stinately- defended by the English and 
Corsicans, with the armed innabitantB, 
and not evacuated till autumn. The Stato 
degli Presidf France ceded to Etruria, 
September 19. Strong detachments of 
French troops remained both in Naples 
and Tuscany, and their support cost im- 
mense sums. - To the repubhcs of Genoa 
and Lucca the first coiiKol gave new con- 
stitutions in 1801. But m January, 1802, 
the Cisalpine republic was transformed 
into the Italian republic, in imitatioQ of 
the new French constitution, and Bona- 
parte became president He appointed 
the citizen Melzi d'Grile vice-president, 
Genoa also received a new constitution, 
and Girolamo Durazzo for doge. Pied- 
mont, however, was united with France. 
After Bonaparte had become emperor, in 
1804, he attached (March 17, 1805) the 
royal crown of Italy to the new imperial 
crovni ; he promised, however, never to 
unite the new monarchy with France, and 
even to give it a king of its own. The 
new copstitution was similar to that of the 
French empire. Napoleon founded the 
order of the iron crown, and, having 

C' ced the crown on his own head, at Mi- 
, May 26, and Genoa having been 
united with France, May 25, he appointed 
. his step-son, Eugene Beauhamais, viceroy 
of Italy, who labored with great zeal for 
the improvement of all branches of the 
government, of industry and the arts. 
Circumstances, however, rendered this 
new government oppressive, as the public 
expenses, during peace,' amounted to 
100,000,000 francs, which were all to be 
contributed by less than 4,000,000 people. 
No European power recognised, express- 
Iv, the Italian kingdom of Napoleon. 
The emperor continued to strengthen his 
power i^ainst the active enenues of the 
new order of things, and gave to his sister 
Eliza the principality of Piombino, and to 
her husband, Pasquale Baccioccbi, the 
republic of Lucca, as a principality, both 
as French fiefk Parma, Piacenza- and 
Guastalla were incorporated with the 
French empire, July 21st The pope vns 
obliged to sanction the imperial corona- 



tion by bis presence. Austria now ac- 
ceded to the alliance of Rusraa and Eng- 
land against France. Naples, al80,again suf- 
fered me English and Russians to land. But 
the success of the Austrian arms was frus- 
trated by the defeats at Ulm and Auster- 
litz, after which the peace of Presburg 
(December 26dj, 1805) completed the 
FVench supremacy in Italy. Austrian 
Venice, with Istria and D^lmatia, was 
united to the kingdom of Italy ; and this, 
with all the French institutions, Italy 
recognised. The kmgdom had now an ex- 
tent of 35,450 square miles, with 5,657,000 
inhabitants. Naples was evacuated by its 
auxiliaries, and occupied by the French, 
notwithstanding the attempts of the oueen 
to excite a universal insurrection. March 
31, Napoleon gave the crown of Naples to 
his brother Joseph. In vain did the prince 
of Hesse-Philippsthal defend the fortress 
Gaeta. In vain did an insurrection break 
out in Calabria, encouraged by the Eng- 
lish, who, under general Stuart, defeated 
the French at Meida, July 4, and con- 
quered several fortified places on the 
coast ; but, after Gaeta had fallen (July 
18), and Maasena penetrated as far as Ca- 
laji>ria, they reembarked. As the English. 
' however, were masters of the sea, Sicily 
was secured to king Ferdinand. In 1808,' 
the widow of the king of Etruria, who 
conducted the regency in behalf of her 
minor son, was deprived of her kinsdom, 
which was united with France. Napo- 
leon, moreover, appointed his brother-in- 
law, the prince Borghese, governor-gene^ 
ral of the '^departments beyond the Alps, 
who took up his readence at Turhi. As 
Napoleon had, meanwhile, given his 
brother Joseph the crown of Spain (who 
reluctantly left ^ Naples, where he was 
much esteemed, as he had, within this 
short time, laid the - foundation of the 
most essential improvements), he filled 
the throne of Naples vrith his brother-in- 
law Joachim Murat, until that period 
grand-duke of Berg, who entered Naples 
Sept 6, 1808. In 1809, the emperor 

gave Tuscany to his sister Eliza, of Piom- 
ino, with the tide of grand-duchess. In 
the same year, Austria made new exer- 
tions to break the excessive power of 
France; but Napoleon again drove her 
troops from the field, and appeared once 
more victorious in Vienna, where he pro- 
claimed (May 17) the end of the secular 
authority of tlie popes (a measure of 
which his downfall has delayed the exe- 
cution!, and the union of the States of the 
Churcii with France. Rom^ became the 
second city of the empure, and a pension 



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ITALY, mSTORY OF. 



103 



of 2^,000 of fiuncs waa aflsigned to 
the pope. After the peace of Vienna, by 
which NiuK>]eoii acquired the IliyiiaD 
Iiroyinces, Istria and Dahnatia were sepa- 
rated from the kingdom of Italy and at- 
tached to them. On the other hand, Ba- 
varia ceded to Italy the circle of the 
Adige, a part of Eisach, and the jurisdic- 
tion of Clausen. The power of the 
French emperor was now, t6 all appear- 
ance, firmly established in Italy as in all 
Europe. While the Italian people were 
aipporting French armieS) sacrificipg their 
own troops in the ambitious wais of Nar 
poleon in remote regions, and were oblig- 
ed to pay heavy taxes in the midst of the 
total ruin of their commerce, all the pe- 
riodicals were full of praises of the insti- 
tutioDS for the encouragement of science, 
arts and industry in Ituy. After the fiital 
retreat from Russia, Murat, whom Napo- 
leon had personally offended, deserted the 
cause of France, and joined Austria, Jan. 
1], 1814, whose army penetrated into Ita- 
ly, under Bellegarde. The viceroy, Eu- 
gene, continued tnie to Napoleon and his 
own character, and offered to the enemies 
of his dynasty the boldest resistance, 
which was frustrated bv the fall of Na- 
poleon in France. After the truce of 
April 21, 1814, the French troops evacu- 
ated all Italy, and most of the provinces 
were restored to their leeitiniate sove- 
reigns. The wife of Napoleon, however, 
the empress Maria Louisa, obtained the 
duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guas- 
taUa, with reversion to her son ; and Na- 
poleon himself became sovereign of 
Elba, of which he took possession May 
4. But, before the congress of Vienna 
had organized the political relations of 
Europe, he effected his return to France, 
March 1, 1815. At the same time, the 
king of Naples, Murat (see Murat), aban- 
doned his former ambiguous attitude, and 
took up arms, as he pretended, for the in- 
dependence of Italy. But his appeal to 
the Italians, March 90, was answered by 
• 112. 



cover liis lost kingdom. He was taken 
prisoner at Pizzo, iMought before a court- 
martial, and shot, Oct 13, 1815.* Mean- 
while, the congress of Vienna, bv the act 
of June 9, 1815, bad arranged the afiairs 
of Italy: — 1. The king of Sardinia waa 
reinstated in his territories, according to 
the boundaries of 1792, with some alten- 
tion? on the side of Geneva ; for the por- 
tion of Savoy, left in possession of France 
by the peace of Paris, of May 30, 1814, 
was restored by the treaty of Paris, of 
Nov. 20, 1815. To his states was united 
Genoa, as a duchy, according to the 
boundaries of that repuUic in 1792, and 
contnuy to the promises made to Genoa. — 
2. The emperor of Austria united with 
his hereditaiy states the newLombaido- 
Venetian kingdom, consisting of the Ve- 
netian provinces' fonneriy belonging to 
Austria, the Valteline, Bormio and Chia- 
venna, separated from the Grisona, be- 
sides Mantua and Milan, btria, how- 
ever, was united with the Germanic-Aus- 
trian kingdom of Illyria ; Dahnatia, with 

" If the downfall of Nwoleon is regrelted in 
any quarter of the worid, it is in Italy. This 
country, which, to the misfortune of Germany — 
that of being spHt into petty divisions, and con- 
vulsed by civil dissensions, for centaries--^ds the 
further misfortune of obeying foreign princes^ had 
become destitute of every element of national 
life. Its commerce was Kttered by the numer- 
ous political divisions j its administration poison- 
ed and vitiated to a degree of which none can 
have an idea, except an eye-witness ; the culti- 
vators of the ground impoverished bv the heavy 
rents which they had to pay to the nco land-own- 
ers ; science enslaved by the sway of the clergy; 
the noblemen, distrusted by the foreism j^vem- 
ts, where they existed, and net admitted te 
es of great importance, had lost energy and 



activity ; in fact, hardly any thing could be said 
to flourish, with the exception of music, and, to a 
certain decree, other fine arts. Under Napoleon, 
every thinr was chan^^. Italian armies were 
created, w^ch gave buih to a sense of military 
honor among the people ; the organization of the 
judicial tribunals was improved, and justice much 
better administered j mdnstry was awakened 
and encouraged ; schools received new atten- 
tion, and the sciences were concentrated in large 
and effective learned societies -, in short, a new 
life was awakened, and no Italian or German, 



a declaration of war by Austria, April 

Driven from Bologna by the Austrian . . . „ .. . ._ _ _„ . ... : 

T/^Moo Aw^\ IK Z^A 4.^\u, A^A.^*.^ u„ who wishes well to his country, can read without 
5"^.^?* ^A *^ ^y defeated by ^ j„j^^j ^^e passage in^Las Cases' Memo- 

Bianchi Tolentmo, May 2 and 3, he lost -^-»*^- -^-^ ^-rrTLf^. ..: .u_^ ^^ 

the kingdom of Naples, into which the 
Austrian general Nugent had penetrated 
from Romcy and Bianchi from Aquila, 
seven weeks after the opening of the 
campaign. He embarited from Naples, 
with a view of escaping to France, May 
19. Ferdinand IV returned from Paler- 
mo, and Muna*s fiimily fi)und an asylimi 
in Austria. Murat himself made a descent 
in Calabria, from Corsica, in order to re- 



passage i 

rial, in which NapoleonPs views on these two 
countries are given. His propbecv, that Italy 
will one day be united, we nope will be ftdfillea. 
Union has been the anient wisn of reflecting Ital- 
ians for centuries, and the want of it is the great 
cau$e of the suflering of this beautiful but unfor- 
tunate country. A very interesting^ work, respect- 
ing the improvement of civil spirit m Italy, during 
the time of Napoleon, is LeUrts no- Vitality by 
Lullin de Chateauvieux. This work also con- 
tains much infOTmalion respecting^ the agriculture 
of Italy, and many other subjects, of which the 
descriptions of this country hardly ever speak. 



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ITALY, fflSTORY OF. 



Rogusa and Cattaro, constitutme a distinct 
Auatrian kingdom.— 3. The valley of the 
Po was adopted as the boundary between 
the States or the Church and Parma ; oth- 
erwise, the boundaries of Jan. 1, 1792, 
were retained. The Austrian house of 
Este again received Modena, Reggio, Mi- 
randola, Massa and Carrara. — 4. The em- 
press Maria Louisa received the state of 
Parma, as a sovereign duchess, but, by 
the treaty of Paris, of June 10, 1817, only 
for life, it being agreed that the duchess of 
Lucca and her descendants should inherit 
it Lucca, in that case, falls to the Tuscan 
dynasty, which, in return, resigns its dis- 
tricts in Bohemia to the duke of Reich- 
stadt— >^ The archduke Ferdinand of 
Austria became again |pnnd-duke of 
Tuscany, to which were joined the Staio 
d^i PfisiiSf the former Neapolitan part 
or the island of Elba, the principality of 
Piombino, and some small included dis- 
tricts, formerly i&e& of the German em- 
pire. The prince Buoncompagni Lu- 
dovisi retained all his rights of property 
in Elba and Piombino.---6. The Intanta, 
Maria Lomsa, received Lucca, of which 
she took possession as a sovereign duchy, 
1817, with an annuity of 500,000 francs, 
till the reversion of Parma.— 7. The terri- 
tories of the church were all restored, 
with the exception of the strip of land on 
the lefl bank of the Po ; and Austria re- 
tained the right of maintaining garrisons in 
Ferrara and Comnuicchio. — 8. Ferdinand 
IV was again recognised as king of the 
Two Sicilies. England retained Malta, and 
was declared the protectress of the United 
Ionian Islands. (See Ionian blonds.) The 
knights of Malta, who had recovered their 
possessions in the States of the Church 
and in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies 
(in Spain, 18151 for a time made Catanea, 
and, after 1836, Ferrara, their residence. 
The republic of San Marino, and the 
prince of Monaco, whose mountain for- 
tress the Sardinians, and, before them, the 
French, occupied, alone remained un- 
harmed amid the 15 political revolutions 
which Italy had undergone in tlie course 
of 25 yeais. The Austrian predominance 
was thus more firmly established than 
ever in Italy. In its seas and on its coasts, 
the British trident rules. Meanwhile, the 
desire of union and independence was not 
extinguished among the people of Italy. 
Traces of a struggle for a united and lib- 
eral government were almost every where 
visible ; and several of the governments, 
Naples, Rome and Turin, in particular, in 
vain endeavored to protect themselves 
secret political societies (Unitari- 



ans, Carbonari) and freemasonry by inquis- 
itory tribunals, Jesuits and secret police. 
The fate • of this delightful country has 
employed, during the last seven years, Uie 
cabinets of the first powers of Europe, 
according to the system of modem policy 
founded by the holy alliance, and more 

Precisely defined by the congress of Aix- 
L-Chapelle (1818J. While the spirit of 
Carbonarism (see Car6ofMiri),excited by the 
Spanish revolution of January 1, 1820, 
and having for its object the union of Ita- 
ly under one government, and its inde- 
pendence of foreign powers, particularly 
of Austria, threatened to subvert the po- 
litical institutions of the peninsula in gen- 
eral, and of the single states in particular, 
and in some places, especially in Naples, 
Sicily and Piedmont, actually shook them, 
by rousing the troops to revolt, and by ex- 
citing popular commotions — the cabinets 
labored with equal zeal to maintain the 
principle of stability by the suppression 
of every revolution, and by opposing to 
the popular spirit the power of the police. 
Thus was a question, fraught with the most 
momentous consequences for all Europe, 
practically decided in Italy, viz. whether 
one state is entitled to inteifere in the in- 
ternal afiSiirs of another, and overthrow, 
by force of arms, any new constitution 
which militates against the absolute mo- 
narchical principle. This principle, which 
was proclaimed unconditionally by the 
leading states of tlie continent, and by 
Great Britain under the supposition of 
particular circumstances threatening im- 
minent danger to the neighboring state 
(see lord Castlereagh's declaration of the 
19th January, 1821), resulted in Austria 
(as the nearest interested power, which 
had prevented the introduction of the rep- 
resentative system into Italy in 1815) re- 
storing by force of arms the ancient pre- 
rogatives of the royal authority in Naples, 
Sicily and Piedmont, afler obtaining the 
assent of the other four leading powers, 
which had been closely allied since 1818, 
and also of the Italian sovereigns, who 
participated, at the congress of Laybach, 
m the discussions respecting the afiairs of 
, Italy. Thus this power not only secured 
its own Italian provinces from the opera- 
tion of liberal principles, but established 
its portion as the guardian of the princi- 
ple of stability and absolute monarchy in 
Italy. All this wna efiected by a war of 
four days with the revolutionary army of 
the CaAonari of Naples (7th-10th March, 
18311 and by a war of three days with 
the federal party of Piedmont (7th-9th of 
April, 1891); so that Russia had no occa- 



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aioo to permit its amy of 100,000 men, 
already put in motion, to advance against 
the Italian nations. (For the histoiy of 
those military revolutions, see JVbpie», and 
Pitdmoni. Respecting die congress of 
monarcbs and ministers held at Troppf.u, 
from October to December, 1820 ; at Lay- 
bacfai, firom Januaiy to the 13th May, 1821 ; 
and the congress, as splendid as it was nu- 
merous, held at Verona, from October to 
the 14th December, 1822, where the ques- . 
tion of armed inteiierence in the internal 
affiiiis of states, in reference to Italy and 
Spain, was discussed, and decided 
against the claims of the popular party, 
though, in Verona, without the acquies- 
cence of England, see Conmu, hiofvtnr 
tiouj and H^ AUianetA tn the congress 
of Verona the Porte haa no share, because 
it did not recognise the right of interfer- 
ing in its internal affiiirs (with reference to 
the Greeks). Even the deputies of the 
provisionary government of Greece (see 
Grttet^ Revohdton qf\ were not admitted at 
Veronar; the pope, however, opened an 
asylum to the Greeks in general in Anco- 
na, and suffered the letter of count Metaxa 
to be published, in which he solicited the 
medi^ion of the holy father in behalf of 
the affiiirs of Greece at the congress of 
Verona. The affairs of Italv were dis- 
cussed in the last sessions of the congress. 
The plenipotentiaries of the Italian states 
were as foUows, and voted in the fol- 
lowing order : — Rome, the cardinal Spina, 
and Leardi, the nuncio at th^ court or Vi- 
enna (who died 1883) ; Naples, the prince 
Alvaro Ruffo, minister of foreign affiurs, 
and the marquis Ruffo^ private secretary 
of king Ferdinand ; Saniinia, the count 
Delia Tom^ minister of foreign affairs, and 
the count Pralormc, Sardinian minister to 
the court of Vieima ; Tuscany, the minis- 
ter, prince Veri-Corsini ; Parma, the count 
Magarly, minister of state; Lucca, the 
minister Mausi, and count Guicciajrdini. 
The petitions of the Maltese order for their 
restoration as a sovereign power were sub- 
mitted by the conuuander, Antonio Busco ; 
nothing, however, was decided ou the sub- 
ject, and the loan which the order subse- 
quendy attempted to negotiate in London, 
in 1823^ had as little success as the negotia- 
tion with the Greek senate for the cession 
of an island. The political maxims which 
the monarcbs followed at these congresses, 
with respect to Italy, were laid before the 
world, in the Circular Note of Verona of 
December 14, 1822. After the dissolu- 
doii of the congress of Verona, the king 
of Naples followed the emperor of Aus- 
tria to Vieima, where he remained till Ju- 



ly, 1823, and tlien returned to his states,— « 
his various oaths taken to support a con^ 
stitutional form of government having 
been all violated. The efforts of the roost 
intelligent Italians^ from the time of Mac- 
chiavelli and Ciesar Borgia, son of pope 
Alexander VI (see Mtxandtr VK to re- 
store the political unity of their native 
country, have given rise to die numerous 
secret political soeiedes in Italy, which in 
Bologna were called the Qw^ ; in the Ro- 
man and Neapolitan stales, the PatriotH 
Europti, and Carbofnan; in Upper Italy, 
the i&pitta tiers ; in Piedmont and Lom- 
bardy, the FikidUfi and FtdendL In Mi- 
lan, the AdeffiOf or the Sacietk de* nMimi 
mauiriperfm, labored to produce a gen- 
eral outbreak of insurrections in Italy, io 
order to surround the Austrian anny on 
its advance against Naples. Even the ad- 
vocates of the illiberal system, or the iht- 
ocraUc faction, as it was termed, which 
likewise puisued its objects in secret socie- 
ties, took advantage of the national desire 
of greater unity in Italy. It was therefore 
natuird that the idea of connecting the 
Italian states in a poRdeal system similar 
to the Germanic confederatioif should 
have been agitated by the statesmen of the 
congress ; but it seems to have been endre- 
ly given up, and Italy was left in the hands 
of Austria. On the other hand, measures 
were adopted, by all the Italian states, to 
extirpate the liberal ^rit which, propeiga- 
ting itself under a perpetual variety of 
new forms (for example, in the sect cf the 
Ordmd di JviiqH>Uf of the DeaeamuadoSf of 
the BarMUiy in Naples and the rest of 
Italy), had not ceasea in the year 1825, in 
the June of which year a conspiracy vras 
detected at Rome, to pursue its ancient ob- 
ject of uniting all the Italian states into one 
confodemcy as a republic or constitutional 
monarchy ,and freeing them from foreign in- 
fluence. Thisdnplay of revolutionary spuit 
is nothing new in the history of Italv. The 
middle ages, that golden period of absolute 
power, exhibit there an almost uninterrupt- 
ed series of such political conspiracies, re- 
publican schemes and destructive convul- , 
sions, because Ita^ has never yet been 
permitted to be politically a nation, and to 
adopt a form required by its wants and its 
rights. One leading measure was, to occu- 
py for some years the kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies and Piedmont (in which the old 
troops were disbanded), at tlie expense of 
these states, with Austrian armies, which 
had restored the former state of things. 
This was done conformably with the trea- 
ties between Austria and lung Ferdinand, 
of October 18, 1821, and the king of 

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ITALY, HISTORY OP. 



Sardinia, Charles Felix, at Novara, Juljr 
24, 1821. But, ia compliance with the 
decrees of Verona (December 14, 1822), 
the Austrian troops, 12,000 in number, 
weregradually removed from Piedmont 
in 18^ and the fortress of Alexandria was 
surrendered, September 30, 1823, to Bar^ 
dinian troops. In the same year, after a 
new Neapolitan army had been organized 
in Naples, the Austrian garrison, of 42,000 
men, was diminished siSmi 17,000, and, in 
Sicily, only the citadel of Palermo continu- 
ed to be occupied by Austrian troops. The 
last detachment left the kingdom in 1^27. 
The. influence of Austria on the internal 
administration was likewise every where 
feh. The police of each state adopted 
the strictest measures for maintaining in- 
ternal tranquillity. Secret societies were 
strictly prohibited (for example, in the 
Austnan Italian states, by a prodamation 
of August 29, 1820); tribunals were 
erected, and, in Naples, supported by 
movable columns, to punish tne authors 
of revolutions ; executions, prosoripHon 
and banishment ensued. Some condemn- 
ed Neapolitans and Lombards were car- 
ried to the Austrian fortresses of Spielbei^ 
and Munkatsch. The Neapolitan govern- 
ment prooeeded with the utmost rigor 
asainst political criminals, as did also the 
Sardinian and Modenese. Both Naples 
and Sardinia, nevertheless, issued decrees 
of amnesty, from which only the au^ors 
and leaders of the insurrection were ex- 
cluded. Notwithstanding this severity, 
political ounces were so numerous, that, 
in Naples, in January, 1834, a more sum- 
maiy form of judicial proceedingwas pre- 
scribed to the criminal couns. This was 
the fourth time, smce 1821, that the gov- 
ernment had been compelled, on account 
of the crowded state of the prisons, to 
have recourse to extraordinary expedi- 
ents. The Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, 
Lucca, Parma, Tuscany and the church 
displayed the same anxiety in relation to 
secret associations. In Venice, the court 
of justice condemned 32, and in Milan 16 
persons to death ; but the emperor, in 
1823, and January, 1824, transmuted the 
sentence into that of perpetual or tempos 
rary imprisonment In September, 1821, 
the pope excommunicated the sect of the 
Carbonari and all similar associations, as 
branches of the long-prohibited freema- 
sons ; but in the Roman state, Tuscany, 
Parma and Lucca, no punishments were 
in6icted for participation in former politi- 
cal societies. In general, the papal gov- 
ernment, under the direction or the cardi- 
nal Gonsalvi, was distinguished from the 



otfaen for oonciliatoi^ measures^ and for 
moderation in establishing internal tran- 
quillity. The influence of the apostolic 
see on the states convulsed by revolutions 
was thus, in some degree, increased. The 
press, universities and schools were, in 
particular, closely watched. In the king- 
dom of the Two Sicilies, and in Piedmont, 
strict measures were taken for the purifi- 
cation and discipline of the literary institu- 
tions ; the Jesuits were restored, and ren- 
dered influential in the education of youth, 
by having conunitted to them, at Rome 
and other places, the schools, colleges and 
oratories, which they hod before conduct- 
ed. On the other hand, nu merous banditti 
disturbed tiie public security, especially in 
Naples and the States of the Church. 
One of them got in their power (January, 
1822) an Ausuian colonel, for whose lib- 
eration they had the audacitv to demand 
40,000 Roman dollara ; but they released . 
him on seeing tiiemselves sunrounded by 
Austrian troops. In January, 1824, ac- 
cording to the Diario di Romot a numer- 
ous band of roving youtiis was discovered 
in Italy, who had run away from their 
parents, organized themselves into com- 
panies, and subsisted by frauds and robbe- 
nr. Among the single events, important 
ror the history of luJy in late times, we 
must mention the death of pope Pius 
VII, in consequence of fracturing his leg, 
August 20, 1823. After a short conclave 
(from 3d to 27th September), he was suc- 
ceeded by cardinal Aunibal della Genga, 
bom in 1760, at the family castle of the 
same name, near Spoleto, a prelate distin- 
guished for his diplomatic services ; he 
assumed the name of Leo XII, Sept. 27, 
1823.* In the year 1825, Leo caused a j u - 
bilee to be celebrated in the States of the 
Church. (See Jubilee.) The friend and 
secretary of Pius VII, the statesman car- 
dinal Gonsalvi, who effected great changes 
in the system of internal administration, 
died at Rome, Jan. 24, 1824. He had be- 
stowed the presents received frou) the Eu- 
ropean sovereigns (upwai'ds of 100,000 
scudi in value), on the college de propa- 
ffondajide^ of which he was the last pre- 
fect ; and a great sum of money for re- 
building St. Paul's church, burned ia 
Rome, in 1823. A somewhat milder 
spirit prevailed in the Two Siciliea, 
afler the accession of Francis I (Jan. 4, 

* Leo XU died Feb. 10, 1829, and cardinal 
Castidionc was elected pope, March 31. He 
took the name of Pius VTu, and died in Decem- 
ber, 1830. Early in 1831, cardinal Oappellari 
was elected pope, and a.<tsomed the name of 
Gregory XVI. 



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107 



1825)br— Italy depends almost solely oo its 
agriruhme ibr subsBtence; the sources 
mm which it fbrmeriy drew its support, 
die arts, maDuiactures and commerce, be- 
ing almoet dried up. Commerce with 
foreign oountrieSy which, in Naples espe- 
cially,iB altogether stagnant, is, for the most 
pert, in tlie hands of Ibreignm, and, in a 
great measure, dependent on the British ; 
thence the universal want of qiecie, the 
financial embarrassments of the govern- 
raents, and the loans negotiated with 
Rothschild. Italy no longer lives, as for- 
meriy, on her dtics, but on her soU. And 
even this source of prosperity maintains 
but a feeble existence, while taxes and 
tarifls impede the exportation of the sta- 
ple productions to foreign countries, or 
Dands of banditd and the want of good 
roads obstruct internal intercouise, as in 
Sicily and Calabria. The natural advan- 
tages of Italy entitle her to the bluest 
rank in agriculture, commerce and the 
arts ; but all branches of industry groan 
onder pohtical oppression. The govern- 
ment and people look on each other with 
jealoosy and hate, and the ecclesiastica] 
establidiment poisons the springs of na- 
tional activity. A political excitement is 
oonthdualty Kept up by means of secret 
societies, which are fbnnd also in Spain 
and Switzerland, under difierent appella- 
tions — ConnstoriaUSf Croeesigiiatij Croei- 
firi, Socieih deUa Saada Fede, Sacidh dd 
AniOoj and of the Braki The noted 
count Le Maistre vras, for a long time, in 
Piedmont, the head of diese malcontents, 
who sought to accomplish desperate, am- 
bitious plans, while apparently zealous in 
the cause of relidon or morality. Even 
the Calderari, in Naples, whose head was 
the ex-minister of tbe police of Naples, 
prince Canosa, have become one with the 
Sanfedists, who were connected with the 
gmwemement occutU (as it was denomi- 
nated) of France. These ultras hate even 
Austria, because it seems to act with too 
great moderadon. The pand-duke of 
Tuscany is a man of lenient principles, 
and, in that country, not a oneie Tuscan 
has been brought to account K>r political 
transfpesaons. like the rest of Europe, 
Italy IS on the eve of momentous events ; 
but the convulsions in that country will 
be more violent than in many others, in 
eonseguence of its having to struggle at 
once K>r uniQr snd independence, against 
a deeply rooted and obnoxious ecclesias- 
tieal establishment, the ignorance of a 
vast number of the people, and powerfiil 
enemiesr— For the general history of ItBr 
l^,pi«fk>aB to the last period, see Mu»- 



tori^ invaluable works : Amnaii ^Matitt 

il2vol8.4to.); RmtmlUUia»rumScrwiort»i 
38 vis. fbU; and Sismondi's HmtoindesRi'' 
piMqtMmiemuiB (3d edit, 16 vols. 1825). 
A contiDuation of Guicciiundini's Stotia 
tPBoHa^ until 1789, by C. Botta, has lately 
been announced. Percival's History of 
Italy, (2 vols.), contains a shorter view of 
the modem history of that country. For 
further infbrmadon on the modem histo- 
ry and the statistics of Italy, see Cario 
Botta's Stona d*RaHa dal 1789 al 1814 
(Paris, 1884, 4 vols. 4to., and in French 
5 vob.) ; die ArmaH (TMaHa dal 1750 
(continuation of Muratori), compUaH dal 
MbaU A. Qippi (3 vols., Rome, 1825) ; 
Bossi's SUnia d?hcMa tadica e modarna ; 
the Mhnoina rar la Cow duPfinee JSm- 
ef ntr U Royaume d^RoHt, ptndani la 
matUm de Mxpd^on, &c. (Paris, 1824) ; 
also, Leo's GtsihkhU dtr Ralieniiehm 
StatOm (4th vol, Hamburg, 1830), and 
the historical works which are mentioned 
in the subsequent article on Balian LUer' 
ahare ; also, the above-mentioned work of 
LuUin de Chateauvieux (LetUra on Raiu). 
This author investigates the causes of the 
decJine of Italy, and describes regions 
which are not visited by most travellers. 
His comparison of the Italian system of 
agriculture with the English is interest- 
ing.* 

Aalian Langiuigt, The boundaries of 
the Italian language cannot be given with 
precision. In tM north, towuds Swit- 
zerland, Tyrol and the other neighboring 
countries, the vaUeys in which German, 
Italian, and dialects of the ancient Roman 
language, are spoken, alternate with each 
other, ^ven the sea is not a definite lim- 
it On account of the early extension of 
the Italians over die islands of the Medi- 
terranean, including those of Greece and- 
the coasts of the Grecian main land, it is 
not easy to determine where the last Ital- 
ian sound is heard. It is spoken, more 
or less corrupted, in all the ports of the 
Mediterranean, Christian arid Turkish. 
Of late, however, the Italian language 
has lost ground on many islands, as, for in- 

* The latest accoonts from Europe, at the time 
we are writing (April 18, 1831), state that the 
Aostrians had oeen victonous aeaijist the Italian 
insurgents, after a lon^ battle ; that the provisory 

S^vernment had retired from Bolonia to the 
eric of Ancona ; and that the president of the 
new French cabinet had declared, that for France 
to prevent other powers from interferenee in the 
aflain of Italy, would be mter/ermg herself, 
and against her principle ; so that, if the elements 
of commotion in Eorope do not prodnce a geBeral 
war, tbe Italians will be crashed, and more se- 
verel>' eathralled than ever. 



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ITALIAN LANGUAGE. 



rtancoy on di« loniui islands, (q. r.) The 
origin of this beautiful and most nanno- 
oious tongue, is ako loet in obscurity. 
The general opinion, that the Italian origin* 
atedf from a mixture of the classical lAtin 
with the languages of the bariwrians who 
overran Italy, is erroneous. The Roman 
Ifteraiy language, which thfe scholar learns 
from Horace and Cicero, was not the 
dialect of the common people. That the 
former could not have been corrupted by 
. the mixture of the barbarous languages, 
is proved bv the fact, that Latin was writ- 
ten in the beginning of the middle aces, 
long before the revival of learning, wim a 
surprising purity, considering the circun> 
stances. After the language of conmion 
life had been entirely changed b^ the in- 
vasion of the northern trib^ in its whole 
spirit ntlier than by the mere admixture 
of foreign words (a consequence of the 
change of the spirit of the people), then a 
newiaoffuage of literature was formed, 
though the classical Roman still continued 
to be used. The new language was op- 
posed to the variety of dialects which had 
grown out of common life ; the formation 
of it, however, was slow, because the 
learned and the poets, from whom it was 
necessarily to receive its stamp and devel- 
opement, despised it as an intruder on the 
Latin, which was venerable as well by its 
age, and the treasures handed down in it, 
as on account of the recollections of former 
peatness, with which the suffering Ital- 
ians were fond of flattering diemselves. 
Even down to the present day, that idiom, 
the melody of which carries us away in 
the most unimportant author, is not to be 
found as the common idiom of the people 
in any part of Italy.* It is a mistake to 
suppose that Boccaccio's language is to be 
heard from the lips of Tuscan peasant 
giris or Florentine porters. Even the Tus^ 
can and Florentine dialect differs from the 
pure language of literature, which, during 
the first centuries of Italian literature, is 
found purer in the poets of Sicily and 
Naples than in the contemporary writera 
of Tuscany. The circumstance, that the 
most distinguished Italian poets and prose 
writera were bom in Florence, and die 
* The sweetnesn of this tonrue, which often 
gives to a passage a chann inaependent of the 
ineaDiD|gof the words, and rescmbruig that of inii< 
sky is, in our opiaiony do where so apparent as in 
Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, end many stanzas 
have struck us as attracting the hearer irresisti- 
bly, though some of them have no particular 
charm in the meaning of the words. This also 
gives the Italian hnprowisator a great advantage 
over one who attempts a similar perfonnance m 
another langiutfe, in which he is entirely ihrown 
upon tbeMi^ of what he says. 



authority assumed by later Tuscan acad- 
emies, particulariy the Crusca (q. v.), are 
the causes why the Tuscan dialect, in 
spite of it» rough gutturals, which are in- 
tolerable to the other Italians;^ became 
predominant in tlie lan^[uage of literatiure. 
Dante, the creator, as it were, of ItoTian 
prose and poetry, and whose worics are 
full of peculiarities of different dialects, 
distinctly maintains, in a treatise De vtd- 
gari EloquenlUi, tliat it is inadmissible to 
attempt to raise a dialect to a literaiy 
language. Dante, indeed, distinguislies in 
the lingua volgare (so the language was 
called, which originated after the invasion 
of the barbarians) a volgare iUustrey car- 
dinaU^ auUcum, cwriak ; but this sufficiently 
proves that he held the opinion above 
sutted. Femow (in his Rom. Studies, Book 
viii.,No. 11) mentions 15 chief dialects, of 
which the Tuscan has six subdivisions. 
Those dialects, in which no literary pi*o- 
ductions exist, are not enumerated. The 
Italian, as we find it at present, in litera- 
ture and with the well educated, is essen- 
tially a Latin dialect Its stock is Latin, 
changed, to be sure, in its grammar and 
constnicdon, by the infusion of the mod- 
em spirit into die antique, as the character 
of the people underwent the same change. 
A number of Latin forms of words, which, 
even in the time of the Romans, existed 
in common language (as, for instance, o 
instead of urn, at the end of a wordl have 
been, by the course of time and revolutions 
in literature, elevated to a grammatical 
rank ; and the same is very probably true 
of forms of phraseology. In many iu« 
stances, the Italian exhibits changes in the 
Latin forms, which have evidently taken 
place in the same way, in which common 
people, in our days, corrupt the correct 
modes of speech by a rapid, or slurred, or 
mistaken pronunciation. This is partly 
the reason why the Italian has changed 
so considerably the proportion of the con- 
sonants to the vowels in Latin (from 
1, 2 : 1, the Latin proportion, to 1, 1 : 1, tlie 
Italian proportionf); and this is one of the 
chief reasons of the great and uniform bar- 
. mony in the Italian language. A careful 
investigation will show that, in fact, little 
admixture of Teutonic words took place, 
but that it is much more the Teutonic, 
or modem spirit, which changed the lan- 
guage so consrdeFably4 The study of 

* The beau-ideal of Italian is set forth in the 
saying. Lingua Totcana in bocca Romana (the 
Tuscan dialect iu a Roman mouth). 
. t See the article Comonant. ^ 

X Tins change is also manifest in the differenco 
between antbors who wrote before the great revi- 
val of letters, and stall later, beibre the French 



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ITALL^^ LANGUAGE— ITAUAN UTERATURE. 



iKO 



Italian has been cairied on, in modem 
times, with great zeal, and a recurrence to 
the old writers has much diminished the 
influence of the French models, so gen- 
eral after the time of Algarotti. The 
principles, according to which purity is 
DOW judged, have been clearly laid down 
bv count Julius Perticari, son-in-law to 
Monti, in the work Amor Patrio diDwnit 
(Milan, 1820), which powerfully opooses 
the presumption of the Tuscans in claim- 
ing to be in possession of the only ffood 
Ituian. This work was considered, tor a 
lonff time, the production of Monti, who, 
bv his PropoHa d% aleune Comzionx td 
AagwnU (uVocabvlario della CVitfco, gave 
sufficient reason for such coniecture. To 
render the nobler langua^ also the com- 
mon property of the provinces to which,it 
had hitherto remained forei^, was the 
aim of Gherardini'^ Irdroduziont (Mi)an, 
1615). More was promised by the Fo- 
cabclano deUa Lingua lUdiana^ publish- 
ing at Bologna, the authors of wliich are 
aibitranr in the explanation and applica- 
tion of words. Bonavilla^s VocaboUurw 
EtimoUgico (Milan, 5 vols., 1825) han21y 
excited the attention of the Milanese^ un- 
der whose eyes it originated. Rpmaiii's 
Tkoria t J)ysx(mwi^ geiu dt Swund (Milan, 
18Q5) sieems to be more useful Respect- 
ing the histoiy of the Italian language, we 
may expect much from tl^f profound re- 
searches of Benci. The philological 
treasures of a nation, in which the ancient 
writers are studied wiJ6 so much zeal, and 
which is so extenfl^vely connected with 
foreign countries must be continually 
augmenting. V^rever a line of Tasso 
has been foun^ unprinted, wherever the 
pen of Guariui has been traced, the frag- 
ment has been published with a pious de- 
votion, roost probably not desired by the 
authoT» Nevertheless, many mteresting 
additions to the literature of Italy have 
beex made in tliis way : thus, for in- 
stance, a work of Peter Peru^uo (Di uno 
ScriUo Axdografo dd Piitore P. Ptrvgino 
ndPArdUvio deW Acad, di B, Arii di Peru- 
gioj Scc^ Perugia, 1820), poems of Bojardo 
{Poesie di MaSeo Maria Bojardoj CorUe di 
Sc€mdiano tec, acelte td illustrate del CavaL 
Veniuriy Modena, 1820), poems of Lo- 
renzo the Magnificent (Po€^e del magnjfi'' 
CO Lorenzo de^Mtdicij Florence, 1820^ po- 
ems of Luin Alemanni (Florence, 1819], 
a work of Montecuculi, unknown till it 

rafloenfe had taken place. This may, perhaps, 
acconot for the difficulty which an Italian reader 
finda in understanding many passages of Dante, ' 
which do not strike a German as. particularly ' 
obscure. 

VOL. Til. 10 



was published by (kasai (Turin. 1820), 
and letters of Galilei, published by Ven- 
turi (Modena, 1821, 16ma 2 voia.). Still 
greater has been the demand for editions 
of the acknowledged classics. Dante has 
been published in all shapes and sizea 
Among these editions, that of De Romani 
(Rome, 1820, 4ta), the edition of Biagioli 
(Milan, 1820), ana one published at Rove^ 
ta, in the Rhstian Alps, hv an admirer of 
the poet, Aloisio Fantoni (1820), of which 
a manuscript in the hand- writing of Boo 
caccio was made the basis, deserve men- 
tion. The edition printed from the Bar- 
tolinian manuscript (Vienna, 1823) has 
.acquired some disDnction among the moat 
recent,-as have likewise Scolariis explana- 
tions (DeSa piena e giuHa IntelUgenxa di 
Danie, Padua, 1822). Ugo Foscolo had 
prepared an edition, accompanied with 
notes and commentaries, which is now 
(1^1/ in course of publication at London. 
. Sii^or attention has been paid to Petnir- 
ca, in the famous edition' of Manand 
^ Padua, 1819, 4to.),and sev^^ edittona 
for common use. Ariosto's.Qr^omfbiU- 
rioso has met with equal homage $ the 
edition at Florence, by Molini (1821 and 
1822, 5 vols.), unites every. thing which is 
required for the understanding of the 
poet No less care was -^ bestowed on 
Torquato Tasso in the edition made by 
the typomphical society (Milan, 18S3 et 
seq.\, and hardly an Italian author of note 
can be mentioned whose works have not 
been carefuUy edited. ,^The SocvOh ISpo- 
rrqfica Je' Cloisici MaUani even undertook 
tne reprint of Muratori's AnnaU tPMaUa 
(Milan, 1820 et seq., 20 large volumes)^ 
trusting to the zeal for collecting among 
travelling foreigners, and in so doing were 
more fortunate than the editor of the Jb- 
miglit cdehri Raliane, which, with all its 
undisputed merit, has had but a heavy 
sale. Shice the death of Morelli, the 
spirit of criticism, as i]eg&rds the classics, 
seems to have died. The best Italiau and 
English dictionary is that of Petronj, 
(Itiman, French and English, 3 vols^ Lon- 
don) : Alberti (luilian and French) is veiy 
valuable. ' The best modem grammars 
are the Grammaire des GrammairtM Ra- 
Uennes, Biag^oli's Grammaire Malitnne, 

Italian n LUeraiurt and Learning (ex- 
cluding poetry). One consequence of the 
irruption of the barbarians into Italy was 
a period of darkness and ignorance, ns 
well as of disorder and distraction, from 
whose ehaotic confusion the germs of a 
new civilization coidd only be developed 
slowly and laboriously. 

FirH Ptriod.-^From Charlemagne to the 



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ITALIAN LITERATURE. 



Jkaik of 0(ho m lOOe.— The influence of 
Charlemagne as the fiiend of letteis and 
the restorer of peace was fiivorable. We 
find an Italian, Petrus, deacon of Pisa, 
mentioned as his teacher in fframniar. 
No leas deserving of mention is Lothaire,^ 
who was king of Italy in 823, and found- 
ed the fust public scnools in many cities. 
Of the instructers in these schools, we 
know only Dungalus of Pisa, of whom, 
while he waa £li a monk at BobbiOj 
Charieinagne requested an explanation of 
two solar eclipses, and under whose name 
several woiks are still extant Lothaire's 
example was imitated by pope Eugene II, 
in the States of the Church. The conse- 
quences, however, of these Institutions, 
although valuable in themselves, were 
unimportant ; for competent teachers were 
wantmg, and the later Carlovtogians and 
popes suffered the new institutions of 
learning to fiJl to decay. In addition to 
this, the incursions of the Saracens «nd 
Hungarians into Italy, and the civil wars, 
had a very injurious influence. There 
were few individuals, m this daik period, 
celebrated fbr learning. In theology were 
distinguished the popes Adrian I, the 
above-mentioned Eugene II, Leo V, 
Nicolas I, and Sjrlvester II ; Paulinus, pa- 
triarch of AquilejAjfbis works were pub- 
lished, Venice, 1737), Theodolphus, bish- 
op of Orleans (hii3 works, Paris, 1646), 
both contemporaries of Charlemagne ; the 
two archbishops ef Milan, Petrus and Al- 
benus ; Maxentiua, patriarch of Aquileia ; 
and, finally, the two abbots of Monte 
Casino, Autpertus and Bertarius. Among 
the historians of this time, whose writuigs 
•ontain valuable information, though in a 
rude and barbarous style, the principal 
are Paulus Wameftied, sumamed Diaco- 
nttf, author of several works, especially 
of a history of the Lombards, and Er- 
chempertus, with two unknown persons of 
Salerno and Benevento, who continued 
the above work ; a priest of Ravenna, by 
name Agnellus (albo Andreas), who wrote 
a history of the bishops of Ravenna; 
.Vndrew of Bergamo, author of a chroni- 
cle of Italy from 868 to 875 ; Anastasius, 
librarian of the Roman church, known 
by his lives of the Roman bishops, and 
Luitprandrus of Pavia, author of a history 
of his own times. 

Second PeriocL—From the Death of OtJw 
UI, 1002, to ihe Peace of Constance, 118a 
[n this period, also, the condition of Italy 
was unmvorable to the interests of learn- 
ing. The Italian cities were contending 
for their fineedom with the emperors, and 
(he conflict between the spuitual and 



secular power was no lees injurious. The 
crusades, which began at the close of the 
llth century, salutary as they were in 
their ultimate influence, contributed, in 
their immediate results, to augment the 
general confusion. Of the popes, the 
ambitious Gregory VII and Alexander 
III took measures fbr improving the 
schoob. The copies of ancient classic 
works were multiplied, and individuals 
took pains to collect books. Amonff the 
learnt theol^ans of this period, we 
must mention Fulbert, bishop of Chartres, 
a native Roman ; the two famouff arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, Lanfi«nc and his 
scholar Anselm; Petrus Lombardus, 
teacher of theology at Paris, most fiunoua 
for his four books Sewtentiarum ; Petrus 
Damianus ; the cardinal Albericus ; Bru- 
no, bishop of Segni; Auselmus, bishop 
of Lucca ; Petrus Grossolanus, or Chiy- 
solans, archbishop of Milan, and Boni- 
zone, bishop of Sutri, afterwards of Pia- 
cenza. All have left works, on which we 
shall not dwell. In philosophy, or rather 
dialectics, besides Lanfinnc and Anselm, 
were distinguished Gerardus of Cremona, 
who taught at Toledo, and, amon^ other 
things, translated, from the Arabic into 
Latin, the works of Avicenna and the 
Almagest of Ptolemy, and Johannes, tlie 
Italian, who expounded Plato and Aris- 
totie at Constantinople, and gave instruc- 
tion in logic. Music underwent an entire 
transformation through Guide of Arezzo. 
The medical art flourished in the school 
at Salerno, at the end of the 10th century. 
The physicians there ^em to have first 
studied the works of the Arabians. The 
oldest monument of the StJemian school 
consists of certain dietetical rules, compos- 
ed in Leonine verses, entitied Medicina So- 
hrmtanOy or De Conservanda Bona VaU- 
iudine. Several physicians, both of Sa- 
lerno and the neighborhood, were distin- 
guished in these times for their works, 
viz. Matthceus Platearius, Saladinus of 
Ascoli (the last for his compendium of 
aromatic medicines), and several monks, 
whom we pass over. Jurisprudence re> 
vived with the fireedom of the cities, and 
became a subject of general study » 
Throughout Italy there were schools in 
which it was tausht; namely, at Modena, 
Mantua, Padua, Pisa, Piacenza, Milan, and 
above all ot Bologna, where Irnerius, who 
acquired for this city the appellation of 
harnedj taught and explained the Roman 
law, and brought to light the concealed 
treasures of the Pandecta We might 
mention many distinguished lawyers of 
this period, but content ourselves with cit- 



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11] 



log the fionous Gratian, who first digested 
the canoD law (in his Ikcretum sive Coti" 
eordia Canonum Diacordantiumj^ for the 
use of the tribunals, and is to be regarded 
as the founder of the canon law. AU 
though die grossest barbarism prevailed in 
eveiy thing that related to taste, there were, 
neTerthelesB, individuals who paved the 
way to a knowledge of the ancients, by 
the study of the Orreek and Latin lan- 
guages, and sought to imitate their style. 
Among them was Papias, one of the orst 
who compiled a Latin dictionaiy. The 
11th and 12th centuries exhibit many 
scholars, whose works are destitute of 
e^gance, but written in a cleai- and intel- 
ligible style. Such ore Amolphus, the 
two Landolphuses, Sire Raul, Otho Mo- 
rena and his son Acerbus, Godoiredus 
llalatena, and several writeis of clironi- 
cles^ and authors of monastic histories, 
respecting whose names and woriu we 
le^ the mquirer to Muratori's invaluable 
collection. 

Third PeriocL-^Ihrn the Peace of Con- 
sUmce, 1183, to the End of the 12lh Century, 
in this penod, the literature of Italv as- 
sumes a more pleasing aspect Hitnerto 
«U woiks had been written in bariMrous 
Latin, but attempts now be||an to be 
mode i•^ the language (rude, indeed, as 
yet) of the people (Itiufua volgm-e). Poe- 
try, as usoa\ preceded prose. Dialectics 
sod philosophy were improved, and as 
die sdences gained in sphdity and extent, 
their mutual connexion became moreap- 
parent The crusades had led to new 
sources of knowledge, and gave, in general, 
a aew impulse to the mind. Notwitbstand- 
ing the internal wars of Italy, letters 
flourished ; for princes and republics vied 
with each other m encouraging scholars, 
and in founding new schools and institu- 
tions of education. The emperors Fred- 
eric 1 and II effected great improvements. 
The former promoted the study of iu- 
rinmidence in particular, and founoed 
schools ; the latter was himself a scholar, 
possessed an extensive knowledge of the 
languases, and established public schools 
throughout the south of Italv. His couit, 
and that of his son Manfred, in Palermo, 
were thronged witii the learned. Besides 
some poems in Italian, he also wrote a 
w^oric on the natural history of birda His 
leanied chancellor, Pietro delle Vigne 
(Petrus de Vineis), was animiUed by the 
same spirit, and not less &miliar witii the 
science of law than vrith the conduct of 
political affiiirB. Besides six books of let- 
ters, his collection of Sicilian laws is still 
extant Several of the popes were pro- 



found scholars, and distinguished an 
authors, particulaiiy Innocent III and IV, 
and Urtian IV. The university of Bo- 
logna, at the beginning of the JSth cen- 
tury, contained 13,000 smdents from all 
countries of Europe; and Padua, Arezzo, 
Vicenza, Naples, &C., competed vntii 
it The chief theologians of this perioii 
were Thomas Aquinas, the Franciscan 
Bonaventuia, and Egidio Cok»nna, all 
three authiMS of numerous wortcs. In 
philosophy, a new epoch began in Italy iii 
this period, when the writings of AristoUe 
became known to the Italians, though m 
a somewhat corrupt state. Thomas 
Aquinas wrote a comnientaiy on them 
by the command of the pope, and trans- 
lated them, panly from tlie Greek, partiy 
from the Arabic. Bninetto Latini pro- 
duced an epitome of the Ethics of Aris- 
totle, in his TVforo, which was oiisinalh' 
written in French, and is remarkiuile ar 
an encyclopedia of the knowledge of the 
age. Mathematies and astronomy, in 
c<»mexioQ with astrology, were cultivaled. 
Campano, the most learned geometer and 
astronomer of his time, wrote a commen- 
tary on Euclid. After him we may nanio 
Lamranco, Leonardo of Pi8toia,4nd Gui- 
de Booatdf the chief astrologer of the 
time. From this period dates the inven- 
tion of spectacles and of the maf^jc 
needle. The school of Salerno was the 
central point of medical study. It had 
able teachers in Pietro M usandino, Mat- 
teo nateario, Manro, &c. -, but there were 
also distinguished physicians out of Sa- 
lerno, such as Ugo of Lucca, the Floran- 
tine Taddeo (who wrote commentaries eo 
the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, and on 
some woriu of Galen]^ Simon of Genoa 
(author of the C3ama Saniiatia^ which 
may be r^arded as the first medical and 
botanical mctumary), and others. Surgen* 
niode still greater progress und^r such 
men as Ruggieri of Parma (who vnrole o 
PracUea JIMiema)^ and his counUyman 
and contemporary Rolando (author of a 
Surgery, on which four of the principo) 

Shysicians of Saleno wrote comiaeniaries), 
(runo, Teodorico, Guglielmo of Sahcetu, 
and Lanfruico, of whom we have likewise 
treatises on surgery; but no scieDce was 
more zealously or sucoesafully pursued in 
the 13th century than jurispruaence. In 
Ferrora, Modena, Milan, Verona, and 
other Lombard cities^ codes wero com- 
piled, on which a Dominican, who peasetl 
lor a performer of miracles, John of Vi- 
cenza, bestowed a sort of consecration. 
The first lawyers of tiiiis time wen Azzo 
of Bologna(whose SumnuB on the institu- 

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M 



ITALIAN LITERATURE. 



tions and Apparatus ai Codicem have 
been printed), Ugoliiio del Prete, also a 
Bdognese (who incorporaied with the 
corpus juris the feudal laws, compiled by 
Angelinas of Orto, and the decrees of tiie 
modem emperors), Accorso, a Florentine 
(who obtained the surname of Glossator^ 
from his having collected tiie best glosses 
of his predecessors, and annexed others 
of his own), Odofredo (auilior of a com- 
mentaiy on the Codex and the digests), 
&C. In the canon law, Gradon's collection 
had been hitherto held as authority. To 
this were now added the four collections 
of Bernardo of Pavia, of Pietro Collivacci- 
no, &C., which were regarded as works 
of authority till they were supplanted by 
the collection made under the supervision 
of Gregory IX, which even yet consti- 
tutes the greater part of the canonical 
law. To this Boniface VIII added, in 
1298, the sixtii book of decretals. Without 
dwelling on the most distinguished canon- 
ists, we pass to the principal historians, 
most of wh<Hn wrote with amplibity and 
integrity: — Goffiedo of Viteri>o'i(a Ger- 
m^, "vnio wrote a chronicle, from the 
creation of the worid to 1168, under the 
titie of Paidhionl Sicardus (author of 
a similar chronicle), Giovanni Colonna 
(author of a universal history — Metre His- 
ioriartim), Riceobaldi (author of a aimUar 
work, entitied Pomarium\ the Sicilian 
Riocardo of San Germano (who relates, 
with much ' ^delity, events from 1189 
to 1343), Matteo Spinello (whose history 
reaches from 1347 to 1268, and is the first 
learned work in Italian prose), Niccol6'di 
lamsilla, Saba Malaspina and Bartolom- 
meo'da Neocastro (whose works have 
been pubUshed by Muratori). Floronce 
had its first historian in Ricordauo Malas- 

Eini. The history of Milan was written 
y Filippo of Castelseprio, and the Do- 
minican Stefanardo of Vimercate, and 
thus each province and city had its 
chronicler, whose names we have not 
room to enumerate. Grrammar, which 
then comprehended the belles-lettres, had 
been hitherto neglected; but in the 13th 
century, it found students and teachers, 
as Buoncampagno Bertoluccio, Gale- 
otto (who wrote in Italian, and translated 
Cicero^s rhetorical books into that Ian- 
cuagej, and, above all, Brunetto Latini, 
Dante*8 instructer, who has already been 
mentioned, and of whom, bendes his 
above-mentioned Ttsoro, we have several 
other works in prose, such as La ReUori- 
cadxTuUo.DervjcddUViHu.k.c. At 
the close of this period, we must mention 
the fiunous Marco Polo, his fiither, Mat- 



teo, and hts uncle, Niccolo. They were 
among the first who made distant jour- 
neys through Asia, and rendered that part 
of the world better kuo^vn to their coun- 
trymen. 

FourOi Ptriod.'^From 130O to 1400. 
Amid civil disturbances, the sciences con- 
tinued to make great advances. While 
the emperors were attempting, in vain, to 
I'estore peace to Italy, and subject it to 
their authority, separate sovereignties and 
principalities were formed, the rulers of 
which emulated each other in their patron- 
age of literature. Robert, king of If aples, 
was the most distinguLsbed in thi»respecL 
After hun ranked the Delia Scala at Vero- 
na, the house of Este at Ferrara, the Gon- 
zaga at Mantua, &c. The number of uni- 
versities increased, and many of them, 
such as those of Padua, Naples, Pisa and 
Pavia, were very flourlshuiff, though Bo- 
losna, formerly die fiitt, f^I into decay. 
The libraries were enriched with the 
works of the ancients, which were rescu- 
ed fipom oblivion. Men like Petrarch 
and Boccaccio, by their researches and 
studies, rendered lasting services, as the 
restorers of learning. Both collected 
books, and the first collected also Romaur 
coins. ^ the invention of paper, the 
multinlication of copies of the classics 
was tacilitated. Their corruption by ig- 
norant transcribers soon became evident. 
Criticis'ii was required to restore them, 
and Coluceio Salutato, bv the coHation of 
several manuscripts, made a beginning in 
this art, and recommended it to others. 
Divinity was treated of by numberieas 
scholastic theologians, but by most oT 
tiiem was obscur^ ratiier than illustrated. 
The following deserve honorable men> 
tion : Albert of Padua, Gresory of Rimi- 
ni, Mich. Aiffuani of Boiogna, Bsrtol. 
Carusio of Unnno, Aleesandro Fassitelli, 
who all taught at Paris, besides Porchetto 
de' Salvatici of Genoa, Raniero of Pisa or 
of Ripalta, Jac Passavanti, Simon of 
Cascia, Peter of Aquila, Bonaventura*da 
Penuia, Marsiglio Raimondini of Padua, 
and Lodovico Marsigli. Philosophy was 
highly complicated and obscure, as it was 
built on tne mutilated and disfigured 
works of Aristotie, assisted by bis Arabian 
commentator, Averroes, whose mistaken 
explanations were first made known, and 
were, in turn, expounded and illustrated 
by the monk Urban of Bologna. The 
only pliilosophical writer, who does honor 
to the age, is the famous Petrarca, who 
wrote several Latin worics on moral sub- 
jects — De RemedUs vtriusque fhrhmtB ; 
De Vita solitaria; De Contemptu Mundi; 



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lis 



Db Ijgnoraniia $ui ipmu et tMorum^ &c. 
Tbe rest that was ivritten in the depait- 
raeDt of morality deserves mention only 
for the puritjr of the Italian, such as Am- 
maairmnenti deafi Antichi vcigarizzatij bj 
Baitolommeo of Pisa. Of the mathemati- 
cal sciences, astronomy ond, in connexion 
with it, astrologv, were most cultivated. 
Tbe most notM scholars, who devoted 
themselves to these branches, were Pietro 
of Albono, and Cecco of Ascoli^-^e 
former disdnguiahed for his Conciliator, 
in which the various opiiuoos of famous 
physicians and philosophers are reconcil- 
ed ; the latter for an astrological work, fhr 
a treatise on the sphere, and his poem 
Aetrha^ for which he was burned as a 
heretic Besides these, there were Anda- 
lone del Nero, who traveUed much for the 
sake of enlaiging his astronomical knowl- 
edge, and was esteemed by Boccaccio as 
tbe first astronomer of his age, and Paolo, 
summed Geovtdra, of whom Villani 
narrates, that he discovered all the mo- 
tions of the stars, by means of instru- 
ments of his invention, and who is Quoted 
by Boccaccio, as bavins preparea ma- 
cbines representing ail the celestial mo- 
dons. Jacopo Dondi and his son, Gio- 
vanni, ffainea reputation and the surname 
jMT Orofo^, by an ingenious clock, 
showing not only tbe hours, but also the 
course of the sun, moon and planets, ss 
well OS the montlis, days and festi^ds. 
Pietro de* Crescenzi, a Bolo^cse, wrote 
in Latin his even yet interesting work on 
agiicukurc; but, in tbe same century, 
there appeared an Italian transition of it, 
distinguidied for its language and style. 
Medicine was zealously smdied by a 
number of scholars, but was stiU, how- 
ever, in a very imperfect state, and de- 
served at least in a measure, the ridicule 
with which Petrarca treated it. The eel- 
el»ated school of Salerno was on the 
decline. The Arabians were every 
where esteemed- as models and teacheis. 
Among the roost fomous physicians of the 
tunes were the Florentine Dino dal Gar- 
bo, who wrote commentaries upon some 
writings of Avicenna and Hippocrates, 
and on the love songs of Guido Cfavalcan- 
ti, also a treatise on survery, &lc, ; his son 
Tonmiaso, Petrarca's fhend, who wrote a 
Summa Mediemedis, and directions how to 
treat the plague, and explained Galen's 
works on the difference of fevers and on 
generation; Torrigiano Rustichelli, who 
wrote on Galen's Ars parva ; Gentile of 
Foligno; Jacopo of Forii ; Maisiglio of 
Santa Sofia, and othera whose woiks are 
forgotten ; finally, Mundino of Bologna, 
10* 



who was the first that wrote a completr 
work on anatomy, which was esteemer! 
for two centuries. In jurisprudence, sev- 
eral persons were enunent as writers on 
civil law: Rolando Placiola; Albert oi' 
Gandino (De Md^ieHa) ; Oldrado da Ponte 
(ConsiUa and ^tuutiones) ; Jacopo Belviso 
(who wrote, among other things^ on ^e&) ; 
Francesco Ramponi (who explained somi- 
books of tbe Codex) ; Cino (iq. v.) of Pis- 
toia ; and the two most celebrated lawyeiv 
of this age— -Bartolo and Baklo. In the 
canon law, which was extended by the 
Clementine decretals and Extravagants. 
the most illustrious was the Florentine 
Giovanni d' Andrea, who commented up- 
on the tax books of the decretals, and edu- 
cated several distinguished scholars. In 
history, the increasing intimacy with the 
works of the ancients had the most favor- 
able influence ; it was freed from a great 
many errors and fobles. Petrarca an<i 
Boccaccio distmguished themselves by sev- 
eral historical works, written in Latin ;— 
the former by four books, Rtmm Mtmoran • 
darutn, and biographies of fiimous men ;— 
the latter by Se Genealogia Deorwn; Di- 
Casifms Virorum ti Fkammarvm iXhutnum ; 
DeclarisMulieribus; DeMorUkmiJSUvanm, 
Zrocuum, Fhanmum, Stagnorum d Marium 
JSTondmius. In addition to these, there i^ 
a long tnun of authon of ffeneral histori 
anc^ of chronicles ; especiuly Benvenuto 
of Imola (who wrote a nistory of emperon, 
from Jutius CfBsar down to Wenoealaus. 
and commented on Dante) ; Francesco 
Pipino of Bologna (who wrote a chronicle, 
from the time of the first Frankish kingh 
down to 1314); and Guglielmo of Pas- 
trenfo (author of the first universal hbnary 
of the writera of all nations, which dis- 
plays a wonderful extent of reading for 
those times); the Florentine Paolino di 
Pietro, Dino Compagni, and the Villanis 
(see V%Uam)f who contributed much to 
the improvement of their native language : 
^e Venetian Andrea Dandolo (who wrote 
a valuable Latin chronicle of his native 
city,fi!oro the birth of Christ to 1343); and 
Rafaello Caresmi (who continued it til! 
1388); die Paduan Alberto Musato (who 
wrote several historical works in goof! 
Latin, pardy in prose, partly m verse) ; and 
others. (See Muraton's iSb-^fitores.) The 
want of proper teachera was a great obsta- 
cle, in this period, to the study of foreign 
languages. Clement V gave ordeis, in- 
de^ ror the erection of professors' chain; 
for die Oriental languages, not only m the 
papal cities of rendenoe, but also in several 
umversities at home and abroad, but widi 
litde effect More was done for Greek 



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ITALIAN LITERATURE. 



literature, eroecidly through the mstru- 
mentaUty of Petrarca aud Boccaccio: 
the two Calabrians Barlaamo and Leoozio 
Pilato were the most zealous cultivators 
of it At Florence, the first professorship 
of the Greek language was founded and 
conferred on Leonzio Pilato, by the influ- 
ence of Boccaccio. In this period occur 
the fint Italian tales and romances. The 
oldest collection of tales extant is the 
Cento Mn>dU an/icfcc,— short and very 
simple stories by unknown authors. These 
were followed by Boccaccio (q. v.) with 
his Decameron and his IHammettaj by 
which he became the real creator of the 
Italian prose, in all its fullness, luxuriance 
and flexibility : his imitators were Fran- 
cesco Sacchetti, author of a collection of 
tales, and Ser Giovanni, author of Peco- 
fone, both, however, far inferior to Boc- 
caccio. Dante (q. v.), too, must be men- 
tioned, both on account of his Italian 
works, the Vita Mwva and the Conmito, 
and also on account of his De Monorchia, 
and De Vtdgari EloquenHa. • Connected 
with this is ue De Rkythmis Vulgaribus of 
Ant di Tempo, whicn treats, though im- 
perfectly, of Italian verse, as the former 
bad tr^^ of Italian prose, and the vari- 
ous kinds of style. In general, grammar 
and elegance of s^le were much culti- 
vated by reason ojr the study of the an- 
dents. Not only were the models of anti- 
ouity trandated and explained, but a pro- 
fessorship was founded at Florence for 
illustrating Dante. Yet the specimens of 
elegant prose are few. Among the writ- 
ers of travels of this centur>', Petrarca and 
the Minorite Gdorico of Pordenone hold 
the first rank. The former made a jour- 
ney to Germany, and gives an interesting 
account of it in his letters : he also wrote 
for a firiend an Rinerarium Swicumnij with- 
out having ever been in Syria himself. 
Odorico travelled through a great port of 
Asia as a missionary, and, ailer his re- 
turn, publidied a description of his travels, 
which may be found in Ramusio's work, 
but unfi>itunately so altered, that we can 
hardly venture to give credence to the 
accounts. 

iyihPeriod^Fhml400tolSOO. Dur- 
ing this century, notwithstanding the con- 
tinuance of internal troubles, Italian litera- 
ture was in a highly flourishing condition. 
Two events, in particular, had a favorable 
influence : first, the conquest of Constanti- 
nople by the Turks, in consequence of 
which many learned Greeks fled to Italy, 
and diffused knowledge there ; secondly, 
the flourishing state of the house of the 
Medici in Tuscany, the members of *.vhich 



were distinguished for their patranaffe of 
the arts and sciences, and were emulated 
bv the Visconti, Sforza, Elste, the kings of 
Naples, the marauises of Mantua and 
Montferrat, the dukes of Urt)ino, and other 
princes, popes, magistrRtes and private 
persons. Without dwelling on the uni- 
versities, we merely say, that two new 
ones were added at Parma and Turin. 
In the preceding century, an academy of 
poetry nad been established, and scientific 
academies were now instituted. The first 
of this kind was founded by the great 
Cosmo, at F^rence, for the revival of the 
Platonic philosophy. Similar societies 
were formed at Rome, at Naples, and, un- 
der the patronage of the learned Aldus 
B^utiua, at Venice. Men like Guarino 
of Verona, Giovanni Aurispa, and Fran- 
cesco Filelfo, brought the works of the 
Greeks from obscurity; others were not 
less zealous in the cause of Roman fitera- 
ture. Public and private libraries wei« 
established in several places. This prog- 
ress was promoted by the invention of 
printing, which was quickly spread and 
brought to perfection in Italy. As ancient 
literature became more generally studied, 
antiquities likewise attra^cd greater atten- 
tion. Ciriaco of Ancona, in particular, 
thus gained a high reputation. No one 
of the many learned theoloeians of these 
times is much distinguished. We shall 
merely mention Nic. Malemii, or Malerbi, 
who first translated the Bible into Italian ; 
Bonino Monjbrizio, who collected the 
lives of the martyrs ; and Platina, who, 
with great erudition, and not without crit* 
ical acuteness, wrote the histoiy of the 
popes, in an elegant and forcible style. 
After the arrival of the Greeks in Italy, a 
new impulse was communicated to the 
study of philosophv. Among several 
others, Paolo Veneto had already acquired 
fame as a philosopher by his logic or dia- 
lectics, and his Swnmid^kerumTuduraliumj 
in which he illustrated the [^ysics and 
metaphysics of Aristotle. Among the 
Greeks who fled to Italy in the first half 
of this century, one of the principal was 
Johannes Argyropulus, of whom Lorenzo 
de' Medici, Donato Acciaiuoli and Politian 
were scholars. Without entefinc into^ 
controversies, he explained Aristotle, anrf 
translated several of his works. But after 
him, Georgius Gemistus (also called Pldho ) 
save rise to an obstinate contest respecting 
the relative superiority of Aristotle and 
Plato. He himself, as the advocate of 
Plato, ridiculed Aristotle and his admirers. 
Geordius Scolarius (afterwards patriarch 
of Constantinople) answered with vehe- 



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me&ce, and provoked Pletho to a still 
more violent reply. The fitmous Theo- 
dore Gaza, the cardinal Beaaarion, and 
George of Trebisond, took part in the 
controTersy. On the other hand, the ad- 
mirets of Plato, at Florence, remained 
auiet spectators. The Platonic academy, 
founded there by Cosmo, was in a flour- 
iafaing state. Marsiliue Ficinus, and Jo- 
hannes Picus of 3Iirandola, were its chief 
oniaments. The fonner translated the 
woika of Plato into Latin, and wrote on 
the philosophy of Plato and of the Plato- 
nists. Thehr most eminent successors 
were A. Politian and Cristofbro Landino. 
Astronomy was still mixed with astrol- 
ogy. Some of the most learned asdron- 
omers were Giovanni Bianchino, whose 
astronomical tables of the orbits of 
the planets were several times printed; 
Domenico Maria Novara, instructer of the 
great Copernicus ; and, above all, Paolo 
Toscanello, celebrated for the sun-dial 
made by him, in the cathedral at Florence. 
Mathematics and music now revived in 
Italy. One of the restoreis of arithmetic 
and'geometrr was Luca Paccioli of Bor- 
go San Sepolcro. Leone Battista Alberti, 
ttie author of numerous works on archi- 
tecture, wrote in a manner no less elegant 
than profound ; he was also the author of 
valuable treatises on other subjects. The 
first writer on the art of war, was Robert 
Vakurio da Rimini. For music, Ludovi- 
co Sfbrza first founded a public school at 
Milan, and made Franchino Gafurio its 
teacher, from whose pen we have seve- 
ral works, such as a Theory of Music ; 
nlso, a work on the practice of music, and 
a treatise on the harmony of musical in- 
struments. Medical science was but litde 
pronioted, considering the number of 

eyncians ; they were satisfied with col- 
^tibg the observations of their prede- 
cessors BaitoL Montagna (ConsUia Med- 
icoj and observations on the baths of Pad- 
uaj, Giov. di Concorreggio (Praxia nova 
Mwsfirt Medenrue^ &c.), Giov. Marlia- 
no, likewise aa able mathematician and 
philosopher (a commentary on Avicenna)^ 
Gabriel Zervi, Alessandro AchillM and 
Nic Leoniceno (who exposed the errors 
of the ancients in a particular work, and 
was perhaps the first who wrote De GaUi- 
CO Jnorfto), were distinffuished in anatomy. 
Civil jurisprudence still stood in high es- 
timation. In it were distinguished Cris- 
toforo di Castiglione and his scholars, Ra- 
iaello de' Raimondi and RafiieUo de' FuU 
gosi, who wrote ConsUia, and explana- 
tions of the digests ; Grovanni of Imohi, 
who wrote a conmientary on the first part 



of the Digestum novum ; Paolo of Castro, 
who wrote explanations of the code and 
digests ; Pietro Filippo Conieo, who left 
leffal Connlia ; Antonv of Pratovecchio, 
who improved the feudal law, and wrote a 
Lexicon Juridicum ; Angelo Gambiglione» 
who wrote DeMd^UuSj &c. ; the great 
Accolti of Arezzo, Alessandro of Imola, 
suinamed Tatriagnij who left many law 
treatises on the digests^ the code, the 
decretals and Clementiiies, many ConsUiOf 
&C. ; Bartol. Cipolla, who wrote Dt Sar- 
vUutibus ; Pietro da Ravenna, who, be- 
sides several legal works, wrote rules for 
the art of memory, under the tide Pte- 
ntar ; BartoL Soccino and his opponent, 
Giasone dal Maine, and many others.. In 
canonical law, the most fiunous authors 
were Nic. Tedeschi, Giov. of Anagni, 
Ant Roselli, Felino Sandeo and the car- 
dinal Giannantonio da San Giorgio. 
History made the greatest progress ; it 
aimed not only at truth, but also at beauty 
of diction. Among the many historians 
of this period, some may be regarded as 
models of historical description. Roman 
antiquities and ancient history were treat- 
ed of by Biondo Flavio, whose principal 
works are Rama msknarata, Roma tnum- 
phansj ttaHa iOugtraUit HUtoria Romano, 
Dt Origine d CksHs Vendorvm ; Bernardo 
Ruccebi [De UirbtRoma) ; Ponwonio Le- 
to (De AntiquiiatAug Urbis Rom^e, De 
MagiglratibuM Romanorum, Compendium 
HiSoruB RomaruB), &c. ; and Ajmio of 
Viterbo, whose Antiqwiatum variorum 
Voltanina XFIf contain the works of an- 
cient authors, now acknowledged to be 
spurious. Histories ftom the neginning 
of the worid to their own times, were 
writ^n by the archbishop Antonio of 
Florence, Pietro Ranzano, Jac Filippo 
Foresti, Matteo and Matthia Palmieri, and 
Sozomeno, all of which are valuable 
only as far as they treat of their own 
times. As historians of their times, and 
of their country in geneialt the following 
are deserving of notice : iEneas Sylvius, 
afterwards pope Pius II, who left a great 
number of' historical works, and whose 
history of his own times has been contin- 
ued by cardinal Jacopo Ammanato ; Giov. 
Mich. Alberto of Carrara, Leonardo Bruai 
of Arezzo, the Florentines Poggio and 
Bartolommeo Scala ; the Venetians Mar- 
co Antonio Sabellico, Bernardo Giusti- 
niano ; the Paduans Pietro Paolo Ver^rio 
and Michael Savonarola (the phyncian); 
the Vicentine Giambattista rafliarini ; 
the Brescian Jacopo Malvezzi and Cristo- 
foro da Soldo ; the Milanese Andrea Bif^ 
lia, Pietro Candido Decembrio, Lodrino- 



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ITALIAN LITERATURE. 



Crivelli, Giovanni Simonetta, Giorgio 
Menila, Donato Bosso, Bernardino Corio 
and Tristano Calchi ; the Neapolitans Lo- 
renzo Valla, Bartolommeo Fazio, Antonio 
Panormita, Gioviano Pontano, Michele 
Ricd, Giovanni Albino, Tristano Carac- 
cioli, Antonio Femirio and others, to 
whom is to be added Pandolfo Collentmc- 
cio of Pesaro, the only one ^ho wrote a 
ffeneral history of Nq>les. Gioiigio and 
Giovanni Stella, aod Bartolommeo Sene- 
rega and Jacopo Bracello wrote the histo- 
ly of Genoa. Savoy had, in this period, 
two hittorian^ — ^Antonio of Asti (who 
wrote a chronicle of his paternal city in 
verse), and Benvenuto da San Giorgio (a 
history of Montferrat, accompanied with 
documents). As a historian of Maotua, 
Platina deserves mention. As geogra- 
phers were distinguished Cristofbro Buon- 
delmonte, who travelled in Asia; Fran- 
cesco Beilinghieri, whowrote a geograph- 
ical work in verse ; Caterino Zeno, who 
described his travels throueli Persia ; the 
fiunous navigators Cada Mosto, Amerigo 
Vespucci and Cabotto (Cabot) and others. 
In tne Oriental languages, Giannozzo Ma- 
netti was distinguished. The studv of 
the Greek language was spread by manu- 
el Chrysoloras, Lascaris, and many other 
Greeks, who fled to ItalVj on whom and 
on their scholars, some or them men of 
mat learning, we cannot here dwell. 
With no less zeal ^vas Roman literature 
cultivated. The names of Guarini, Auris- 

Fi, Filelfo, Lorenzo Valla and Angelo 
oliziano are distinguished. 
Sixth Period,— From 1500 to 1650.— 
In this period, Italy attained the summit 
of its greamess. Its rich materials for 
satisfying both the physical and intellect- 
ual wants of man ; the power of it9 re- 
publics and princely houses ; their zeal 
and munificence in favor of all that could 
restore the splendor of ancient times, 
made Italy a model for the rest of Eu- 
rope. The wais which Ferdinand the 
Cathotic, Maximilian I, Charles V and 
Francis I prosecuted on her soil, did not, 
therefore,]>roduce permanent injur}\ The 
former universities continued, and new 
ones were added, among which tliat of 
Padua was eminently conspicuous. The 
number of academies and libraries in- 
creased to such a degree, that hardly a 
city of importance in Italy was without 
them. Among the popes, there were ma- 
ny patrons and promoters of the arts and 
sciences, particuJarly Julius II, the mag- 
nificent Leo X, Clement VII (whom un- 
fkvorable circumstances did not allow to 
accomplish his demgns, but whose place 



was supplied, in many respects, bv the 
cardinal Hippolitus of Estc), Paul III, 
Gregory XIII (who, as Ugo Buoncam- 
pagno, had edited an improved and en- 
tailed edition of the Corpus Juris canom- 
e^ and, as pope, corrected the calendar), 
Sixtus V (who removed the library of the 
Lateran to the splendid palace of the Vat- 
ican, and enlaqfled it, completed the pub- 
lication of the works of Ambrosius and 
of the Septuagmt, caused a new edition 
of the Vulgate to be published, &c.), and 
Urban Vlfl (who united the Heideibeiig 
library with the Vatican, and founded the 
Barberini). We must next mention, as. 
scholars and patrons of scholars, the car- 
dmals Bembo, Cario and Federipo Borro- 
meo (tlie last was the founder of the Am- 
brosian libraiy at Milan), and Agostina 
Valeric. The princes were not behind 
the popes and cardinals. The most dis- 
tinguished for activity and hberality were 
the Gonza^a of Mantua, the BSste at Fer- 
rara, the ]nedici at Florence, and the duke 
Charies Emmanuel I of Savoy. Not- 
withstanding fkvorable ciicumstancea, tlie- 
ology made but slight advances ; for after 
the storm of reformation had broken out 
in Germany, established doctrines were 
more obstinately maintained, and farther 
investigation discouraged^ with the excep- 
tion of the editions of the Septuagint and 
Vulsate already mentioned. The study 
of tiie Holy Scriptures gained but httle 
by the literary treasures that Italy pos- 
sessed. Cajetan, the most celebrated 
commentator on the Bible, effected uotli- 
in^ worthy of note ; and Diodati's trans- 
lation, OS it was not modelled servilely on 
the Vulgate, found no &vor. Among tbe 
defenders of the established creed, caAli- 
nal Bellarmin surpasses all the others in 
intrinsic merit Uesare Baronio, the liis- 
torical defender of the disputed papal 
prerogatives, brought to light the most 
unportant documents and monuments ; 
and Paolo Sarpi, the assmlant of them, 
united modestv, and an incomiptiWe love 
of truth, with the deepest insight mto the 
Catholic religion. But^ notwithsiandinff 
all exertions to uphold the established 
doctrines of the church, the active spirit 
of philosophy could no longer be restrain- 
ed, not even in Italy. B^des the scho- 
lastics in the monasteries^ and the Peripa- 
tetics among the Humanists, who revived 
and explained the ancient systems of phi- 
losophv, tiiere appeared a philosophical 
sect of free-thinkers, who, toother with 
the superstitions, rejected religion alao. 
Pietro Pomponazzi, who taught annihila- 
tion after death, lefl behind a namerous 



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scbool of scejitics, to which belonged 
acfaolars like cardiDal Gonzafa, Contare- 
Dus, Paul Jovius and Julius Ccesar Scali- 
gen Bv their aide stood Bernardino Te^ 
1^0, also a preacher of inMeltty, like 
Pomponazzi and his school, honored by 
the great, while Ceaare Vanini and Gior- 
dano Bruno atoned for a smaller measure 
of impiety at the stake ; and Campanella, 
who, as the opponent of Aristotle, and an 
independent tmnker, prepared the revolu- 
tion that took place in me 17th centaiy, 
hngoiahed in prison. This ^irit of in- 
quiiy gave an impulse to mathematics 
and phvaica. R Telesio, Giordano Bru- 
no and Th. Gampanella endeavored to 
deduce the phenomena of nature from 
general principles. Hiero. Cardanus uni- 
ted diese speculations with mathematics. 
The great Galileo brought mathematics 
and natural philosophy into the closest 
coonezion by new experiments, and be- 
came a model to all, especially to the nat- 
urafistB of his native country. In mathe- 
matiea^ Tartaglia, Cardanus and Bombel- 
li were distinguished for their labors in 
algefaia ; Bnonaventura Cavalieri prepared 
the way for the infinitesimal calcuku ; 
Comroandino became celebrated for hie 
labors on Euclid's Elements, and Marino 
Crfaoaldi explained Archimedes' theory 
of hydraulics. Luca Valerie enlarged the 
limitB of mechanics by his discoveries ; 
Castelli produced a revolution in hydrau- 
lics; Manrolico opened the way in optics ; 
Delk Porta invented the camera obscura, 
and made the first experiments in aerom- 
etiy ; Grimaldi discovered refiuction ; 
Megmi perfected the burning glass: 
Toriioelli invented the barometer, and 
Racdoli made important celestial observa- 
tions. Natural Imowledge was amplified 
in all its branches. As students of the 
human firame and anatomists, Fracastori, 
Fallopio, Piccolomini, A^unti and Mal- 
pighi were celebrated. C^yss. Aldrovandi 
travelled through Europe, to ii^vestifiate 
the natural history of quadrupeds, birds 
and insects, and establinied a botanical 
sarden at Bologna. Similar gardens were 
laid out by the university of Padua, by 
Cosmo duke of Florence, and various 
private persons. As botanists, Mattioli, 
Fabio Colonna, and the above-mentioned 
Malpighi, were distinguished. The acad- 
emy of the Lineei labored in the cause of 
namral history firom 1625 to 1640. The 
first professorship of chemistry was found- 
ed at Pisa, in 1615. In physics and med- 
icine, the men of most note are Fallopio 
and bis great scholar Fabricius ab Acqua- 
pendente (who led Harvey to the discovery 



of the circulation of the blood), Borelli, 
ToniceUi, Bellini, Malpighi and Alpini* 
Among the jurists of this period, we find 
no ffreat names afler tlie age of the 
scholastics. History was cultivated with 
peater success. Historians mid historical 
inquirers treated partieulariy of native 
history; Caiio Simnio wrote a eeneral 
history in Latin, Girolamo Brkmi m Ital- 
ian, and, finally, CNiicciardini in a classic 
style, in which his continuator, Adriani, is 
inferior to hioK In local history, Mac^ 
chiavelK's History of Florence was the 
earliest masterpiece of modern time^ 
Davila, Bentivoglio, Bembo (both for hw 
History of Venice— a continuation of the 
work of Andrea Navagiero — and for hi» 
Aaotofd and Letters), Angek> di Cos- 
tanzo, Varchi, Paolo Sitfpi, the cardinal 
Bentivoglio and others^ are likewise cele- 
brated. NumberiesB are Uie historical, 
geographical and topographical descrip- 
tions of single states, districts^ cities^ and 
even of monasteries, libraries and cabi- 
nets. Men Mhe Pftdo Giovio, Giambaltis- 
ta Adriani and Vittorio Siri were osBodu- 
ous in preserving the menoory of the lite- 
rary services of their contemporaries and 
predecessors. Since the end of the 15th 
century, Venice had been the centre of 
diplomacy and politics. Much was writ- 
ten there on pontical subjects, as Sansovi- 
noVi work on Crovemment, and Botero^ 
Stale Policy. Tlie study of the Oriental 
languages was promoted by rehgious mo- 
tives. The Maronrtes on mount Leb- 
anon were received into the Catholic 
communion. Id order to render the 
union indissoluble, Grregory XIII erect- 
ed a Maronite college in Rome, and 
established for its use an Arabic press. 
SixtUB V added salaries. This insti- 
tution transplanted Oriental literature ta 
Rome, and carried thither a great number 
of manuscript& Geoige Amira (who 
wrote the first Syrioc grammar of conse- 
quence), Ferrari (who compiled the first 
Syriac dictionaiyX Gabriel Sionita and 
Abraham Ecchellensis were distinguished. 
From Roman presses issued the Arabic 
works of Ebn Sina, the geography of 
Sherif Edrisi, the Arabic commentaiy on 
EacUd. At Genoa an Arabic, and at Rome 
an Etluopian Psalter bad been preiiously 
printed. Giggeus pubfished at Milan 
the first complete Arabic dictionary, an<i 
Maraccius, at Padua, the first edition of 
the Koran, illustrated by a commentary. 
Thus ItaJy was the seat of the study, not 
only of the Hebrew, but also of the other 
Shemitish languages. The study of the 
ancients must have been inereaised to a 



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ITALIAN LITERATURE. 



great degree, after the art of printing liad 
multiplied the copies of their works. 
Francesco Robertelli, Julius Caesar Sca- 
liger, Pietro Vittorio and Fulvio IJrsino 
deserre the name of philologists. Others 
paid more attention to tlte information 
afforded by the ancients, and this study 
was fiicilitated by translations. Monu- 
ments of antiauity were collected, exam- 
ined and explained with zeal. Mazzo- 
chio,and still more Andrea Fulvio, begin- 
ners, indeed, io the science, published an- 
cient Roman inscriptions and coins. Gi- 
acomo and Ottavio di Strada made similar 
researches with greater success, and at 
length Fulvio Ursino illustrated this de- 
partment with treasures of erudition. Af- 
ter him, Francesco Angeloni and Giovan- 
ni Pietro Bellori, Filippo Buonarotti, Fi- 
lippo Paruta and Leoiurdo Agostino ac- 
quired reputation. But, in consequence 
of the study of the ancients, classical per- 
fection of style became the aim of litera- 
ture. The historians distingui^ed in this 
respect have already been named. Of a 
similar character, in point of s^le, are 
Sperone Speroni (Duuogki and iboarn), 
Annib. Caro {LeUere Famgiian, &c.), Oas- 
tigtione {B CwUgiano\ Delia Casa (U Go- 
Uieo and Lettere\ Giovanbattisia GeUi 
{Diah^i^ Franc. Bemi [Diacarsi and Ca- 
vricci)^ Pietro Aretino {RimonamenHt &c.), 
Nicok) Frsnco {Diahghx PiacevoUssMjf 
the two poets Bernardo and Torquato 
Tasso (the former for his Letters, the lat- 
ter for his Philosoi^ucal Essays and Dia- 
loffues); finally, Pietro Badoaro (Onaioml 
Alberto Lolho (LeUare and Oraziom), 
Claudio Tolommei and others. The Cicor 
laUj as they were termed (aeadmit praU\ 
pieces io ridicule of the academies, pub- 
lished after the foundation of the Cnisca, 
io the last half of the 16th century, are 
valoable principally in point of style. The 
early novelists found several imitators in 
this period $ Bandello (q. v.l Fuenzuola, 
Paraboseo, Massuecio, Sabadino degli 
Arienti, Luigi da Porto, Molza, Giovanni 
Brevio, Marco Cadamosto, Grezzini, Ant 
Mariconda, Ortensio Lando, Giov. Fran- 
cesco StruMuola, Qiambattista Giraldi, 
called CinJtkiOy to which are added the ro- 
mance writer Franc. Loredano and the 
original Ferrante Pallavicino. Criticism 
bejuaii at last to erect its tribunals ; but the 
principles on which it judged were vague 
and indefinite. This is proved by the 
contests respecting Tasso's Jerusalem De- 
livered, Guarini's Pastor FHdo, by Tasso- 
ni's attack on PeUarca, &c. There was 
no want, however, of theoreticd work& 
By his excellent essay Delia Vdgar lAn- 



giuij Bembo l)ecame the father of Italian 
criticism. Triasino (Poetics) and Caste! - 
lano are not witliout merit Claudio To- 
lommei wrote rules for modern poetry; 
S|)eroue Speroni, Dialogues on Rlietoric 
(Sansovino, Cavalcaiiti and others had al- 
ready preceded him); Benedetto Varchi, 
a Dialogue on the Tuscan and Florentine 
Language (on occasion of the contest be- 
tween Caro and Castelvetro), and Fogliet- 
ta, On tiie Manner of writing History. 

Seventh Period.— ^From 1650 to 1820. 
Hitherto, Italy had been the instructress 
of Europe, but, in the middle of the 17th 
century, it beflnin to smk from .its litenu^' 
eminence. The principal causes of tliia 
change were the restrictions on the free- 
dom of thought and of the press, which 
had been constantiy increasing, ever since 
the reformation, and the decrease of 
wealth smce Italy had lost the commerce 
of the worid. The moral corruption, 
which became more and more prevalent, 
had enervated the physical strenfftii of the 
people, and deprived the mind of its vlEor 
and energy. The long subjection to for- 
eiffn powers had ereated a servile feeling. 
The nation was afflicted, from 1690 to 
1749, by numerous wars, and at lencth 
sunk into a lethargy and a stupid indifrer- 
encc to its own greatness. Some popes:, 
princes, and even private penons, were, 
nevertheless, the active patrons of letters. 
At Florence, Siemia, Bologna, Turin, Pisa, 
institutions were escablisbra,some at great 
expense, by Leopold de* Medici, the count 
Marsigli Pazzi, &C., which promoted the 
cultivation of mathematics and natural 
science. Clement XI, Benedict XIU and 
XIV, Clement XIV, men <^ creat learning 
and enlightened views, togemer with the 
cardinalsTolommei, Passionei, Albani(An- 
nibale and Alessandro)and Quirini, and, in 
later times, the cardinal Borgia, the learn- 
ed Venetian Nani,and the ndi>le prince of 
Torremuzza, rendered the greatest ser- 
vices. The reign of Maria Theresa and 
Leopold was favorable to Lombardy and 
Florence. But no'ne of tiie sciences, ex 
cept the mathematical and ph^cal, made 
much progress. Ailer Machiavelli, poli- 
tics had no general writer of impor- 
tance : only single departments of the 
subject, far removed from dancer of col- 
lision with the doctrines of me church, 
were treated with spirit by Beccaria and 
Filangieri. Philosophy continued echo* 
lastic : Italy neither invented any newr 
system, nor gave admission to the systems 
of foiieign countries. Theology oaineci 
not a single tliinker. Thougli hiffhljr 
esteemed in his native countr}', the dog^ 

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ITALIAN LITERATURE. 



119 



made syvlem of Berti was of little value. 
The WQEks of UglielU and Lucentius, en- 
titled RaKa Saara^ evince the industry of 
the compilen; as do Galland's Library of 
tlie Fathers of the Church, and Mansi's 
CoUection of Councils. Bianchini's frag- 
meniB of old Latin translations, and Be' 
Rosri's various readings of the Hebrew 
text of the Oid Testament, are valuable; 
but scriptural criticism and exegesis have 
pradoced nothmg in Italy important for 
fnneigB countries. The authority of the 
Vulgate is still unimpaired, and the trans* 
btion of the Florentine Ajitonio Martini, 
oetebrated for its pure style, vras made 
from it. But for the study of the Asiatic 
languages and literature, the missionary 
ze^ has had the most beneficial results. 
The learned J. S. Aasemanni puUished 
rich extracts from Oriental manuscripts. 
The Propaganda fonned excellent Orienv 
tal Bchmra, and pulirfished several Asiatic 
alphabets and grammars. As regards the 
critical study and illustration of die an- 
cient chssics, the Italians have remained 
behind other countries. The most emi- 
nent schdars in the department of Ladn 
literature are Volpi, Targa, Facciolato, and, 
as a lexicographer, Forcellini ; in that of 
the Greek, Mazocchi and MorellL Much 
more vras done for investigatiDg, copying, 
describmgand illustrating antiquities, es- 
pecially fldner Winckelmann had taught the 
Italians to examine them, not onhr in a 
historical and antiquarian point of view, 
but also as works of art This study led 
likewise to the investigation of the primi- 
tive languages of Italy, especially the 
Etruscan. Uori, Mafiei, Laini, Passeri, 
opened the way for Lanzi. Polite titera- 
tiue, pardculaiiy elegant prose, of which 
alone we here speak, contmued to decline 
till an effon vras made, after the time of 
Voltaire, to imitate the French. Thus 
Algarotti wrote Dialoirues on Optics ele- 
gantly and jperspicuouay, but superficially ; 
Bettinelli, On Insinration in the Fine Aitt, 
with much spirit; Beccaria, On Crimes 
and Punishments ; Filangieri, On Legisla- 
tion, with dignity and simplicity ; Ga^paro 
Gosczi, Dialogues, in a pure and agreeable 
style. In hisloiy and its auxiliary sci- 
ences, little was done in this period. Gian- 
Done was eminent in local, Denina in 
general history. As an investigator and 
collector of hsstorical materials, Muratori 
acquired a lasting reputation : Mafiei also 
should be honorary mentioned. Manni 
labored fin* the illustration of seals, and of 
genealogy. Still less was done for geog- 
raphy. The most celebrated geographer 
of laly is the Minorite Vincentto Coro- 



nelhf who established a cosmognphical 
academy at Venice, and whose loss (1718) 
has never been supplied. Even among 
travellers, there are but few prominenL 
Something was done by Martini, who 
travelled through Cyprus^ Syria and Pal- 
estine ; by Sestmi, who travelled through 
Sicily and Turkey ; Griselini, who travel- 
led throuffb Inner Austria and Hungary ; 
and Aceroi, who travelled in the North. 
No jurist, except Beccaria and Filangieri, 
effected any thing of impoitance. But 
the works which appearea in the mathe- 
matical, physical aiHl medical sciences still 
form the boast of Italian literature. Frisi 
and Girolamo Mazzucchelli were great 
mastere in mechanics, hydrostatics and 
hydraulics ; Boscovich ana Mascheroni in 
the higher analysis and geometry. In 
mensuration, Lorgna, Fontana, Cagnoli, 
Ruffini and CaseUa are respected names 
even in our day. Manfi^do Settala made 
a celebrated buminir-glaas ; Cassino en- 
larged the bounds of astronomy by great 
discoveries; Campani was distingujahed 
for preparing optical glasses ; Torelli ex- 
plained the elements of perspective with 
geometrical strictness; Zanotti presented 
the worid with valuable celestial observa- 
tions ; and Piazzi acquired renown as the 
discoverer of Ceres. Physics, for the 
promotion of which sevexal institutions 
were active in various places, made the 
matesi progress. Maraxlio Landriani, 
Felice Fontano, Toaldo, 'Hberio CavaUo, 
Giovanni and otl^era enriched it by impor- 
tant discoveries. Botany was advanced 
by Malpighi, Giovanni Seb. Franchi, Mi- 
cheli, Giuseppe Ginanni, Vitaliano Do- 
nati, &c. Tne Italians were successful in 
the use of the microscope. With its as- 
sistance, Redi (who wrote classical works 
on natural history), Valisneri, Felice Fon- 
tana, Lazzaro Spallanzani, made a greai 
number of observations. With all the tovers 
of natural science and of chemistry, Votta 
is an honcMred name. In the study <^ the 
natural history of man and of anatomy, 
Gagliardi, Malpighi, Paok> Manfiedi, and, 
after them, Volnlva, Santorini, Fantoni 
and Morm;ni were distinguished. Prac- 
tical medicme likevrise was not neglected. 
Franc. Torti taupht the use of Peruvian 
bark ; Rammazuii trod in Sydenham's 
ftwtsteps in pathology and therapeutics; 
Borelli, Baglivi (who rollowed Hippocrates, 
however, in practice), Guclielmini, Bellini 
and Michelotti made Italy the birthplace 
of the latromathematica] school in medi- i 
cine. In literary history, the labore of 
Crescunbeni, Quadrio Fontanini, A. Zeno, 
Mazzucchelli Fabroni, Tiraboschi, Conii- 

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lao 



ITALUN UTERATUItE. 



uii and others (of Arteaga, for example, for 
the history of the opera),are highly valuable. 
Eif^Penod.'-MalUm UtmOure ofihe 
pnseiU Dayy since 1820. Of late years, the 
litemture of Italy is not to be compafed, 
either in extent or in profoundness, with 
Ihe literature of the neighboring coun- 
tries. The indolence which q>ringB fiom 
a too iSivorable climate, the reetrainta 
arising from the political state of the coun- 
try and the condition of the book trade, 
which, in several parts of the peninsula, is 
under great restrictions, oppose serious 
obstacles to the free interchan^ of ideas. 
The infringements in one city on tlje 
copyrights of others increase these diffi- 
culties. The univeisities of Pavia and 
Padua still maintain their hereditary rep- 
utation, and augment it by a zealous culti- 
vation of the natural sciences ; Pisa may 
etand next to them ; Sienna and Peruf;ia 
have made less effort to deserve the notice 
of foreign countries, and the universities 
of Rome, Naples and Turin are of a hm- 
ited character. With these universities, 
to which, in Lombardy, gymnasia and ele- 
raentaiy schools afford suitable prepara- 
tion, a number of academies are appro- 
priated to every department of science 
and art, though they are not all so active 
«is the Lombordo- Venetian institution at 
Milan, which has published several val- 
tiable volumes of memoirs. Names like 
Oriani, Cariini, Breislak, Configliachi, 
BrunatelH, are the best pledges of its devo- 
tion to the exact sciences. Afler it, the 
academy at Turin {Memorie ddla R. 
Acad, deUe Seienze dt 7\»rtiio, vol. xxx, 
1826), and the scientific society of Mode- 
na (Memorie deUa Societh Ital, ddU Sei- 
enze rtsidente m Modena, L 19), deserve 
honorable mention. Foreign countries 
rarely hear any thing concerning the sci- 
entific bodies of Naples. The Hercula- 
nean academy at present pays, for tlie most 
part, with promises, and the sessions of ma- 
tiv other academies are mere ceremonies. 
The Crusca and the Accad. de^ GeorgfffUi at 
Florence, with the Accad, Archtoiogiea at 
Rome, alone sustain their place in the mem- 
ory of foreign countries. Among the peri- 
odicals, the BibliotUcaliaiisna is a woric of 
merit, and exerts a decisive influence by 
means of sairacious criticisms; but it has 
been often cusfi^ued by injustice and 
harshness, especmlly when under Acerbi's 
guidance. Bru^atelli and Configliac- 
chi's OwmaU dx Fieiea^ Chimkoy Storia 
• na<iirak,3fedictnaed.^rk, is the periodical 
most deserving the notice of foreign coun- 
tries. The study of the Oriental lan- 
guages, in Italy, is not so much advanced 



as in other countiies. Gr. Casti^Uonj's 
e3q>lanation of the coins in the cabinet of 
Milan have found an impartial cridc in 
Frahn of Petersburg; and Rampoldi's 
Aimali Musidmanni (Milan, 1823, 5 vols.) 
display a judicious and critical use of Ori- 
ental sources. Much has been done for tho 
diffusion of the knowledge of the Armeni- 
an language b^ the publications of the 
Metocharists of St Lazzaro, in the vicinity 
of Venice; and &ther Auger, the Ve- 
netian editor of Moses of Chorene, and 
the discoverer of an ancient Armenian 
translation of Philo (Ven., 1822), is said to 
be distinguished for knowledge of the lan- 
ffuage. £urope acknowledges Angelo 
Maio's merits in increasing the means of 
acquiring a knowledge of ancient classical 
literature. The discovery of the fi:ag- 
ments of Cicero De RepubUca^dofao ma- 
ny other remnants of a classic age (though 
the complete FVonto did not correspond to 
its fame and the eeneral expectation), give 
Maio lasting claims to the gratitude of 
scholars. Maio^s success induced pro- 
fessor Peyron, at Turin, to make similar 
searehes into the treasures of the public 
library intrusted to him, and his sagacity 
was not altogether fruitless. Mazzuc- 
chelli of Milan contributed to the exten- 
sion of ancient literature by die Johanneis 
of Corippus (Milan, 1820), and Rcwsini by 
the publication of £udemu8,from Hercula- 
nean manuscripts. Ciampi, alter bis return 
from Warsaw to Italy, Manzi, Amati, 
Nibbv, are among those who have ren- 
dered service to classical literature by val- 
uable commentaries. The count Ippoliti 
Pindemonti*s ti-anslation of the Ooyesey 
(Verona, 1822,2 vols.), the odes of'^ Pin- 
dar, by Mezzanotte (Piso, 1819 and 1620, 
2 vols.), and the Isdimian odes (lie Odi 
ktmiehe di Pindaroj traduzhne at Gius. 
Boivhiy Pisa, 1822), by Borghi, Man- 
ciui% Iliad, in stanzas (Flor., 1824), can 
satisfy tliose only who do not exact a 
strict fidelity of translation. Among the 
translations from modem languages into 
the Italian, are the works of air Walter 
Scott and Byron. Klopstock's Meanixli 
was translated by Andrea Mafiei. . Rossi's 
Sioria d^Rtdia cmiica e moderua (Milan] 
dwells very long on ancient 'times, ana 
shows freouent traces of French influence. 
There* still appear historical woiics, which 
are better received by foreigners than by 
the country to which thc;^ belong^ ; as the 
above-mentioned FamMit celdrn MaHane 
of the count Pompeo Otta (Milan, since 

- 1820) ; the Storia diMUano, by Roemini ; 

' the Codice dbdomaiico Colombo Americano 
(Genoa, 1823); Scina's Prosp. deOa Sta- 



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ITALIAN LITERATURE. 



m 



m Utter, ddla SSctZto, and Spotorno's ex- 
cHient Sloria letter, ddla Ligwria (Genoa, 
\\SU) ; Beiici s Elogi, and AiK^'s Vita di 
Fiarhttgi Famest, though the last belongs 
to the more favorite department of biog- 
raphy, for which materials may be found 
in Pelli's Memorie per la Vita di Dante 
(Florence,1823) ; Nelli's Vita e Commercio 
Leiierano diGalHeoGaiilei (Florence, 17^^ 
but not published till 1820), and contri- 
butions in the Biogrefia Cremonese, by 
Lancetti, and in the Italian edition of tlie 
Bi^rafia Urdversale (Venice, Missdaglia^. 
One hope, however, notwithstanding sucn 
are the signs of the times, remains to the 
friend of Italian literature, that the abun- 
dance of monuments of former times in 
tius land will always preserve alive histor- 
ical recollections. The explanation of the 
present gives an opportunity to recur to 
the past, and to animate its dim recollec- 
tions by tlieir connexion with tangible re- 
alities. How interesting, for example, is 
the history of the cathedral of Milan ! 
Rut Italy's associations are not limited to 
Christian times. Vltdia avanti il Domi- 
nio dc' Romani, by Micali (new ed. Livor- 
no, 1821, folio), indicates the pomt to 
which the inquirer may ascend. Inves- 
tigations connected with ancient monu- 
ments cannot be wanting in a country 
where eo much remains to be explored. 
Ingiiirami's Momtmenti Etruschi o di 
eStusco .Yom€,the illustrations of the editor 
of the Gderia di Firenze, so far as they 
relate to ancient monuments ; the Me- 
moirs of the archa&oloffical aciademy of 
Rome, and the rare wores of the Bourbon 
academy, are among the phenomena not 
to be overlooked in foreign countries ; and 
the essays of Nibby, Fea, Borghesi, Lama, 
Cattaneo and Brocchi unite solidity with 
perspicuity and a comprehensive survey. 
But how little the proper mode of treating 
this department is understood, may be 
seen from Vermiglioli's Lezioni eleTnenta- 
lie di Archeologia (Verona, 1822, 2 vols.), 
which are as useless to foreign countries 
*T8 Labu^s investigations on Roman insorip- 
tiong, which either treat of what is well 
known, or explain obscurely whatever 
* they give of new. The RaccoUa di Antx^ 
ckita Greche c Romane ad Uso degli Artisii, 
dis, ed Incise da Gio. Bignoliy is not without 
merit. The activity of the trade in works 
of art in Italy pro!notes also the publica- 
tion of views of the monuments of the 
middle ages (for example, the Momtmenti 
stpotcrali di Toscana, the RaccoUa df^li 
mugtiori FabbncJiCy Monumenii ed *^rdkhUa 
& MUano ; the FMricke di Vcmzia, 
Franchioni, Cisa di Gresy, Fiola, Ventu- 

VOL. VII. II 



roll, Bonati), for explaining which 
ciations of men of talent have been form- 
ed. Almost eveiy book of travels by an 
Italian,' presents inouiries into the remains 
of antiquity ; and Belzoni, who first kin- 
dled the entliusiasm of the succeeding 
travellers for investigating the remains of 
Egyptian art, only followed the taste of his 
country. Delia Cella, the nattualist Broc- 
chi, one of the most intelligent of the late 
writers of Italy, the learned writer on 
numismatics Sestini, and Camillo Bor- 
ghese, prove this position. It is not, 
however, so much the custom in Italy 
to embellish travels with engravings as it 
is m France and Ensland. Even the de- 
scriptions of cities, of which new ones are 
ever in demand, are without this embel- 
lishment, and retam their old defects. 
Italy is more independent in the exact 
sciences than in its literature, properly so 
called, particularly in the physical depart- 
ment, and, by its mathematicians, astron- 
omers, naturalists, has acquired a reputa- 
tion, to which it has been lees true in the 
fine arts, with the exception of the plastic 
arts. Where men like Sangro, Flauti, 
Borgnis, Brunacci, Lotteri, Bordoni, eni- 
ploy themselves in geometiy and its appli- 
cation to geodesy and mechanics ; where 
astronomers like Plana, Brambilla, Inghi- 
rami, Oriani, Carfini, Piazzi, Cacciatore, 
De Cesaris, are engaged in observatories 
like those at Naples, at Palermo, at Milan, 
Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome,— the sci- 
ences must make a rapid progress. The 
Corremondance astrononuque of baron 
Zach (see Zach) afforded the Italian schol- 
ars an opportunity to make their discove- 
ries and researches known to the rest of 
Europe. Zach, who lived in Genoa till 
1827, promoted thence the diffusion of 
useful knowledge connected with his 
science, by an Mmanacco Genovese. Un- 
happily, a part of the strict mathematical 
investigations is buried in the transactions 
of literary societies ; for example, in the 
Transactions of the royal academy of 
sciences at Naples ; in the Transactions 
of the Pontonine society (Naples, I8I9) ; 
in the Memoirs of the Lombardo-Vene- 
tian institute ; in the Reports of the sci- 
entific society at Modena ; in the Ricerche 
geometriche ed idrometrichejatte neUa Scuola 
dcgV Ligesmeri pontifici d^Acque e Strode 
(Rome, 1820), wiiich but too rarely pass ^ 
the Alps. Geodesy, especially, is prose- 
cuted with great ardor, and two trigooo- 
nietrical measurements, connected with ■ 
each other, have given satisfactory resiills. 
E(iiial zeal is manifested in the physical 
sciences, in which names like Zamboni, 

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122 



ITALIAN LITERATURE— ITALIAN POETRY. 



Brugnatellj, Confi^acchi, Belliogeri and 
Ranconi answer for the exactness of the 
observations and correctness of the calcu- 
lations. The experiments on nfiagnetism 
and electricity (Banarelli) have excited a 
lively interest even in Ital^, and Confifrli- 
acchi's and BruCTatelli'sGtonia/e di FtsicOy 
Chindca, Storia Naturale^ Medicina ed ArH, 
which is published very regularly, gives 
the best account of their variety and thor- 
oughness. Even the OpuscoU scienH/ici 
di Bologna are almost exclusively devoted 
to the natural sciences in the widest com- 
prehension, and maintain an honorable 
name. The geoloffical observations of 
the count Marzari Peucati, who thought 
himself able to refute by ocular evidence 
the Wemenan theory of the formation 
of the earth, have attracted much at- 
tention. Among the geologists of Italy 
must be mentioned the talented and learn- 
ed Brocchi (who died in 1827, in Egypt), 
the author of the Ccnthfliologia axdHxp- 
enmTUK, and who, by his interesting essays, 
did much towards increasing the popular- 
ity of the Bikl, RaL Renier, Comiani, 
Monticelli and Covelli {Prodromo deUa 
^ntrakigia Vesvniana) keep up the in- 
terest in these studies. Patronised by 
government, the physical sciences have 
received the most extensive application to 
agriculture and technology, which have 
miBule respectable progress, at least in Up- 
per Italy. New branchea of industrv, as 
well as new kinds of plants (rice from 
China, and grain from Mongolia), have 
been introdu^d ; and the best mode of 
rearing silk-worms, manufiiauring wine, 
and managing bees, has been made the 
obiect of public investigation, and the re- 
sults have been very favorable. The la- 
bors of the Accad, d^ Georgq/Uij at Flor- 
ence, have contributed much to the pro- 
motion of agriculture. Botany cannot be 
slighted in the Garden of Europe. Savii's 
^Umenti di BoiamcOf afibrd foreign coun- 
tries nothing new, but the works of Se- 
basdani, of Mauri, of Brisnoli, Moricand, 
Tenore, of the superintendents of the gar- 
dens at Pisa, Rome, Naples, Palermo, 
evince the interest which is taken in this 
department ; and the Pomona in Rilieva 
of Pizzagalli, and Degaspari and Berga- 
maschi^s Osservaz. Micohgichej evince the 
zeal of their autliora. The investigation 
of the higher economy of nature has re- 
ceived valuable contributions from Bruna- 
telli, Configliacchi, from Angetini, Me- 
taxa, the describer of the Proteus oh^^m- 
7ietw, Ranzani, Petagna, Laurenti and Ca- 
volini ; and die structure of the human 
body was iUustreted by Palletta, Mascag- 



na and others. The medical literature of 
Germany has attracted much attention, 
and several of the most disdnguished 
German writers in this department have 
obtained successful translators and editors, 
especially for the use of the lectureiB in 
Pavia, Padua and Bologna. Many of the 
German works in the department of met- 
aphysics have been also translated, al- 
though die French, like Destutt de Tracy, 
accorded more with the taste of the Ital- 
ians. Besides Gioia, the author of the JTcfe- 
ologia espostOy Talia, the editor of a Sag- 
gio di EsteticOf Grermanl Simoni, and some 
unsuccessful commentators upon Becca- 
ria, the CoBeziont cfe' dassici Mdqfisici 
(Pavia, 181&— 22) was, perhaps, the best 
production in this department. De' Simo- 
ni has treated of natural law. Numerous 
explanations and editions have appeared 
of the Austrian code, which is possessed 
of legal authority in some of the states that 
speak Italian. It is worthy of mention, 
that Llorente's History of the Inquisition, 
and Sismondi's History of the Italian Re- 
publics of the Middle Ages, may be freely 
sold in the Italian states, while they are 
strictly prohibited by the neighboring states. 
EaUcm Poetry, Italian poetry sprang 
from the Provencal, which was the first 
to flourish in Europe on the revival of 
civilization, and which was also commu- 
nicated to Italy. Until the 13th century, 
we find in Italy only the poetry of chival- 
ry by the Provencals and Troubadours. 
These wandering bards, intelligible to the 
Italians, and particidarly to the Lombards, 
by the affinity of their sister language, 
traversed Italy, and were welcome quests 
at the courts, especially of the nobles of 
Lombardy, at a time when poetry was 
considered as indispensable at feasts. An 
instance of the estimation in which Trou- 
badours (q. V.) were held, as the chief or- 
naments of a princely court, is found in 
the visit of Raimondo Berlinghieri, count 
of Barcelona and Provence, to Frederic 
Barbarossa, the German emperor, at Tu- 
rin, in 1162, attended by a train of Pro- 
vencal poets. The emperor was so de- 
lighted with their ^cofa ciencioj that he not 
only made munincent presents to the 
minstrels, but also composed a madrigal 
in their lanffuajze himself. At the court 
of Azzo VII of Este, at Ferrara (1215 to 
1264|, some distinguished Provencals — 
Rambaldo di Vacheiras, Raimondo d'Ar- 
tes, Americo di Reguilain — ^resided, and 
sang the praises of his daughters, Con- 
stanza and Beatrice. Here al«> fk>urished 
Maestro Ferrari, a native of that city, 
who, as well as many other Italians {Aj" 

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ITAUAN POETRY. 



123 



berto QuagUo, Percivalle Doria, Alberto 
de' Marcb^ Malaspina, &c.), sang in the 
ProveD^al language. No one acquired so 
great a reputation as Sordello of Mantua, 
who visited Provence for the purpose of 
making himself familiar with the lan- 
guage and poetiy of the country. Only 
a few fragments of these Italian Trouba- 
dours are extant ; but the first attempts to 
compose in the Italian language are not 
to be looked for in LombarUy, where the 
vicinity to Provence did not allow a taste 
for native poetry to spring up. Besides, 
the Italian of Lombardy was the least 
agreeable to the ear. The Genoese and 
Venetians were too much occupied with 
commerce ; the Florentines^ disturbed by 
domestic factions, were ignorant of the 
spirit of chivalrv, and the popes were ab- 
sorbed in theology and the canon law, 
and strangers to the spirit of poetry. In 
Sicilv only could ItaUan poet^ develope 
itself because the Sicilians, always a po- 
etical people, spoke a dialect sufficiently 
soft to afford the means of graceful verse. 
Neither commeroe nor scholasdc disputes 
occupied their thoughts, and their beauti- 
ful climate invited them to repose, and to 
fill the moments of leisure with poetry. 
They could not draw the ]>oets of^ Prov- 
ence to their country so easily ns the 
Lombards, nor could they themselves so 
easily visit that country of love and poe- 
try ; but enough of the Provencal songs 
reached them, to awaken them to similar 
attempts in their own language. They 
had also a court rich in every knightly 
and noble accomplish menL Frederic if, 
the German emperor, resided, for a time, 
in Palermo (fit)m 1198 to 1212)— he who 
crowned a poet with his own hand, to 
whose court, as the old novelist relates, 
thronged Troubadours, musicians, ora- 
tors, artists, champions, and all persons of 
any kind of skiU, from all countries, be- 
cause of his munificence and his cour- 
tesy, whose noble character is praised 
by Dante ; but, not satisfied with hearing 
the verses of others, Frederic and his 
court composed poetry themselves, and 
productions of his, of his natural son 
£nzo, and his celebrated chancellor, Pie- 
tro delle Vigne, are still extant One of 
the most distinguished Sicilian poets of 
that time was Ciullo d'Alcamo, of whom 
we possess a song entirely Provencal in 
form and character. We have also the 
names and fragments of Jacopo da Len- 
tinojsumamed tZ JSTotcgOj of Guido, and 
Oddo delle Colonne, Ranieri, Ruggieri and 
Inghilfiiedi of Palermo, of Arrigo Testa, 
Stefimo, prothonotary of Messina, and 



Monna Nina, who come down to the pe- 
riod of Dante, and were the cause that 
every thing coniposed in Italian was then 
called Sicilian, Afler the year 1300, 
Sicily gave no fiuther models to Italy ; but 
the real founders of Italian poetry appear 
in Bologna, Florence, and other cities of 
Tuscany. The oldest known to us is, 
perhaps, Folcacchiero de' Folcacchieri, but 
the most important is Guido Guinicelli of 
Bologna. A number of poeta appeared 
in Tuscany, whose names Crescimbeni 
enumerates, and of whom he gives speci- 
mens. In the 13th centuiy, Guittone 
d'Arezzo (author of a book of*^ poems and 
40 letters, interspersed with verses). Bru- 
nette Latini (author of two poetical 
work*— 7/ TesorcUo and U Patqffio\ Guido 
Cavalcanti (autiior of a celebrated canzone 
and other poems), Ugolino Ubaldini 
(author of an excellent idyl in the form 
of irregular canzoni\ and Dante of Maja- 
no (author of a book of poems), desei^e 
mention ; but we find hardly a poet of 
eminence in the other provinces. By the 
side of the amatory poets Jacopone da 
Todi stands alone as a sacred poet The 
fonns of the early Italian poetry are bor- 
rowed from Aroaud Daniel, and other 
Provencals, and are, for the most part, the 
same wnich, in a more perfect state, char- 
acterize the later Italian poetry, viz. can- 
zoni, sonnets, ballads, and sestine. With 
the Sicilians, we already find the ottave 
also. Its character is, even at this early 
period, decidedly marked. Its ruling 
spirit is love — an idealizing love, to which 
the spirit of Christianity contributed the 
tendency to adore and attribute perfection 
to the beloved object Whether the new 
character which appears in all the pro- 
ductions of this time had its origin, as 
some maintain, in the spirit of Christiani- 
ty, or onl^ in certain feelings which sprang 
up at this time, and naturally connected 
themselves with Christianity, at least in 
appearance, we shall not 'here venture to 
decide, and refer the reader to the article 
Chivalry, It is ceitain that the modem 
spirit is essentially dificrent from the an- 
cient (See Classical,) Afler this prepar- 
atory period of Italian poetry was passed, 
appeared the great Florentine, Dante Ali- 
ghieri(bom 1265). He lefl at once the trod- 
den path, and stands without predecessor 
or follower among all the great names 
which ornament Italy. We do not speak 
of the form of his Divina Commediay 
which, from its nature, could not but be 
unique, but of the peculiarity of his ge- 
nius ; but even his great poem, in which, 
as he says, heaven and earth assisted^ and 

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ITALIAN POETRY. 



which cost the poet the study of years, is 
connected with love, his Beatrice being 
his guide in the highest spheres of heav- 
en ; and we should greatly misconceive 
the poet and liis age, if we should sup- 
pose that this circumstance was merely 
intended to commemorate his early pas- 
sion. The spirit of the age unavoidably 
led him to eAibit love as the ffreat mover 
of the human soul. (See Dante,) As 
Dante's production is important in the 
history of the human mind and the prog- 
ress of civilization, it is of equal import- 
ance in the history of Italian literature. 
Dante made the Italian dialect the lawful 
currency of literature. His intention to 
write his poem in Latin hexameters suffi- 
ciently shows in what a state he found 
the Italian language ; how little the light 
phiy of graceful rhymes had developed it 
for his great object. Hence his apology 
for attempting so serious a subject in the 
lingua volgare. The enthusiasm for 
Dante's poem was so great, that m 
Florence, Bologna and Pisa, professor- 
ships were ear^ established for the ex- 
planation of his Cammedia. In Florence, 
Boccaccio was the first who filled this 
chair. Of the commentators we shall 
mention, besides the later Landino, only 
Dante's own sons, Pietro and Jacopo, witli 
Benvenuto of Imola and Martino Paolo 
Nidobeato. The archbishop of Milan, 
Giovanni Visconti, appointed two theolo- 
gians, two philosophers, and two juris- 
consults of Florence, to undertake jointly 
the interpretation of the theology, philoso- 
phy and jurisprudence of Dante. Be- 
sides Dante, there flourished several otlier 
poets, among whom Cino da Pistoia 
(q. v.i is the most distinguished. He ex- 
cellea in tender love poems, in which he 
celebrated his mistress Selvs^gia, and was 
the precursor of Petrarca, for whom he 
also prepared the language. Cecco d'As- 
coli, also a contemporar}' of Dante, 
wrote a didactic poem, in five books, on 
physics, morals and religion, under the 
tide Acerba (properly Acerbo or Acervo). 
Francesco da Barberino composed his 
DocuTnmti dPAmore, in which he treats of 
virtue and its rewards, in rude and irregu- 
lar verses, and his other poem, Del 
Beggimento e rfc* Castumi ddle Donne, 
also a moral and didactic poem. Fazio 
degli Uberti wrote, at the same period, his 
Datamondo—n system of astronomy and 
geography in verse, in which Dante 
served him as a model. Without dwell- 
ing on the less important lyrical poets, 
Benuccio Salimbeni, Bindo Bonichi, An- 
«tonio da Ferrara, Francesco degli Albizzi, 



Sennuccio del Bene, a friend of Petrarca, 
we come immediately to the latter. (See 
Petrarca.) His love did not, like Dante's, 
inspire the idea of one jP*eat poem, treat- 
ing of all the acts and enorts of man, and 
his religious conceptions were still more 
strongly the ideal of love. His sonnets 
and canzoni are very diffei*ently esteemed ; 
but if they appear to many readers of our 
Sige frequently oversti-ained, and some- 
times devoid of the spirit and fullness of 
genuine poetry, to others diey are a mod- 
el of lyrical excellence ; aod his influence 
on the' language of Italian poetry has been 
very great, rendering it sofler and more 
flexible than Dante had lefl it. Petrarca 
was an excellent scholar, and well ac- 
quainted with Roman elegance, and he 
elevated his language to the greatest puri- 
ty, beauty and melody. His followers 
are innumerable. Among them, in the 
14th century, are the two Buonac- 
corsi da Montemagno, and Franco Sac- 
chetti, the writer of TuyoeUe, The gloiy 
which Petrarca had acquired in a species 
of poetry easy in itself, and so consonant 
witii the taste which his nation has pre- 
served even to the present time, and to 
the spirit of the age, was too enticing; 
but the Petrarchists forgot that it is the 
spirit of their master which gained him 
his faaic, and not merely the harmonious 
sound of his musical rhymes ; and they 
poured forth innumerable poems, a com- 
parison of which with those of Petrarca 
could only raise him still liigher. Petrar- 
ca not only wrote lyrical poems, but, in 
his capUoli, or triumphs, approaches the 
didactic. He composed also Latin poems, 
eclogues, and an epic, Africa, celebratinff 
his favorite hero, Scipio, the latter of 
which obtained him the poetic laurel, in 
the capitol, in Rome, and which — so easily 
do ereat poets mistake their own merits — 
he nimself valued most, whilst he con- 
sidered his lyrical poems of litde value, 
and in his old age wished that he had not 
written them. Not less famous than Pe- 
trarca is his friend Boccaccio. (See the 
article Boccaccio for an account of his 
great service in the fonnation of Italian 
prose.) The satirical sonnets of Pucci, 
the didactic essay on agriculture by the 
Bolognese Paganino Bonafede, and the 
Four Kingdoms of Love, Satan, Vice and 
Virtue, by his countryman Federigo Frez- 
zj, under the title QuadriregnOf an unsuc- 
cessful imitation ot Dante, belong also to 
this period. In the 15th century, Giusto 
de' Uonti first meets us — an imitator of 
Petrarca. In his sonnets he celebrates the 
beautiful hand of his mistress, on which 



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ITALIAN POETRY. 



125 



aficount the whole collection is called La 
BeUa Mono, About 1413, the barber Bur- 
chiello, at Florence, acquired no little 
reputation by bis peculiar, but, for us, un- 
intelligible sonnets. The attempt of the 
painter and architect, Leon Battista Albert! 
(somewhat later, under Cosmo de' Medi- 
ci )» to compose hexameters and pentame- 
ters in Italian, is worthy of mention. 
Lorenzo de' Medici, afler the death of his 
grandfather (1464), the Pericles of the 
Florentine republic, was inspired by his 
passion for Lucretia Donati, a noble Flo- 
rendne la4y, to imitate Petrarca ; yet he 
did it with independence. He was the 
pupil of the Platonist Marsi^lio Ficino. 
B^ndes sonnets and canzonif we have 
capUoUj sianze, terzinty and carnival songs, 
by him. His Symposium, or the Drinkers 
(Beom\ a sportive imitation of Dante, 
describes three journeys into a wine cellar. 
The most distinguished of the contempo- 
raneous poets was Angelo Ambro^ni, 
called PoUziano, from the small village 
Montepulciano, who is celebrated also as 
a scholar and philosopher. Besides a 
dramatic poem. Orfeo, there is a frag- 
ment by him, m beautiful stanzas, m 
praise of Julian of Medici, on occasion 
of a tournament, exhibited by the broth- 
ers, at Florence. A friend of his was the 
graceful amatory poet Girolamo Benivi- 
eni. Of the three brothers Pulci, Ber- 
nardo wrote two elegies, a poem on the 
pasaon of Christ, and was the first who 
translated the eclogues of Virgil into Ital- 
ian. Luca was the author of the Heroi- 
deSj a poem in oUave rime, in which he 
celebrated, earlier, but not less beautifully 
than Poliziano, a touraament of Lorenzo 
of Medici, a pastoral, also in oUave rime, 
entitled Druuko tTAmore, and an epic 
poem of chivalry, Ciriffb Calvcmeo, which 
in itself is of little value, and was left in- 
complete (Bernardo Giambullari finished 
it after the death of the poet), but which 
is remarkable as the commencement of 
those ironical and serious poems of chival- 
ry, which, with the decline of chivalry 
and the poetry of the middle ages, became 
natural, and, we might almost say, neces- 
sary to the poetical spirit of the Italians. 
Luigi, the most celebrated of the three, 
owes his fame not to the whimsical son- 
nets in which he and his friend, Matteo 
Franco, held each other up to the laugh- 
ter of Lorenzo and his guests (often in 
the most indecent language), nor to his 
Beca da Dicomano, &c^ but to his Mor- 
ganU Maggiore, by which he became the 
predecessor of Ariosto, who, however, 
surpassed him as much as be himself 
11* 



surpassed the fust rude attempts of the 
14th and 15th centuries in this department, 
of which the Buovo d'^ntona, La Spagna 
Historiata, and La Regina Ancroya, are 
the most known. The Membriano of 
Francesco Cieco da Ferrara, which is not 
unworthy to stand by the side of the 
Mojvante, served to amuse the Gonzaca, 
at Mantua ; but a more immediate prede- 
cessor of Ariosto was Matteo Maria Bo- 
iardo, author of the Orlando hmamorato, 
which at first was not much relished by 
the Italians, on account of its gravity, as 
they had already become too fond of 
irony in these epics of chivalry ; so much 
so, that Boiardo, continued by Niccol6 de- 
gli Agostini, was entirely re-cast by Dome- 
nichi, and, at a later period, by Bemi. 
Contemporary with these epic poets were 
the satirist Bern* Bellicioni, and number- 
less Petrarchists, as Francesco Cei, Gas- 
pare Visconti, Agosdno Staccoli d'Urbino, 
Serafino d'Aquila, Antonio Tebaldeo, 
Bernardo Accolti, a celebrated improwisa- 
tore, who assumed the modest surname 
L'Unico, a Neapolitan under the name of 
^oUumo, a Florentine, Cristoforo, under 
the name of VJUHssimo, &c. Antonio 
Fregoso, sumamed Fderemo, wrote a 
moral erotic poem. La Cerva Btancoy of 
moderate value, with Selve, and gay and 
melancholy eapitoli. Gian Filoteo Achil- 
lini deserves to be mentioned, on account 
of his scientific-moral poems, B Viridario 
and II Fedele, and Comazzano dal Vorset- 
ti, for his poem on the art of war, entitled 
De Re MUOarL Distinguished as female 
poets of this century are Battista Monte- 
feltro, wife to Galeazzo Malaspina, her 
niece Constanza, Bianca of Este, Dami- 
gella Trivulzi, Cassandra Fedele, and the 
two Isottas. The 16th century, the pe- 
riod of Italian poetry, in which the princes 
of Italy, and particularly the popes, extend- 
ed the most munificent patronage to poe- 
try and the arts, begins widi the Orlando 
and other poems of the admirable Arios- 
to. (q. V.) Giovanni Giorgio Trissino 
(q. V.) attempted, without success, the 
serious epic. His work is dry and cold. 
Giovanni Ruccellai displays much tender- 
ness and feeling in his didactic poem Le 
AjpL Luigi Alamanni (a. v.), author of a 
didactic poem on agriculture (La CoUxoa- 
vUme), a romantic epic, Ginme U Cortege, and 
Avarchide (a modem Iliad, on the whole a 
failure),belongs rather to poets of the second 
rank. Sannazzaro distinguished himself 
in his Arcadia, and in his lyric poems, by 
delicacy of feeling and beauty of expres- 
sion. Bemi (q. v.) became the creator of 
a new department. Among the Petrarch- 
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196 



ITALIAN POETRY. 



istB of this age are Ikmbo, Castiglione 
and Molza. Lodovico Domenichi pub- 
lished, in 1559, the poems of 50 noble la- 
dies. Among these was Vittoria Colonna, 
wife of Fernando d'Avalo, marquis of Pes- 
cara. (Respecting Aretino, equally known 
for gemus and licentiousness, see .^rettno.) 
Bernardo Tasso, in his epic, and still more 
in his lyric poems, appears as an excellent 
poet, but was surpassed by his son Tor- 
quato Tasso. (See Tasso.) Guarini displays 
much grace in his lyrics (madrigals and 
sonnets), but he owes his fame to his Pas- 
tor Pido, Grabriello Chiabrera was distin- 
guished as a lyric i^oet He also wrote 
several epic poems and pastoral dmmas. 
The learned &ther Bemarduio Baldi pub- 
lished, besides sonnets and ccmzjoniy a hun- 
dred apologues in prose. Attempts had 
already been made in the i£sopic fable 
by Cesare Pavesi, under the name of 
TargOj and by Giammaria Verdizotti, but 
with less success. Teofilo Folengi, more 
known under the name of Merlin Coccajo, 
must be mentioned as the inventor of 
macaronic pi>etiy. As early as the second 
half of ^e 16th century, the corruption of 
taste had begun, and continually increas- 
ed, so that the 17th century produced 
but very few works which can be con- 
sidered as exceptions. We should men- 
tion, however, Marino (q. v.), who, as it 
were, founded his own school, from 
which proceeded Claudio Achillini, Giro- 
lamo Preti, Casoni and Aiitonio Bruni, 
who were his most ardent admu-crs. 
Alessandro Tassoni is known as the au- 
thor of La Secchia RapUa, a comic and 
satiric epic. Francesco Bracciolini, who 
had imitated Tasso, in his Croce Racquista- 
loj with no great success, by his Schenw 
degli Z>et, disputed with Tassoni the honor 
or the invention of the mock-heroic, but 
does not equal him in grace and ingenui- 
ty. Two later mock-heroic poems — E 
MahnantUe RacquistatOf by Lorenzo Lippi, 
and II Torrachione DesolaiOf by Paolo 
Miiiucci — ^have no other merit than the 
purity of their Tuscan language. The 
works of Carlo de' Dottori,* Bartolonuneo 
Bocchini, Cesari Caporali, are not of dis- 
tinguished merit. Fihcaia's lyrical poems 
glow with patriotic feeling, and a noble 
elevation, which will always render him 
popular. Count Fulvio Testi was the 
Horace of his nation, but his epic produc- 
tions were mere fragments. The caustic 
satires of the painter Salvator Rosa are 
not to be passed over in silence, amidst 
the general barranness of Italian poetry, 
about the middle of the 17th centuiy. 
The residence of Christina, queen of 



Sweden, in Rome, and her predilection 
for the clasfflc muse, served to banish from 
the circle of poets, who assembled around 
her, tiie Marinistic exaggeration, and to 
substitute for it a frigid correctness. Her 
conversion to the Catholic &ith also at- 
tracted more Attention to sacred poetry 
than it had previously received in Italy ; 
but no poet of her circle merits {Muticu- 
lar nodce. Deserving of mention is Nic> 
col6 Forteguerra, author of the Ricciar- 
detto, the last epic of chivalry. Nolli, 
whose songs and odes were popular, 
translated ^filton*s Paradise Lost, and was 
the first who made his countiymen ac- 
quainted with English literatm^ whilst, 
at the same time, 3ie French taste began 
to prevail, which exercised a decided in- 
fluence, particularly on the dramatic liter- 
ature of Italy. Fewer candidates now 
appear on the Italian Parnassus. The 
abbate Carlo Innocenzio Frugoni, among 
other poetical productions (mosdy frigid 
occasional pieces), composed sonnets and 
canzoni, of which the spordve ones are 
praised. There is a successful transla- 
tion of the Psalms by Mattei. The .^rle 
RappreseTilaliva (the Histrionic Art) is a 
didactic poem worthy of mention, by 
Lodovico Riccoboni, who raised the 
character of the Italian theatre at Paris. 
Francesco Algarotti, the companion of 
Frederic the Great, belonging to the 
French school, in his odes, poetic epistlea 
and translations, exhibited the pleasing 
ease, but, at tlie same time, the coldness 
of the French. Roberti and Pignotd 
wrote ^sopic fables with originality and 
elegance. Twenty poets were united in 
the composition of a comic poem, under 
the title Berioldo^ BertMino and Coca- 
senno. Luigi Savioli sung of love in the 
style of Auacreon. As erotic and lyric 
poets, must be mentioned with him Ghe- 
rardo de' Rossi and Giovanni Fantoni, 
called, among the Arcadians (see Arcadia\ 
Labinda. A pleasing enthusiasm per- 
vades tlie poetry of Ippolito Pindemonti ; 
and, among the productions of his friend 
Aurelio Bertola of Rimini, the fables 
rank the highest Clem. Boudi is pleas- 
ing, but widiout creative power. Giu- 
seppe Parini, who imitated Pope's Rape 
of the Lock, displays true poetic eleva- 
tion and fine feeling. Onofrio Menzoni, 
who is not without poetic originality, 
confined himself almost entirely to sacrod 
poems. Alfieri was distinguished for his 
satires, lyric poems, his Etrwria Vcndicataj 
and his dramatic compositions, transla- 
tions, &c. (See Mparl) The abbate 
Giambattista Casii was distinguished for 



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ITALIAN POETRY— ITALIAN THEATRE. 



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elegance, wit and humor. His Jiivmcdi 
Pariasniij a mock-heroic poem, is nch iu 
satirie and humorous traits. His JSToveUe 
Galanii are oflen indecent. The late Yin- 
ceozo Monti is pronounced unanimously 
to have been the greatest among the recent 
poets of Italy. &6ides his dramatic com- 
positions, his most celebrated poem is his 
Basavigliana^ in which he imitates Dante. 
But who can enumerate the host which 
now lays claim to the poetic laurel, par- 
ticularly since the souvenirs flourish in 
Italy ateo, and offer so fine a field for son- 
nets, of which there is hardly an educated 
Italian who has not composed some? 
The grave character which the times are 
assuming will perhaps put an end to these 
elegant trifles, whose abundance cannot 
be conffldered favorable to an elevated 
tone, either in literature or the fine arts. 
The souvenirs have already declined in 
Germany, where they originated. The 
latest epic attempts have not been success- 
fid. The Baliaik and A Benedetto, bv A. 
M. Ricci, Mos^, by Robiola, the Moabmdey 
by Franchi di Pont, were inferior to the 
specimens which have appeared of Pa- 
lomba's Medoro Coronato. More interest 
has been excited by the tragedies, the au- 
thors of which, however, are restrained by 
their party views of the romantic and clas- 
sical Fabbri of Cesena, Marsuzi, the 
duke of Vendignano, follow the example 
of Alfieri, respecting whose poetical sys- 
tem, see the article Mfieru Ugo Foscolo's 
JUcciarda (LondrOy i. e. Turin, 1820) was 
intended to introduce a taste for the ro- 
mantic style into Italy ; but it is already for- 
gotten. Manzoni, a cultivator of this kin d 
of poetry, or of what the Italians under- 
stand by this name, has been more suc- 
cessful. Gothe pi-aised Manzoni's CorUe 
di CoiTnagnda (Milan, 1820J highly. Pin- 
demonti, Mafiei and Nicolini, however, 
are placed higher than Manzoni by all 
parties. The productions in the comic 
department are poor ; they appear, at least 
to other nations, heavy and dragging, and 
the Commedia deW Arte (see Dravia) is not 
considered worthy of notice by the high 
cbases ; yet its strong humor might per- 
haps please an unprejudiced mind more 
than the writings of Nota, Giraud and 
Panzadoro. ^irbieri's JSTtuyva RaccoUa 
Tkatrak, ossia Repertorio ad Uso de* Teatii 
Haliani (Milan, 1820), and Marchisio's 
Opera Teairale (Milan, 1820), endeavor 
to supply the want of native productions 
by translations of French and German 
works— proof enough that the natural 
gayety of the south, formerly the home 
of pk»iaiure, is departmg. How can it be 



otherwise under the Austrian sceptre.' 
Our limits do not permit us to mention 
tiie writers of sonnets and operas. Trite 
subjects arc brought up under forms a 
thousand times repeated, and thus the 
miracle, that Sgrizzi can astonish his au- 
dience with improvvisated tragedies is part- 
ly explained. (See JmprcvmscdorL) The 
treasure of the novelle, of which Shak- 
speare so happily made use, lies before 
the Italian pcnets, untouched, and seems 
even to be little known to the Italian pub- 
lic at lai^. Theatres hke those of S. 
Carlo at Naples, DeUa Scala at Milan, Per- 
gola at Florence, where whole regiments 
might appear on the stage, do not afford 
much reason to hope for the restoration 
of dramatic excellence. The historical 
novel, which sir Walter Scott has render- 
ed so popular with all nations, has been 
attempted in Italy, as in Livati's Viagsti 
di fV. Petrarca (Milan, 1820), Grossi's fi- 

SBToruie, Manzoni's PromesH Sposi, and the 
onaca di Monztu The history of Italian 
poetry, particularly of the older periods, is 
to be found in the works of Crescimbeni, 
Quadrio, Tiraboschi, and also in Gin- 
guen^'s Histoire lAUhmre d^ItaUe, Sis- 
mondi's work De la lAttiraivre du Midi^ 
and in Bouterwek (q. v.), the two last of 
which works come down to our own 
times. 

Ralian Theatre, The political state of 
Itsdy, and the easy, <!arelesB life of the 
people, in their mild and beautiful climate, 
nave cooperated in caiunng the dramatic 
literature of Italy to remain in a very back- 
ward state. It was revived, as has been 
shovni in the article Drama^ earlier among 
the Italians than among other nations, be- 
cause they had the model of the ancient 
drama before their eyes ; but this very cir- 
cumstance was one reason why a national 
drama was not formed in Italy. The 
modem Italian, generally speaking, has 
not that reflecting turn of mmd, which is 
necessary for the composition and enjoy- 
ment of a truly good drama; nor has suf- 
ficent liberty existed for centuries in Italy 
to afford a fair field for dramatic talent. 
If it be objected that die Spanish drama 
attained its perfection under the stem sway 
of an absolute govemmimt, it may be an- 
swered, tiiat the higher drama, with tiif 
Spaniards, is of a religious cast — a conse- 
quence of that rehffious gloom which be- 
longs to the Spanish character, but whici* 
the gay Italian does not feel. The extem- 
poraneous mask, which is such a favorite 
with the lower classes of Italy, is con- 
temned for this very wjason by the higher 
classes ; and whilst tiie people in generai 

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ITALIAN THEATRE. 



relish nothing but the commedia deW arte 
(see Drama)^ the higher classes care only 
for the opera. The drama^ therefore, 
properly so called, does not appear like a 
natural part of Italian literature, and we 
trust it will not be considered an arbitrary 
division, if we treat the Italian drama sep- 
arately from the body of Italian literature. 
The dramatic writers of this country 
started with so close an imitation of the 
ancients, that no Italian, down to the last 
quaiter of the 15th century, wrote a trage- 
dy in any language except Latin ; and the 
Orfto of Angelo Pollziano, of that time, is 
a series of lyrical poems dramatically at- 
tached to each otuer — a tragedy merely 
in name. The Sofonishe of Trissino imi- 
tates in eveiy point the ancient mt>del, 
even to retaining the chorus ; it is not 
without merit, but, on the whole, is a pe- 
dantic work ; yet, in the time of Leo X, in 
1516, it was received with so much ap- 
plause, as to be represented in Rome with 
great pomp. Ruccellai (1525) bears the 
same marks of imitation and want of po- 
etical invention ; even Tasso's Torrismon' 
do (about 1595), though particular pas- 
sages remind us of his unmoi'tal poems, is 
stamped with the same character. Amidst 
the minute and anxious observance of the 
rules of Aristotle, closely followed by 
many Italian writers of tragedies not wor- 
thy of mention, count Prospero Buona- 
celli deserves credit for venturing to omit 
the chorus ; on the other hand, the law- 
yer Vincenzo Gravinaonce more attempt- 
ed to show that imitation of Seneca was 
the only way to tragic perfection. After 
Mortello, in the beginning of the 18th 
century, had finally attempted to improve 
the Italian drama by the miitation of Ra- 
chie and Corneille (he even endeavored 
to introduce the French Alexandrine), 
Maffei, in his Marope, aimed at a middle 
course, and, without imitating either, to 
unite the excellences of Seneca and of 
the French theatre. In this absence of 
real tragedies, the serious operas, the mu- 
sical dramas of Metastasio (bom 1698), 
may be properly mentioned. Their tone 
had been settled by the attempts of Apo- 
stolo Zeno. Without marked character or 
free play of imagination, they always 
preserve the decorum of the French the- 
atre ; but in elegance and melody of lan- 
guage, and in musical sofhiess of expres- 
sion for the common places of passion, 
particularly of love, they are unrivalled. 
Alfieri, who wrote towards the end of the 
last century, is, throughout his writings, a 
contrast to Metastasio. (See Alfieri) He 
does not satisfy a German or an English- 



man in his conception of dramatic excel- 
lence. Among his followers are Vin- 
cenzo Monti of Ferrara, Alessandro Pe- 
lopi of Bologna, and particularly Giam- 
battista Niccolini of Florence, whose 
Polyxena received a prize in 1811. The 
pastoral dramas of Tasso and Guarini, 
viz. the AnUntaof the former, and the 
Pastor Fido of the latter, form a novel kind 
of dramatic poetry. They entirely eclips- 
ed those of Niccol6 of Coreggio, Affostino 
Beccari, Cinthio Giraldi, Agostino Argenti 
and Buonarelli. Tasso succeeded in 
uniting the sweetest tones of Theocritus, 
Anacreon, and of tlie eclogues of Virgil, 
without injuring his originality. In com- 
edy, the Italians also began with a close 
imitation of the ancients, not, however, of 
the comedy of Aristophanes, but of the 
Romans, Plautus and the calm Terence. 
These productions were called, in contra- 
distinction from the extemporaneous com- 
edy, cammedie erv4it^ (learned comedies). 
The comedies of Ariosto and the Clizia 
of Machiavelli exliibit this imitation. The 
other comedies of tlie latter are altogether 
Florentine in their character, but we must 
admit that they are deficient in that ele- 
vated tone of comedy, which we admire 
in Shakspeare. We' mention Tasso^s G/t 
hUrigki d^ Amort only on account of the 
author's name. The Toanda^ by the 
younger Michael Angelo Buonarotti ( 1626), 
is one of the most remarkable Italian 
comedies, on account of the Florentine 
nationality so well portrayed in it Gol- 
doni endeavored to put an end to the 
commedia deW arte, by his grave moraliz- 
ing comedies. On the other hand, Gozzi 
8tix)ve to save the extemporaneous come- 
dy, by elevating its character. In come- 
dies, the subjects of which were taken 
from fairy tales, and in tra^-comedies, 
the materials of which were from Calde- 
ron and Moreto, without, however, having 
their poetical execution or genias, he only 
wrote the chief parts, and these in very 
easy verses. In the less important parts, 
which were intended for the standing 
masks, he was satisfied with indicating 
merely the leading ideas, leaving the execu- 
tion to the talent of the actor. He remain- 
ed widiout a follower. Among the latest 
writers of comedies, we may mention 
Albergati, whose Prisoner received a prize 
at Parma, and who wrote a number of 
agreeable farces ; the Venetian Francesco 
Antonio Avelloni, sumamed U Poetinoy an 
imitator of the French ; Antonio Simone 
Sograsi ; the Neapolitan Gualzetti ; the 
abbate Chiari ; the Piedmontese Camillo 
Federici ; the Roman Gherardo de' Rossi ; 



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ITALIAN THEATRE— ITALIAN ART. 



139 



count Giraud ; Gioviuini Pindemonti, &c. 
{See lUdian Poetry.) Augustiw William 
voD Schlegel says (vol. ii, p. 68, of his 
Dramaiische VorUstmgen), ^We thick it 
is not saying too much to assert, that dra- 
matic poetiy, as well as the histrionic art, 
is in the lowest state in Italy. The 
Ibandadon of a national theatre has never 
yet been laid, and, without a total reform 
In principles, there is no prospect that it 
ever will be." 

RMoai Art The art of painting was 
early introduced both into Italy and Crer- 
many by Greek masters ; but the diver- 
sities of national character, climate and reli- 
gion, produced different results in the two 
countries. A glowing imagination, an 
easy lijfe, an innate sense for the beauti- 
ful, enthusiastic piety, the constant sight 
of nature in her fiurest forms, and the 
contemplation of the masterpieces of an- 
cient art, occasioned painting, in Italy, to 
unfold with great magnificence ; while, in 
Geimany, the ancient painters loved rath- 
er to dwell on the invirard life and charac- 
ter. They were poets and philosophers, 



who selected colore mstead of words. 
The Italians have therefore remained in- 
imitable in the ideal of this art, as the 
Greeks in statuaiy. The 12th century is 
generally taken as the period of the begin- 
ning of the history of painting in Italy ; but, 
even before that time, it bad been the 
scene of the labors of Greek and Byzan- 
tine artists. During the pontificate of 
Leo the Great, in 3ie year 441, a large 
pcture in mosaic was executed in the Ba- 
silica of St Paul, on the road to Ostia, and 
the portraits of the 42 first bishops, which 
are seen in the same church, date their 
ofigin from the same time. Mosaic and 
encaustic painting was then the prevalent 
mode. Painting in distemner was after- 
wards introduced. About tne end of the 
sixth century, there were many paintings, 
which were not belicYed to be the work 
of moitol hands, but were attributed to 
angels or blessed spirits. To this class 
belongs one of the most famous represen- 
tations of the Savior, in wood, at Rome, 
called AcheiropoidcL, of which a sight can 
be obtained only i/nth difficulty, in' the 
scmetum sanctorum. Whether the evan- 
gelist Luke, whom paintere afterwards 
chose for their patron saint, was him- 
self a painter, has been die subject of 
much controversy. In Rome, especially, 
the madonnas in Sta. Maria Maggiore, 
Sta. Maria del Popoli, Sta. Maria in Ara- 
celi, and the one in the neighboring Groita 
FemdOj have been ascribed to the pencil 
of the evangelist. In the 8th century, 



painting on glass, mosaic on a ground of 
gold, and painting in enamel, were zeal- 
ously prosecuted in Italy. There were 
already many native artists. One of the 
oldest monuments of art is the celebrated 
Christ on the Cross, in the Trinity churcli 
at Florence, which existed there as early 
as 1003. About 1200, a Greek artist, 
Theophanes, founded a school of painting 
in Venice. The genuine Italian style first 
bloomed, however, in Florence, and may 
be treated under three leading periods: 
1. fit)m Cimabue to Raphael ; 2. finm 
Raphael to the Caracci ; 3. from the Ca- 
racci to tl)e present time. 

First Perwd. The art was first pursu- 
ed with zeal in Pisa. Giunta Pisano, Gui- 
de of * Sienna, Andr. Tafi and Buffalmaco 
precede Cimabue, who was bom at Flor- 
ence, in 1240. This artist, who was re- 
garded as a prodisy by his contempora- 
ries, first introduced more correct propor- 
tions, and gave his figures more life and 
expression. His scholar Giotto exceDed 
him even in these respects, and exhibit- 
ed a grace hitherto unknown. He was 
the friend of Dante and Petrarch, aiid 
inactised, with equal success, historical 
painting, mosaic, sculpture, architecture^ 
and portrait and miniature painting. He 
first attempted foreshortening and a natu* 
ral dispoflition of drapery, out his style, 
nevertheless, remained dry and sdfil Bion- 
iface VIII invited him to Rome, where 
he painted the still celebrated NavJcelku 
He was foUowed by Gaddi, Stefimo, Maao 
and Simone Meromi, who painted the 
celebrated portraits of Petrarch and Laura. 
But Masaccio firet dispeUed the daikness 
of the middle ages, and a bri^ter dawn 
illumined the art The Florentine repub- 
lic, in the beginning of the 15th century, 
had attained the summit of its splendor. 
Cosmo of Medici patronized all the arts 
and sciences ; Brunelleschi then built the 
dome of the cathedral ; Lorenzo Ghiberti 
cast the famous doors of the baptistery in 
bronze; and Donatello was to statuary 
what Masaccio was to painting. Masac- 
cio's real name was Tommaso GuidL He 
was bom at St. Giovanni, in Val d'Amo, 
in the year 1402. His paintings have 
keeping, character and spirit H& schol- 
ars first began to paint in oil, but only upon 
wooden tablets or upon walls, coated with 
plaster of Paris. Canvass was not used 
till long afler. Paolo Uccelli laid the foun- 
dation for the study of perapectivc. Luca 
Signorelli, who first studied anatomy, and 
Domenico Ghirlandaio, who combined 
noble forms and expression with a knowl- 
edge of perapective, and abolished the ex- 



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130 



ITALIAN ART. 



cesfflve use of gilding, were disdnguished 
in their profession. The elevated mind 
of Leonardo da Vinci (see FtJici), who was 
born in 1444, and died 1519, and who was 
a master in all the arts and sciences, in- 
fused so much philosophy and feeling 
into the art, that, by his instrumentality, it 
quickly reached maturity. From him the 
Florentine school acquired that grave, 
contemplative and almost melancholy 
character, to which it originally leaned, 
and which it aflerwards united vnth the 
boldness and gigantic energy of Michael 
Angelo. The A^man schooTalready enu- 
merated amon^ its founders the miniature 
painter Oderigi, who died in 1300. He 
embellished manuscripts with small fig- 
ures. Guido Palmerucci, Pietro Caval- 
lini and Gentile da Fabriano were his 
most distinguished successors. Almost all 
the painters of this time were accustomed 
to JEmnex inscriptions to their pictures: the 
annunciation to the virgin Mary was their 
favorite subject. Perugia was the princi- 
pal seat of the Roman school. As early 
as the 13th centuty, there was a society 
of painters there. Pietro Vanucci, called 
Peru^ino (who was bom 1446, died 15!84), 
£rst mtroduced more grace and nobler 
forms into this school, whose character 
acquired from him something intellectual, 
noble, simply pious and natural, which 
always remained peculiar to the Roman 
schooL Perugino^s great scholar, Raphael, 
soon surpassed all former masters, and 
banished their poverty, stiffness and dry- 
ness of srvle. Taste came into Venice 
from the East. Andr. Murano and Vit- 
tore Carpaccio are among the earliest art- 
ists of tnat city. Giovanni and Gentile 
Bellino are the most distinguished painters 
of the earlier Venetian school. The for- 
mer was bom 1424, and died 1514. The 
latter labored some time in Constantinople 
under the reign of Mohammed II. They 
introduced the glowing colors of the East; 
their style was simple and pure, without 
rising to the ideal. Andr. Mantegna (bom 
at Padua, in 1431, died 1506) was the 
first to study the ancient modelk Padua 
was the principal seat of the Venetian 
schooL Mantegna aflerwards transferred 
it to Mantua, and his style formed the 
transition to the Lombard schooL Schools 
of painting flourished in Verona^ Bassano 
and Brescia. Giovanni of Udine (who 
was so distinguished by his faithful imita- 
tion of nature in secondary things, that he 
painted for Raphael the garlands around 
his pictures in the Faraesina), Pellegrino 
and Pordenone, were the most able prede- 
cessors of the two great masters of the 



Venetian school, Giorgione and Titian. 
No capital city served as the central point 
of the Lombard school: Bologna subse- 
quently became the centre. Imola, Conto, 
Ferrara, Modena, Reggio, Parma, Mantua 
and Milan were aflerwards considered tlie 
seats of this school. Galasio, who lived 
about 1220, Alighieri, Alghisi, Cosimo 
Tura, Ercole Grandi, and especially Dos- 
80 Dossi (bora 1479, died 1560), were the 
principal painters of Ferrara. The last, a 
fiiend of Ariosto, possesses a remarkable 
grandeur of style, united with a richness 
of coloring which may bear comparison 
with that of Titian. Bramante (bom 1444, 
died 15141 w|^o was likewise a great 
architect, Lippo Dalmasi, and especially 
Francesco Raibolini (bom 1450), called 
lyancesco DranciOf were highly distin- 
guished among the Bolognese masters. 
The latter, who was marked by a tender 
religious expression and uncommon indus- 
try, had the greatest veneration for Ra- 
phael. It is asserted that, at the sight of 
the St Cecilia of this master, he was so 
stmck with the impossibility of attaining 
the same perfection, that he fell into a 
deep melancholy, and soon afler died. 
Here also belongs the charming Innocenzo 
da Imola. But all these were far surpass- 
ed by the incomparable Antonio AUegri 
da Correggio, who, in fact, first founded 
the character of the Lombard school, ao 
distinguished for harmony of colors, ex- 
pression replete with feeling, and genuine 
gr*ice. 

Second Period. We now come to the 
greatest masters of any age, who, almost 
at the same time, as heads of the four 
schools, carried every branch of the art to 
the highest perfection. In Italy, they and 
their scholars are called Cinaueeentisttj 
from the century in which they nourished. 
This period of perfection passed away 
rapidly, and soon required the violent res- 
toration, with whioh the third period 
commences. After Leonardo da Vinci, in 
the Florentuie school, had settled the pro- 
portions of figures, and the mles of per- 
spective and of light and shade, and his 
scholars, Luini (who united Raphael's 
style with that of his master), Salaino 
and Melzo, besides tlie admirable Baccio 
della Porta, who \b famous under the 
name oflYa Bartolommeo (bom 1469), and 
whose works ai*e distinguisned for elevated 
conception, warmth of devotion and glow- 
ing colors, had done much for the art,an<l 
after the gentle and feeling Andrea del 
Sarto (l)ora 1488, died 1530), the intellect- 
ual Balthasar Pemzzi and the g^y Raz^i 
had made this school distinguished, aroae 



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ITALIAN ART. 



331 



the mofiC extiuordinary of all masters, 
Bfichael Angelo Buonarotd (bom 1474, 
died 15641 His gigantic mind grasped, 
with equal power, statuary, architecture 
and painting. His fire of composition, 
his Imowledge c^ anatomy, the boldness 
of his attitudes and fbreshortenings, leave 
him without a rival ; but, as a model, he 
was detrimental to the art, because his 
imitators necessarily fell into exaggeration 
and contempt of a simple style. In gran- 
deur, his fteaco paintmg, die Last Judg- 
ment, in the Sistme chapel at Rome, is 
ioimitable. Beauty was never so much 
hJ8 object, as power and sublimity, espe- 
cially since, in the former, he could never 
equal Raphael, but in the latter stood 
alone. Dante was his favorite poet In 
his later years, the erection of St Peter's 
church almost entirely engrossed his 
thoughts. Rosso de' Rc^si, Daniel of Vol- 
tenra, Salviati, Angelo Bronzino, Alessan- 
dro Allori, and many others, were his 
scholars and imitators. In 1580, Ludov. 
Cigoli and Greg. Pagani began to awaken 
a new ^irit They returned to nature, 
and aougnt to create a better taste in the 
ckiaro oscvaro. Domenico Passignani, Cris- 
toforo AHori and Comodi were tiieir fol- 
lowers. If we turn our attention to the 
Roman school, we find at its head the 
first of artists — Raphael Sanzio da Urbino 
(bom 1483, died 1520). His genius show- 
ed itself as elevated in his fresco paintings, 
in the slanze and loggie of the Vatican 
(the former of which contain the School 
of Athens, the Parnassus and the Confla- 
gration of the Borgo, while the latter con- 
tain scriptural scenes, from the creation 
through the whole Old Testament), as it 
appears lovely, spiritual and original in 
the frescos of die Farnesina (representing 
the life of Psyche). No less superior are 
his oil paintings, of which we shall only 
mention his madonruiSy celebrated through- 
out the world, especially the Madonna del 
SUto (in the Dresden gallery), the Madonr 
na deUa Sedia (in Florence), Madmna detla 
Pesce (in Madrid], Maria Giardiniera (in 
Paris), Madonna ai Foligno (in Rome), his 
St. Cecilia (in Bologna), and his last work, 
the Transfiguration of Christ His schol- 
ars and successors — ^the bold Giulio Ro- 
mano (bom 1492, died 1546), the more 
gloomy Franc. Penni il Fattore (bom 
1488, died 1528), the lofty Bartolommeo 
Ramenghi, surnamed Bagnaasoalloy Pieri- 
no del Va^ Polidoro da Caravaggio, Ge- 
mignianl, Benvenuto Tisi, called Garofolo, 
and many others — ^were skilful masters; 
hut they forsook the path of their ^reat 
pattern, and degenerated into mannerism. 



Federico Baroccio (born 1528, died 1612) 
endeavored to counteract this tendency. 
In spirit, he belonged to the Lombard 
school, as he aimed at the grace of Cor-, 
reggio. He possesses an uncommon de- 
gree of grace and expi^ession. With his 
scholars Francesco Vanni, Pellegrini, and 
the brothera Zuccheri, he infus^ a new 
life into the Roman school, though the 
latter, produced pleasing rather than great 
works, and fell into mannerism. Muziano 
was distin^ished in landscape punting, 
and No^an, Pulzone and Facchetti in por- 
trait pamting. At the head of the Vene- 
tian school, we find the two excellent col- 
orists Giomone Barbarelli di Castelfiimco 
(bom 1477, died 1511) and Tiziano Yer- 
celli (bora 1477, died 1576). The por- 
traits of the former are celebrated for tneir 
warmth and truth. The latter was great 
in all the departments of art, inimitable in 
the disposition of his carnations, excellent 
as a historical and portrait painter, and the 
first great landscape painter. Even in ex- 
treme old age, his powers were unimpair- 
ed. Ariosto and Aretino were friends of 
the cay, happy Titian. He executed many 
works for the Spanish kings. Some of 
his most famous works are die altar-piece 
of St Pietro Martire, his pictures of Venus, 
his Bacchanal and his Children Playing, 
in Madrid, his Cristo della MonetOj &c. 
He first understood the art of painting 
with transparent colors. In groups, he 
selected the form of a bunch of grapes for 
a model. His successors — Sebs^ano del 
Piombo, Palma Vecchio, Lorenzo Lotto, 
Paris Bordone, Pordenone — are distin- 
guished, especisJly in coloring. Schiavone, 
whose ckiaro oscuro and richness of color 
are truly remarkable ; Giacomo da Ponto, 
called Bassano, who imitated reality, even 
in common things, to deception, and who 
was the head of a whole family of paint- 
ers ; the ardent, inspired Robusti, called B 
TintoreUo (bom 1512, died 1594), whom 
Titian, through jealousy, dismissed from 
his school ; the fantastic, splendid Paul Ve- 
ronese (bora 1532, died 1588), who painted 
boldly and brillianUy widi a mse pencil, but 
neglected all propriety of costume, and 
fiiequentiy mingled masks in historical 
paintings, and the Veronese Cagliari, were 
oraaments of the Venetian school. It 
likewise degenerated, and its mannerists 
were worse than those of the other schools, 
because they did not study the antiques 
and the ideal. At the head of the Lom- 
bard school, we find the charming Anto- 
nio Allegri, called Correggio (bora 1494, 
died IsSi), whose works are full of feel- 
ing. (See Correggio.) His succesEors and 

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133 



ITALIAN ART. 



scholars were Francesco Rondani, Gatti, 
Lelio Orsi| and especially Francesco Maz- 
zola il Parmegianino (bom 1503, died 
1540). This artist possessed much ease, 
fire, and a peculiar grace, which trequently 
borders on mannerism. Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
and many others, are the ornaments of 
the Milanese school. In landscape paint- 
ing, lAvizzario was called the TUtan of 
Jmlan, The famous Sofonisba An^ 
sciola (bom 1530), of Cremona, was highly 
distinguished in music and painting. As 
an excellent portrait-painter, she was in- 
vited to Madrid, where she painted don 
Carlos and the whole royal family, and 

give instruction to queen Elizabeth. Van 
yke declared that he had learned more 
from the conversation of tliis woman, 
when she was blind Ccom age, than he had 
from the study of the masters. She died 
in 1620. Lavinia Fontana, Artemiaa Gen- 
tileschi, Maria Robusti, and Elis. Sirani 
were celebrated female artists of this time, 
Camillo and Giulio Frocaccino were dis- 
tinguished for strength of imagination and 
excellent coloring. In Bologna, we find 
Bacnacavallo, a distinguished artist of this 
period, whom we have already mentioned 
as one of Raphael's scholars. He flour- 
ished about 1542. Francesco Priraaticcio 
(bom 1490, died 1570), Niccol6 delPAbbate, 
Pellegrino Tibaldi, Passarotti and Fonta- 
na were very able Bolognese artists. 

Third Period, It begins with the age 
of the three Carracci. These excellent 
artists endeavored to restore a pure style, 
and, by the combined study of the ancient 
masters of nature and science, to dye a 
new splendor to the degraded art. Their 
influence was powerful. The division 
into the four principal schools now ceases, 
and we find but two principal divisions — 
the followers of the Carracci, who are 
called edecticsy and the followers of Mi- 
chael Angelo Caravagffio, who are called 
naturaliats. Lodovico Carracci (born 1555, 
died 1619) was the uncle of the two 
brothers Agostino (bom 1558, died 1601) 
and Annibde (bom 1560, died 1609). Lo- 
dovico was quiet, contemplative, sofl and 
serious. His passionate teachers, Fontana 
and Tintoretto, at first denied him any 
talent : he studied therefore more zealous- 
ly, and acquired the deepest views as an 
artist Agostino united uncommon sa- 
gacity and the most extensive knowledge 
with a noble character. His brother An- 
nibale, who made extraordinary progress 
in the art, under Lodovico's direction, be- 
came jealous of Agostino. The disputes 
between the two brothers never ceased, 
and the of^ded Agostino devoted him- 



self chiefly to the art of engraving. The 
attacks of their enemies first united them, 
and thev founded togetlier a great acade- 
my. The brothers were invited to Rome 
to paint the gaUery of the duke of Far- 
nese. They soon disagreed, and Agostino 
retired, and lefl the work to his fiery broth- 
er. Annibale completed the undertaking 
with honor, but was shamefully cheated 
of the greatest part of his pay. Deeply 
mortified, he sought to divert his mind by 
new labors and a journey to Naples ; but 
the hostili^ which he there experienced, 
hastened his death. Meanwhile, the quiet 
Lodovico finished, with the aid of his 
scholars, one of the greatest works — ^the 
famous portico of St Michael in Bosco, in 
Bologna, on which are represented seven 
fine paintings, from the legends of St. 
Benedict and St Cecilia. Tne last of tlie 
labors of this great master was the Annun- 
ciation to Mary, represented in two colos- 
sal figures, in the cathedral of Bologna. 
The angel is clothed in a light dress, and, 
by an unhappy distribution of drapery, 
his right foot seems to stand where his 
left belongs, and vice versa, - Near at hand, 
this is not observed ; but, as soon as 
the large scaffold was removed, Ludovico 
saw the fault, which gave occasion to tlie 
bitterest criticisms fi*om liis enemies, llie 
chagrin which he suffered on this occa- 
sion brought him to the grave. The 
scholars of the Carracci are numberless. 
The most famous endeavored to unite the 
grace of Correggio with the grandeur of 
me Roman masters. Cesare Aretusi was 
distinguished for the most faithful copies 
of Corre^o and Guide Reni (born at Bo- 
logna, 1575, died 1642), especiallv for the 
ideal beauty of his heads, the loveliness 
of his infimt figures, and the uncommon 
facility of his pencil. His fresco repre- 
senting Aurora, in the palace Borghese, 
and hjs oil painting, the Ascension of 
Mary, in Munich, are well known. Fran- 
cesco Albani (bom 1578 at Bologna, died 
1660) lived in constant rivalry with Gui- 
de. He produced many lai^^e church 
painting but was most celebrated for the 
indescnbable charm with which he repre- 
sented, on a smaller scale, lovely subjects 
from mythology, and especiallv groups of* 
Cupids. His pointings in the Verospi gal- 
lery, and his Four Elements, which he 
painted for the Borghese family, gained 
him universal reputation. The back- 
ground of his landscapes is excellent All 
his works breathe serenity, pleasure and 
grace. The thin! great contemporair of 
tnose already mentioned, Domenico Zana- 
pieri, called DoinerUckino (bom 1581, died 

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ITALIAN ART. 



133 



1641), was at first little esteemed by them, 
CO account of his great modesty and timid- 
isj. Thrice were prizes awarded by Lodo- 
Tieo io drawings, the author of which no 
one could discover. At last Agostiuo made 
iiiquhries,aiid the yonng Domenichino tim- 
idly confessed that the drawings were liis. 
IIb industry and perseverance rendered 
him the favorite of his master. His works 
evince the most thorough knowledge, and 
are rich in expression of character, in 
fi>ree and truth. His Communion of St. 
Jerome, his Martyrdom of St Agues, and 
his fresco in the Grotta Ferrata, are im- 
inoctai masterpieces. He was always re- 
markable for his timidity. He was invited 
to fiaples, but was there persecuted and 
tofroenled by the painters ; and it is even 
suspected that he was poisoned. Giovan- 
ni Lanfjranco (bom at Parma, 1580, died 
1647) was especially disdnguished for the 
efiect of his light Bartol. Schidone is 
one of the best colorists of this scbooL 
The Bibienas, die Molas, AL Tierini, Pie- 
tro di Cortona, Giro Ferri also deserve 
mention. At the head of the naturalists, 
who, with a hM. and often rash pencil, 
imitated nature, without selection, stands 
Michael Anselo Merigi, or Amerigi da 
Carava^o (bom 1569). His chief oppo- i 
neat in Rome was D'Arpino, who stood at . 
the head of the idealists, or rather of the 
mannerists. Caravagdo and his succes- 
soiB, Manfredi, Leonello Spada, Guercino 
da Cento, &,c., often took common nature 
for a model, which they servilely imitated, 
thus profaning the genuine dignity of the 
ait, tbou^ thev cannot be denied strength 
and genius. About this time, the be^n- 
omg of the 17th century, the hambocciate 
were introduced. {See Peter Laar.) Man^ 
artistB, especially Mich. Ang. Cerquozzi, 
suroamedddle baUaglie, and delU bomioc- 
eiaUy ibllowed this degenerate taste. An- 
drea Sacchi made great efforts to oppose 
him. His drawing was correct and grand ; 
Raphael was his model His most ramous 
scholar was Cario Maratto (bom 16^, at 
Camerano), whose style was noble and 
tastefuL *The cavaliere Pietro Liberi, An- 
drea Celesti, the female portrait painter 
Rosalba Caniera (bom at Venice, 1675, 
died 1757), who was distinguished for her 
drawings in pastel, thegraceful Frances- 
co Trevisani, Pinzetta Tiepolo, and Cana- 
Ictto, a painter in perspective, were the 
most celebrated Venetian painters of this 
time. 1 Carlo Cignani (bora 1628, died 
at Bologna, 1719) acquired a great reputa- y 
tion^by his originality and the strength 
and agreeableness of his coloring. Of his 
scMuB, Marc. Antonio Franceschini was 
- VOL. vit 12 



distinguished (bom 1648, died 1729), 
whose works are chamiinz and fuO of 
souL Giuseppe Crespi, called Spagnuo' 
kttoy deserves mention for his mdustry 
and correct style, but his pictures have 
unfortunately become very much defaced 
by time. Among the Romans, Pompeo 
Battoni (bora 17(«, died 1787) was princi- 
pally distinguished, and was a rival of the 
celebrated Mengs. Angelica Kauftnanm 
deserves to be mentioned. — We must not 
forget the Neapolitan and the Genoese 
schools. Of the NeapoHtans, we name 
Tommaso de' Stcfani (bom 1230), Fil. 
Tesauro, Simone,CoIantonio de'Fion f bom 
1352), Solario il Zihgaro, Sabatino (bora 
1480), Belisario, Caracciolo, Giuseppe Ri- 
bera Spagnoletto (bom 1593), Spadaro, 
Francesco di Maria (bom 1623), Andrew 
Vaccaro, the spirited landscape-painter 
Salrator Rosa (bom 1615), Preti, called U 
Ccddbrtse (bom 16131 and Liica Giordano 
(born 1632, died 1705), who was called, 
from the rnpidity of his execution, iMca 
fa Presto,' SoWena (bom 1657) and 
Conca belong to the modem masters of 
this school. The Genoese can name 
among their ardsts Semino (bom 1485), 
Luca Cambiasi (bom 1527), Tagp Strozzi, 
called U Prde Genovestj Uasdghone (bom 
1616), Biscaino, GauUi and Parodi. Per- 
haps the most distinguished of the liv- 
ing painters of Italy is Camoccini. This 
reputation, however, is not allowed him 
him without dilute by foreign countries, 
and even by many artists of his na- 
tive land. His style is grand, and purely 
historical ; his drawings are even more 
highly esteemed than bis paintmgs. His 
pieces, however, are cold, and their esti- 
mation seems to have diminished. Landi 
is a distinguished portrait pauiter, though 
his coloring is rather cold. The pencil of 
Grassi possesses an inimitable grace, and 
a tme enchantment Benvenuti, director 
of the academy in Florence, is the firat 
artist there. A French artist (Falwre) in 
Florence is the competitor of Benvenuti ; 
his landscapes and his pastoral scenes are 
equally exceUent Cohgnon is also avei^ 
able artist, m the same place. Appiani, 
who died a few years ago at Milan, wan 
particulariy celebrated for the grace of his 
female figures ; and Bossi had equal repu- 
tation, ui a more serious and severe style. . 
The Florentine SabbatelH's sketches with ^ 
the pen are highly esteemed. Ermini, in 
Florence, is a charming miniature painter, 
in Isabey's manner. Alvarez, a Spaniard, 
and Ayez, a youngVenctian, are in hin^i 
repute" at Rome. The youn^ artist Agri- 
cola is particulariy distinguished am<»ig 

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ITALIAN ART— ITAUAN MUSIC. 



the artists of Rome. He is a native of 
Urbino. Id purity of style, he is thought 
to surpass all modem artists. (For the his- 
tory of Italiau painters, see Lanzi's Sloria 
PUtorica.)— In the art of engraving, the 
Italians have acquired great eminence. 
Tommaso Fini^uenra, who flourished 
1460, was the first celebrated master of 
this art, which he taught to Baccio Bandi- 
ni. They were succeeded by Mantegna ; 
but Marco Antonio Raimondi, of Bologna, 
who lived in 1500, was the first to intro- 
duce greater fitsedom into his engi*avings. 
His copies of Raphael have always been 
highly valued, on account of their correct- 
ness. His manner was imitated by Bona- 
sone, Marco di Ravenna, Di Ghisi, and 
others. Agostino CaiTacci, Parmeggiano, 
Carlo Maratti and Pietro Testa etched 
some excellent works. Stefimo della Bel- 
la was distinguished for his small, spirited 
and elegant pieces. Among the modems, 
Bartoiozzi deserves mention in stippled 
engravinff. Cunego, Volpato, and Bette- 
lini are cuso distinguished ; but, above all, 
the Florentine Raphael Morgheu, who has 
carried the art or engraving to a degree 
of perfection never before anticipated. 
The labors of Morghen, and yet more those 
of Longhi, perhaps the most admiral>le of 
all modem engravci's, of Toechi, of Ander- 
loni, of Folo, of Palmerini, of Lasinio, of 
Garavaglia, Lapi, Schiavonetti, evince an 
activity, to which n6w employment and 
new excitement have been afibrdedby the 
eaeemess of travellers, and the number of 
splendid works on buildings (such as those 
on the cathedral of Milan, the Carthusian 
monastery of Pavia, the sacristy of Sienna, 
the Campo Santo of Pisa, the Montunenti 
sepoUrali of Tuscany, the principal edi- 
fices of Venice, the Chiiat principaU di 
Europa), One of the latest and nest is 
the work of the brothers, Durelli, La Cer- 
iosa di Pca/iiu The painter Francesco Pi- 
rovano, whoso description of Milan ex- 
ceeds all others in exactness, has also given 
us a description of this celebrated Curthu- 
enan monastery. Asa medium between 
painting and sculpture (see Scutptiwe), we 
must mention mosaic, in wliich many 
])aintine8 have been imitated in Italy, from 
the wish to render the master workis im- 
perishable. There is a distinction made 
between the Roman mosaic executed by 
Tafi, Giotto and Cavallini, and the Floren- 
tine. (See Moaaic,\ Mosaic painting 
seems to have flourisiied as well in France, 
whither it was transplanted, as in Rome. 
The art of working m scagluda (see Sea- 
siiola) has flourished for two centuries in 
Tuscany. In later times, Lamberto Gori 



has distinguished himself in this brancii. 
Rome is still the metropolis of the arts. 
Pope Pius VII generously supported the 
plans of that lover of the aits, cazdinal 
Consalvi ; and the Chiaramond museum, 
by every account the most superb part of 
the long galleries of the Vatican, will be 
a lasting monument of his noble patron- 
ace. All friends of tiie sublime and beau- 
tiful deeply felt the accident that befeQ St. 
Paul's church, near Rome, in the confla- 
firation of 182ij. To restore it would hard- 
ly be possible. The loss of this noble Ba- 
silica is not adequately compensated by 
the church of St Peter and Paul, built op- 
posite the castle of Naples, nor by the 
temple of Possagno, which, before it was 
finished, received the ashes of its founder, 
the great Canova. As a monument, to 
the embellishment of which that distin- 
guished man contributed the last eflbrts of 
bis genius, this church is a legacy highly 
to he esteemed by Italian artists. Sculp- 
ture and paintuig herd again meet archi- 
tecture in a sisterly embrace. Canova's 
death was the cause of its first solemn 
consecration. (For a particular account 
of Canova, see the article.) Notwithstand- 
ing the excellence of their master, little is 
to be expected from the Italians of Cano- 
va*s school. The monuments which were 
executed or planned by Ricci for the pres- 
ent grand-duke of Tuscany at Arezzo, by 
Pisani for the princesses of the house of 
Este at Reggio, and by Antonio Bosa to 
the memory of Winckelmann, rather de- 
press our hopes than exalt them. The 
principal ground of hope of future excel- 
lence is in the love which has been gene- 
rally awakened for the plastic arts. Gem 
engravins has been carried to a very high 
desree of perfection ; and Berini's labors 
well merit the wide reputation which they 
have acquired.' As medalists, Manfiredini 
in Milan, Pulinati and Mercandelli have 
produced works with which other coun- 
tries present little that can compare. In 
Rome, Girometti and Cerfoara are highly 
esteemed in this branch of art. 

Ralian Music. The style of music now 
prevalent in Italy is characterized by the 
predominance of melody and sons to the 
neglect of harmony, and is distinguish- 
ed from the old Italian music. lake other 
branches of modem art, the music of 
modem times spmn? from religion. The 
history of the art, after pointing out a few 
impeifect glimmerings of ancient muaiCy 
conducts us to Italy, where, m the course 
of centmies, the ancient was first lost in 
the modem. Here we first find the 
proper choral song, the foundation of mod- 



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ITALIAN MUSIC. 



135 



era church muac, which was at first sung 
in unison, chiefly in melodies derived from 
the old Greco-Roman music, and adapted 
to Christian hynms and psalms. (See JIfti- 
AC, and Musky Sacred) It seems to have 
had its origin when hishop Ambrosius, in 
the fourth century, introduced into the 
western church songs and hymns adapted 
to the four authentic modes of the Greeks, 
and appointed psalmists or precentors. 
Gregory the Great, in the sixth century, 
enlsSged the choral song by the plagal 
modes. From this time, singing-schools 
were multiplied, and much was written 
upon music The most important inven- 
tions for the improvement of music gene- 
laliy, we owe to the 11th centuiy, and 
particulariy to the Benedictine Guido of 
Arezzo, who, if he did not invent the 
mode of writing musical notes and tlie 
use of the cleij improved and enlarged 
them, determined the exact illations of 
the tones, named the six tones of die scale 
(see Solfeggio)^ and divided the scale into 
faexachoitls. In the 13th century, the in- 
▼endoD of music in measure was spread 
in Italy, dependent upon which was that 
of counterpoint and figured music. Instru- 
ments- were multiplied and improved in 
the 14th and 15th centuries. Many popes 
ftvored music, particularly vocal, and 
consecrated it by iheir briew ; yet the ec- 
cleaasdcal ordinances restrained the inde- 
pendent developement of music. Much 
instrucdon was given in singing in the 15th 
century, and not entirely by monks. Mu- 
«c acquired the rank of a science, and 
Tocal munc in counterpoint was devel- 
oped. In the 16th century, we discover 
distinguished composers and musicians — 
Palestrina, composer for the chapel of 
pope Clement XI, whose works possess 
great dignity and scientific modulation, 
and his successor, Felice Anerio, Nanino 
da Yallerano, who, together with Giovanni 
da Balietri, were considered as distinguish- 
ed musicians; also the celebrated con- 
trapuntist and singer, Gregorio Allegri, 
and the great writer upon harmony, 
Giuseppe Zarlino, chapel-master at Venice. 
Music at Rome and Venice was cultivated 
with the greatest zeal. Hence it went to 
Naples and Genoa ; and all Italy, Schu- 
bert says, was soon a loud-sounding con- 
cert-hall, to which all Europe resorted to 
hear genuine music, particularly beaudful 
singing. In the 17th century, we meet 
with the first profane music. The first 
opera was perrormed at Venice 1634, at 
first with unaccompanied recitatives and 
choruses in unison ; it spread so quickly, 
that the composers of spectacles were 



soon imable to supply the demands of the 
people, and from 40 to 50 new o|)eras ap- 
peared yearly in Italy. This caused great 
competidon among the Italian musiciaus. 
Thus the peculiar character of the Italian 
music, not to be changed by foreign inflti- 
ence, was developed tlie more quickly, b^;- 
cause this sf)ecies was cultivated indepen- 
dendy, and unrestrained by the church. Al- 
ready, in the middle of the 17th cemurj-, 
when the music of the theatre was contin- 
ually advancing, simplicity began to give 
place to poiT^ and luxuriance, and thu 
church style to decline. Mutnc (says Schu- 
bert) uniterl the profane air of the drama 
with the fer^'or of the church style, and 
this was the first cause of the decline of 
the latter. Let us now consider the prin- 
cipal periods of the former. Vocal mu- 
sic must have been first ; it was regulated 
by die discovery and improvement of in- 
stniments ; t^ience arose the simple, gran<l 
chun^h music of the 15th and 16th centu- 
ries; with it various forms of national 
song were developed. On the stage, the 
higher style of music flourished iniiep(*n- 
dendy. Here the Italian, without much at- 
tention to the poetical part of the perform- 
ance, which was, indeed, only the hasty 
work of a moment, followed his inclina- 
tion for melody an(i sweet sounds, which 
a))pears even in his language. All the 
southern nations show a great sensitive- 
ness, and melody is to them as necessary 
as harmony to the inhabitants of the 
North ; but to no nation so much as to the 
Italians, whose l)eautiful climate and hap- 
py organization for song (Italy pfroduces 
the most beautiful alto and tenor voices — 
few base) made melody their chief aim in 
their music. On the other hand, the sim- 
plicity of melody degenerated into effem- 
inacy and luxuriance, fix>m the time 
when vocal music developed itself indepen- 
dently, and the voice, but liule supported 
by the instrumental music, began to be 
cultivated like an instmment ; when, in- 
stead of poetical expression and truth, 
mere gratification of the ears, not 
deep emotion, but a momentary excite- 
ment, and a rapid chance of tones, with 
the avoidance of all dissonance, were 
principally desired; when music began 
to predominate over poetry, which first 
took place on the stage, and thus the mu- 
sical part of the performance obstructed 
the improvement of the dramatic and 
poetic. This taste spread over odier 
countries so much the more easily, as 
Italian music had advanced, by rapid 
strides, far before that of the rest of Eu- 
rope, aa appears even from the predomi- 



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ITALIAN MUSIC— TRAVELS IS JTALY. 



nance of Italian terms in musical lan- 
guage. This artificial developement of 
the song was promoted by the introduc- 
tion of soprano singers on the stage, 
which destroyed the possibility of poetic 
truth in dramatic representation. The 
voice was cultivated to the highest degree 
by means of die numerous consenratorios 
and singing schools. To this was added 
the great encouragement and the extrava- 
gant rewards of distinguished singers 
(Farinelli purchased a duchy) ; the great 
opportunities afforded for singmg (as eve- 

2 place of consequence in Italy had its 
eatre, and many had several); beades 
which, music is an essential part of the 
service of the Catholic church, and 
castration was permitted ad honorem 
Dei, as a papal brief expresses iL 
The excesfflve culture of the voice must 
necessarily lead to the treatment of it 
as an instrument, to the neglect of po- 
etical expression. loatnimental music, 
too, in this case, necessarily becomes 
subordinate. Instrumental music should 
not indeed overpower the Bong, as is 
the case in much of the French and 
German music ; but in the Italian music, 
the composer is almost restricted to show- 
ing off. the singer, and cannot devek>pe 
the fiiUneas and depth of harmony which 
depends upon the miniriing of conso- 
nance and disBonance. This is die rea- 
son wky the fflfisterpieces of Mozart 
have never entirely satisfied the Italians. 
Among die best compos»!8, since the 17th 
century, are Oirolamo Fresoobaldi, Fran- 
cesco Foggia, Bapt LuUy, the celebrated 
viofinist and composer Arcangelo CoteilL 
To the singers, of whom the most were 
also composers, belong Antimo Liberad, 
Matteo Simonelli, both suigers in the chapel 
of the pope. In the beginning of the 
Idth eenturv, Abl Caldua was disdn- 
guished. fife increased the effect of the 
singug by the addition of instruments, 
but his style partook much of the theatri- 
caL There were, besides, Brescianello, 
Toniri and Marotti. In the middle of 
this century, Italian music, especially the- 
atrical, flourished, particularly at Naples, 
Lisbon, and also m Berlin. This has 
been declared by some the most brilliant 
period of Italian music. There are 
some distinguished instrumentalists in 
Italy, as the organists Scarlatti and Mar- 
tinelli, the violmist Tartini (who, even in 
the theory of his instrument, was distin- 
guished, and established a school, which 
was devoted particularly to the church 
style), Domenico Ferrari, Geminiani, Ant. 
Lc>Ui and Naxdini, schoiara of Toitmi, 



also the player upon the harpsichord and 
composer, Clementj, in London, and Paga- 
nini. Among tiic composers of the 18th 
c^itury, are mentioned Traeba, who, 
tiirough his refinements, injured the sim- 
plicity of composition; Galuppi, distin- 
guished by simple and pleasing song, 
rich invention and good harmony; Jo- 
melli (q. v.), who gave greater importance 
to instrumental muac ; Maio ; mc. Por- 
pora, the founder of a new style of sing- 
ing, dis{inguished for his solfeggios in 
church music; Leo; Pergolesi, whose 
music is always delightful, from its ami^e 
beauty (e. g. his Stahat Mater); Pater 
Martini, at Bologna; the sweet Piccini, 
rival of Gluck ; Anfossi ; the agreeable 
Sacchini {Oktqi.) ; Sarti. (q. v.) Of a later 
date are PaesieJlo (q. v.), Cmiarosa, the 
ornament of the opera buffOf and Zinga- 
*" relli (Romeo and Juliet), Nasolini, Paga- 
nini, Niccolini, Pavesi, and the now miKh 
' celebrated Gtoerali and the copious Ros- 
sinL More fike tiiie Gemnans were Safie- 
' ri (q. v.), and the thorough Righiai (he 
-. likewise has written solfeggios), Cheru- 
^bini and ^[xintini have more of the 
^ French character. Among ^e oelebmted 
Tmale and female sineere of Italy, since 
'' the ' 18th centuiy, are Francesca Cuzzoni 
Sandoni, and her rival Faustina Bordoai 
^(afterwards tha wife of Hasse), and the 
: Allegiandi, the soprauists Farinelli, Caf- 
fiurelu, Genesino, Caristini, Matchesi: in 
later times, the cekA>rated Crescentmi and 
Veluti ; also the singers Baldassore Ferri, 
Sifiice Matteuce; the teuorists fiiillico, 
Pacchierotti, Brizi Benelii; the female 
singers Tesi, Mingotti, Gabrielfi, Todi, 
Yandi, Bfarchetti, the sisters Sees, paitic- 
ulariy Imperadrice and Mariana S»i, 
Angelica Catidani, Camporesi, Borsondio. 
The Italian school is yet unequalled in 
whatever depends upon the mere im- 
provement of^ the voice ; but the daviah 
imitation of tiieir manner leads to affec- 
tation ; therefore the Gennan singers em- 
ploy it no &rther than they can without 
losing the spirit and poetical expresson 
which the German song aims at. 

Jhwds in Italy. No part of Europe has 
been so much visited as Italy, and none de- 
serves to be visited more than this charming 
country, where a cloudless sky sheds per- 
petual fcvilliancy on the monuments of an- 
cient greatness and the relics of ancient art, 
which con^ire with the finest works of 
modem genius, to delight the eye, and to 
carry back the mind to tiie great men and 
great eveuts of former times. The sight of 
modem Italy led Gibbon to write the sad 
story of the decline of her ancient gran- 



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137 



deur; and bow many poets have owed 
to Italy their inspiration ! It is impopsible 
to see Italy and not feel the grave moni- 
tions of history, or to pass tbroush her 
happy vineyaitla without being cheered 
by the scene, or to ^e on her works of 
genius without feeling the worth and the 
digni^ of the fine art& No wonder, tiien, 
that Itahr is visited from all quarters. 
During the g^eral peace in Europe, from 
1815 until 1§30, crowds of foreigners, par- 
ticulariy Englishmen, hastened to the beau- 
tiful peninsiUa. The latter were so nume- 
rous, that the lower classes of Italy called 
every foreigner un bigUse, Among these 
there were, of course, great numl)ers who, 
without capacity for enjoying what thev 
saw, hurried through the country accord- 
ing to the direction of their guide-books, in 
oraer to be able to say, at the tea-tables in 
London, How beautiful the view from Mon- 
te Pincio is ! Every one who has been in 
Rome must have met with such a travel- 
ler, his Fasari in his hand, woiicing his way 
with servile conscientiousness, through the 
beauties of the place. Expedition being 
an object with many of them, tlie shortest 
process for seeing all that was to be seen 
was soon found out, and flocks of travel- 
leis, at particular seasons, migrated to par- 
ticular places. The average period of a 
jaunt through Italy is six months. The 
end of the journey is usually Naples, from 
which traveUers advance south as far as 
the ruins of Peestum. The Alps must be 
passed early in the autumn. The fairy 
islands of the Lago Ma^siore, at that time, 
still wear their delightml drapery of fruits 
and leaves. The traveller then enters, at 
once, the south of Europe, so different 
from the north. For visiting the principal 
places in Upper Ital}', the Bolognese and 
Tuscany, there are two months before the 
beginning of the carnival, which, of course, 
must be enjoyed in Rome. After having 
visited the galleries and monuments in 
and about Rome, the traveller proceeds, 
during Lent, to Naples, to see the spring 
awaken in the Campagiia. At Easter, he 
returns to Rome. Who could visit luily 
without hearing the heavenly music in 
the Capella Sistina, during Passion week ! 
There ^vill perhaps be time, on the return, 
to make an excursion to the Mark of An- 
cona ; if not, no one, who has been to 
Rome through Sienna, will now fail to take 
the road through Temi, Perueia and 
jVrezzo. Genoa and Venice, as the most 
western and eastern points, are convenient 
to besin or close the journey with. It 
may be better, however, to begin with 
Lombardy and Genoa, in the autumn, and 
12* 



not to extend the period of return far into 
the hot season. Lombardy attracts but 
little, after Rome, Florence and Naples, 
have been visited ; but Venice, silent, mel- 
ancholy Venice, still remains an object of 
interest, even in her decrepitude under 
the Austrian swav. Such a journey will 
occupy from the beginning of October un- 
til the middle of May, and will enable the 
traveller to see the finest parts of the 
country and the most remarkable works 
of art But to become thoroughly ac- 
quainted with Italy, as it is and as it was, 
no one can stay long enough. Rome 
alone will fully occupy a man's life. He 
who wishes to become particularly ac- 
quainted with the middle ages, and to 
form a hvcly picture of them, will remain 
longer in Florence and Pisa. Late in a 
moonshiny night, when every thing is 
quiet, walk through the streets of Florence, 
and you may easily imagine yourself a 
contemporary with the Medici. He who 
wishes to devote liimself to the antique or 
to Roman histoiy, will stay longer in the 
alma ciUk, Here he will idso find himself 
at the fountain head of sacred music. He 
who desires to enjoy the beauties of a 
bountiful nature, will remain longer in 
Naples, lying like a paradise surrounded 
by the fields of Campagna, where the 
gigantic vine twines round the lofty pop- 
Eirs, and forms an embowering shade 
over the luxuriant grain. He who prefers 
to see a country where nature and man 
have not l)een much influenced by civili 
zation, will proceed to Calabria and Sicily; 
which afford also the richest harvest to 
the botanist and mineralogist He who 
wishes to become more fuUy acquainted 
with the historv of the fine arts in the 
middle ages, will go to the smaller places, 
distant from the great roads, where he 
will find innumerable treasures, often un- 
known to most Italians themselves ; as the 
historian finds rich treasures in the manu- 
scripts stored up in the monasteries, illus- 
trative of the contests of Italian powera 
among themselves in the middle ages, as 
well as of the great contest between the 
secular and ecc^a^tical powers, the em- 
peror and the pope : and what a bound- 
less field is spread before the scholar in the 
Vatican ! There are two ways of travelling 
in Italy, with post-horses (in which case a 
carriage belonging to the traveller is al- 
most indispensable), or with the vdturmo (in 
a liired coach). He who travels without 
a family, and wishes to become acquainted 
with the people, will do best to adopt the 
latter mode. The traveller makes his 
baiigain with the vetturtno, not only for 

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TRAVELS IN ITALY. 



conveyance, but also for supper and lodg- 
ing. The general price for the convey- 
ance, from 35 to 40 miles a day, to- 
gether with the meal and lodging, is 
about a ducat per day. As the reputa- 
tion of a vetturino depends upon the good 
treatment of his travellers, it is his interest 
to procure a good meal and a clean bed ; 
thus travellers are spared the trouble of 
bargaining with the host. That the inn- 
keepers in Italy have a general disporation 
to fleece the traveller, is certain ; and this 
leads many travellers, particularly English, 
not to touch a trifle in any inn without 
making a beigain ; for whicli veiy reason 
they are regularly . overreached. The 
same dispodtion makes many English 
travellera so troublesome in Germany, 
where, the living bemg cheap, they expect 
to pay next to nothing in the .first hotels, 
so that some hotels have actuaUy refused 
to admit them. In large cities," where the 
traveller expects to stay some time, his 
best rule will be to make a fair bargain ' 
after the first day, when he knows what 
he has to expect. Anotlier great incon- 
venience for travellers arises from the 
ciceroni or servUori di piaacu These 
people, who have a share of what the 
cusUxH and tlie poorer possessors of some 
single curiosities receive fix)m the travel- 
lers, have an interest in directing the trav- 
eller to every comer where an inscription, 
a piece of a column, &c., is to be found. 
But how to avoid tliis, since a cicerone is 
Indispensable ? Two general rules may be 
found serviceable ; not to attend, in Ital}', to 
anv thing but what is peculiar to Italy ; 
collections of minerals, Japan porcelain, 
&c., are to be found in other countries ; 
and, secondly, to prepare one's self for the 
journey, and to know beforehand, in gen- 
eral, what is to be seen. Of course, these 
rules are only for those who do not stay 
for a long time in a place, and have no 
time to make acquaintances for them- 
selves. Three nations, particulariy, have 
furnished descriptions of Italy, the Eng- 
lish, Germans and French. We recollect 
to have seen a very old and curious litdo 
book, a Guide through Italy for Pilgrims. 
The images of the vii^, miraculous 
relics, &C., of course formed the great 
mass of the book ; but antiques, columns, 
&c., had received a Christian^' character, 
and were named after tlie aposdes, &c. 
The works of which we here speak, prop- 
erly begin toward the end of the 17th cen- 
mry, at which time the descriptions of 
Italy assume a more independent charac- 
ter. Since that time, the number has, 
particularly of late, greatiy increased, so 



that this branch of literature, in Germany, 
is almost in disrepute. Among the earlier 
works in English, the most esteemed arc 
those of Burnet, Addison, and the otb- 
ere mentioned below. Gilbert Burnet, 
bishop of Salisbury, travelled, in vol- 
untary exile, through France, Germany, 
Switzerland and Italy, in 1685. His ob- 
servations relate principally to religion 
and politics, on which subjects his views 
are tliose of a zealous Protestant and 
Whiff. His work was succeeded by that 
of Addison — ^Remarks on several Parts of 
Italy (1705), chiefly devoted to antiquity— 
and the less known works of John Breval 
(1726) and Edwanl Wright (1727). The 
journal of the French enugrant Blainville, 
who had become naturalized in Ekigland, 
appeared after his death, and was edited 
by TumbuD and Guthrie m 1742. The 
remarks of these traveUers are chiefly di- 
rected to the classical antiquities of Italy, 
and they therefore have been deagnated 
by the name of classical traveUers. Smol- 
lett's travels treat chiefly of modem Italy 
and the inhabitants, and are full of a mor- 
bid "querulousness. The same is true of 
Sharp's. "Barretfi defended his countiy 
ftom the attacks of Smollett and Sharp, in 
his Account of the Manners and Customs 
of Italy (1767). John Moore's View of 
Society and Manners in Italy is still inter- 
esting, and is rich in characteristic anec- 
dotes. • Patrick Brydone's pictiu'esque de- 
scription of Sicily is too celebrated to be 
passed over in" silence, though it relates 
merely to that island. Amon? the nume- 
rous recent publications on Itdy, few have 
acquired reputation in foreign countries. 
We may mention Forsytii's Remarks ou 
Antiquities, Arts and Manners during an 
Excursion in Italy in 1802--3 (London, 
1813). Eustace's Classical Tour through 
Italy (1802, in 2 vols.,' much enlarged in 
"^ 1817, in 4 vob^ is prejudiced and inaccu- 
"rate. Lady Morgan's Italy betrays the 
novelist. It is not to be reconmiended as 
a guide through Italy. The Florentine 
A. \ Vieusseux, who left his country in 
early youth, and entered the British ser- 
vice, travelled through Italy, and wrote 
Italy and the Italians in the 19th Century 
(London, 1824, 2 vols.). Among the other 
English books of travels in Italy, which 
have appeared within the last ten yeani 
may be mentioned Bell's Observations on 
Italy. Simond's valuable Tour in Italy 
and Sicily appeared In 1828 ; Narrative 
of three Years' Residence in ludy appear- 
cd in London, 1828; Lyman's Political 
State of Italy, Boston, 1820 ; Rem- 
brandt Peale's Notes on Italy, Philadel- 



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TRAVELS IN irALY-^ITHACA. 



139 



phia, 1831 ; J^golow's Tour in Sicily and 
Maim, Boston, 1831. Of the French works 
on this subject, wo may cite first the work of 
Maxiuiilian Misson, a counsellor of purlia- 
iiieot(in 1691 ),mucfa read at tlie time inEng- 
land and Germany. The works of Rogissart 
(1706), of Grodey (Mimatrfs avr Pltalieww 
deux GcnLilshommes Suedoisy 1764), and of 
madame du Boccage (1765), did not pre- 
serve their reputation long. The abbe Ri- 
chard's IkscrwHon de rAalie, &c (1766, 6 
Tols.) was useful, as was also the work of 
Lalande (most complete edidon, 1767), writ- 
ten on the same phm. It is a systematic de- 
scription of a tour, and is the basis of the 
German work of Yolkmann. Dupaty's 
popular LeUres avr rSdUe (1788) are rec- 
ommended by elegance of style and wann 
feeling. Their naatter is not important, 
and anbrds little information to the travel- 
ler. The Corinna of madame de Stael 
does not belong to this branch of literature 
in fbiTO, but it does in substance. It is a 
noUe production througliout, and even 
where the vieivs are erroneous, they are 
nevertheless instructive. The LeUres sur 
PhaUey par A. L. Castellan (Paris, 1819, 
3 Tok^),are entertaining and instructive. 
Germany, which is fertile in every bi*anch 
of literature, is so in descriptions of Italy, 
or travels in Italy. There are some excel- 
lent works in German, treating of the sci- 
entific treasures of Italy ; but this is not die 
place to enumerate them. The Gennan 
descriptions of Italy are often characterized 
either by a minute collection of fiicts, 
without much attention to agreeable ar- . 
rangement, or a romantic exaggeration, 
which arrays alt Italy- in heavenly colors, 
and inhales fiagrance from the very tm- 
mtmdezza. The learned Keyssler, who 
wrote in 1740,complain6ofahost of prede- 
cessors. His yrork (which was augmented 
in 1751 and 1776) was followed by a 
number of translations and rifacciamenti of 
Eng^h and French works, particularly 
the excellent accoimt of Volkmann, al- 
ready mentioned (in 1770 and 1771, with 
addidons by Bemouilli since 1777, 6 vols.). 
A new continuation and correction of this 
work would afibrd a very useful manual 
fi)r trav«llexa Archenhoiz's UaHen (1785, 
augmented in 1787) represents the country 
according to English views. Jagemann 
opposed him in a vindication of Italy 
(DcidsckcsMuseimjVm), To tiiis class of 
works belong Gothe's Fragments on Italy, 
published at the end of the last century, 
and his Journal, published but a few years 
since. Count Leopold von Stolberg 
(1794) wrote a description of his journey. 
Fiederica Brun, K(ittner (1796 and 1801), 



£. M. Amdt, Seume (his Syazier^ang 
nach S^akus is a woHl fitted to sraxify a 
sound mind, and appears to advantage 
among tlie host of sentimental publica- 
tions, though it is by no means a guide), 
Gemiug, Benkowitz and J. H. Eichholz, 
are among the legion of writers on Italv. 
Kotzebuc poured out his satirical s])int, 
also, on this country. P. J. Rehfues has, 
since 1807, published several works on 
Italy. Madame von der Recke's Journal 
was translated into French by Mad. de 
Montolieu, and is a compendious travel- 
ling library, which touches on ahnost eve- 
ry thing important to a traveller. Kepha- 
lides (1818) unites much information with 
animated description. F. H. von der 
Hagen's (1818—1821, 4 vols.) woi^ is 
valuable, particularly for its onservatioos 
on the arts in the middle ages, as attention 
is ffenerally paid only to classical art, and 
to tne modem since the time of Raphael. 
Miiller's Rom, R&mer und Rdmerirmen has 
met with applause as a picmre of manners 
and customs. There exist a number of 
descriptions of parts of Italy, which we 
have not room to enumerate. On Sicily, 
one of die latest works is Voyage en 
SicUefaU m 1820 et 1821, par Augrnte de 
Sayve (Paris, 1825, 3 vokL). Neiffebaur's 
Handbuch/Hr Reisende in Malien (Leipsic, 
1826) contains much information of value 
to travellers. Among the works which 
portray the beauties of Italian nature, one 
of die best is Vws joitloresques de VlUdie, 
by Coignet, drawn after nature and lithog- 
raphized (Paris, 1825). 

iTE, HI8SA EST (Lmn, go— the meeting 
is dissolved) ; a formula bv which, on Joyful 
feasts, the end of the low mass is an- 
nounced to the people, and the assembly 
dismissed. The priest steps into the centre 
of die altar, and smgs these words after the 
Domxnus vobisctmi. After a mass for the 
dead, instead of these words, he sings. Re- 
quiescai in pace, on which the resiionse is, 
Amen, In Lent, Advent and the ("ays of 
penitence, he says, Benedicamua Dwminot 
to which the response is Deo gratias. The 
word mass is derived from missa est, 

Ithaca (jaa«i;), or, as it is called by the 
modems, Tkiaki; one of the seven Ionian 
isJands (q. v.) lying in the gulf of Patras ; 
Ion. 21« V E.,lat. 38*» 3^N.; 18 miles 
long, and not over 5 broad ; population, 
80(X). The wliole island is mgged and 
uneven. Ithaca is celebrated as the island 
of Ulysses, and is minutely described by 
Homer in the Odyssey. Of the places 
mentioned by Homer, many can be traced 
with great appearance of probability. 
The ZofaKOi ittTfa (Od. xiii. 403) Is still 



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140 



ITHACA— rrURBIDE. 



called Caraco-petra. The ruins of Cyclo- 
pean walls are described as similar to 
those of Argos, Tiryns and Mycenae. 
The spring of Ithaciis and the walls of 
llie city, as well as the Acropolis, can also 
be traced. A sculptured rock, called Ho- 
mer's school, somewhat resembles that 
which beara the same name in Scio (Chi- 
os). Pateras, vases, bracelets, chains, 
fitrigils, mirronB, lamps, coins, &c., have 
been dug up in an ancient burying-ground 
, here. 

Ithaca, a larse and flourishing village 
of the state of New York, is beautifully 
situated about a mile and a half soutli of 
the head of the Cayuga lake, being 170 
miles west of Albany ; population about 
4500. It has an academy, including a 
lyceum, a bank, a court-house and jai^ a 
market- house, a Lancasterian school- 
house, and four houses of public worship. 
The Clinton house is a larffe and elegant 
house of entertainment Tliere are three 
printing-offices, from which issue three 
weekly papers. The sceneiy around the 
village is romantic and pleasing. |The 
hills about three miles from the vulage are 
from 300 to 500 feet high. Ithaca has 
^ve durable mill streams. Fall creek, the 
largest, descends, widiin one mile of the 
village, 438 feet, over several stupendous 
cataracts, and, winding ^ross the plain, 
enters the head of the Cayuga lake. The 
view of the last fall into the valley, is 
striking and grand. The whole sheet of 
water is precipitated over the rock 116 
feet, and the banks above are 100 feet 
^ higher than the rock. The Cayuga inlet, 
' passing tlii-ough the village to the lake, is 
navigable for Doats of 40 or 50 tons. The 
navigation is perfectly good through the 
lake, Seneca and Cayuga canal, to the 
Erie canal. There are, already, manu- 
factories of cotton and wool, flour, paper 
and oil, iron founderies, &c., althougn but 
a few of tlie many valuable mill sites are 
occupied. 

Iturbide, Augustin, was bom at Val- 
ladolid de Mechoacan, in New Spain, in 
1784. Being of a family of some consid- 
eration in his countiy, he received a very 
careful education. Until 1810, he held no 
higher rank than that of a lieutenant in 
the provincial regiment of his native city. 
At this period, when the troubles in Mex- 
ico broke out, he entered into active ser- 
vice against the patriots, and was engaged 
in various contests with bodies of his in- 
surgent countrymen. Bonie along by 
circumstances in the career of arms, he 
had risen, in 1816, by his valor and ca- 
^^acity, to the command of what was call- 



ed the noriham army, which occupied tlie 
provinces of Guanaxuato and Valladolid. 
About this time, he was suspected and ac- 
cused of want of fidelity to their cause, 
by some of the royalists, but was acquit- 
ted of the imputation by the viceroys Cal- 
leja and Apodaca. But the disgust which 
he felt in consequence of this charge, led 
him to retire for a while from active ser- 
vice. In 1820, we find Iturbide again in 
the field, under cireuinstances which gave 
him unexpected importance. At that pe- 
riod, the imprudent acts of the Spanish 
cortes produced so much exasperation 
among the clergy and the partisans of ab- 
solutism in Mexico, that these persons 
united to eflect the independence of the 
country. They selected Iturbide as their 
agent, knowing his zealous agencv in 
putting down the revolutionists and re- 
publicans of past years, and wholly un- 
conscious of the views of personal a^nnn- 
dizement which he entertained. BeiDg 
furnished with some money by them, he 
set out for the south ; and, having seized a 
convoy of sjiecie on his route, he soon 
formed a junction with Guerrero, one of 
the patriot chiefs. Meanwhile emissaries 
had been despatched in all directions to 
prepare the people, who were accordingly 
ripe for revolution. At length the army 
reached Iguala, where (Feb. 24, 1821) 
Iturbide proposed the jfian which bears 
the name of that place ; — the great objects 
of this instrument being the independence 
of Mexico, the protection of religion, and 
the union of the Spaniards and Mex- 
icans. At the same time, an ofler of the 
crown was made to Ferdinand VII, or to 
any other member of the royal fiunily oi 
Spain. On the strength of this plan, 
Iturbide continued his march to Quereta- 
ro, and was soon joined by Guadalupe 
Victoria, the most devoted of the friends 
of liberty. Meantime the viceroy O'Don- 
oju arrived from Europe, and, finding the 
whole countxy virtually with Iturbide, 
dgned a treaty at Cordova (August 24, 
1&] \ acceding to the provisions of the 
plan of Iguala. The road to power was 
now entirely open before Iturbide. He 
took possession of the capital in the name 
of the nation, and established a regency, 
consisting of members nominated by him- 
self, and wholly under his control. The 
republican party soon saw the object of 
his movements. A congress had been 
assembled, which made various attempts 
to counteract his designs by diminishing 
his power, and at last brought the matter 
to an open rupture and a cnsia Iturbide, 
seeing no other way to preserve his au- 



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rruRBiDK. 



141 



dKRity, resolved to usurp the crowa, 
dnxNigh the subeerviency of his troops. 
Accofdiogly, May 18, 1822, the garrison 
and a port of the populace of Mexico 
roee aiui proclaimed Itufbide emperor, 
under the name of Augusdn I. The next 
moming, ooDgiess was conveued in extra- 
oidioary sessioOyin the midst of the accla- 
maiioDS of the multitude, whose cries 
ofien drowned the voices of the deputies. 
The agents of Ituifoide obtained a decree 
requiring his presence ; and he appeared, 
accooapenied by a number of military offi- 
cers^ having been drawn through the 
sitreecs by t^ rabUe. His election to the 
imperial dignity was proposed and dis- 
cussed in his presence, and was voted fin- 
by 77 deputies, out of 94 who had assem- 
bled, being about one half the whole body 
of delegates. He returned to the palace 
as be came, in a coach drawn by the 
people. Shortly afterwards, the congress 
decided that the crown should be hered- 
itsiy in the fiunily of Iturbide, gave to bis 
sons and his famer the title of jBrmcet, 
fixed upon him a joarlv allowance of a 
million and a half of doBasB, and estab- 
lished an order of knighthood cidled the 
onfer of Chiadabipef thus completing, in 
eveiy thing, the accessories or the new 
monarchy. All these arrangements were 
voted widi a degree of unanimity which 
deariy proved the absence of liberty ; and 
the provinces yielded a blind submission 
to wiiat was decreed in the capital The 
friends of liberal institutions, overawed 
and held at bay by the power of the usuip- 
er, fled to their wonted retreats, or tem- 
porized until a fitting season should arrive 
tor actinff vrith union and efiiciency. But 
tbey couM not, and did not, acquiesce in a 
state of things so adverse to their feelings. 
Itubide was driven by his necessities to 
hasten afifairs to a crisis. In October, 
1822, he seized and confiscated, without 
legal process, a convoy of $1,200,000, on 
the way firom Mexico to Havana. In the 
month of August preceding, he had caus- 
ed several of the members of congress to 
be arrested, regardless of their privilege 
of personal inviolability. Finally (OcL 
30, 1822), he ordered tlie dissolution of 
congress, causing the hall to be shut, of 
his own authority, and, on die same day, 
organized a junta to take the place of the 
legisbtive body, and nominated all the 
members himself. To supply the e»- 
gencies of the government, recourse was 
men had to forc^ loans, which served die 
more to exasperate the minds of the peo- 
ide, already disgusted with the successive 
usurpations of Iturbide. Circumstances^ 



however, foreign to his acts of general 
opproBBion, brought on the catastrophe. 
At this time, the Spaniards retoiaed pos- 
sesion of the castle of San Joan de iflua, 
which coRunanded the port of Vera Cruz. 
The emperor bad left the city of Mexico, 
and advanced as far as Jalapa, intending, 
if possible, to obtain an interview wim 
the ^vemor of the casUe. Disputes had 
previously arisen between general Santa 
Aua, governor of Vera Cruz, and general 
Echavarri, who commanded the soutluan 
division of the Mexican army ; and Sants 
Alia was summoned to Jalapa by the em- 
peror, to answer to the charges of £ch»- 
varri. Santa Ana counted much upon the 
services which he had tendered Iturbide^ 
and on his own populari^ ; but, to his 
great surprise, he was treated harshly, and 
dismisBed from ius command at Vera Cruz. 
Hastening back to the garrism, before the 
nevrs of his disgrace could reach them, be 
excited them to revdt, for the puiposs of 
dethroning Iturbide,and establishing a le- 
publican government He foond the 
troops ripe for his purpose, and loot na 
time in advancing to Puente del Rey, 
where several skirmishes took phce bo- 
tween the repuUicans and the imperial- 
ists under Echavani. At length Victoria 
made bis appearance, and was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the insurgents; 
and, in Febnianr, 1823, Ek^avarri and 
his army joined forces vrith Victoria 
and Santa Ana, by the convention of 
Casa Mats. Defection now becamo 
geneni among the oflScen of tbe mnaWp 
and in all the provinces, so that Itinbida 
saw plainly that fais causo was hopelesH^ 
and hastily assembled at Mexico the dis- 
persed membera of congress, and tendered 
to them his abdication of the crown. 
This happened March 90, 1823. Con- 
gress very generously agreed togrant 
Iturbide a yearly pension of $35,000, on 
condition of his leaving the Mexican ter- 
ritory for ever, and residing somewhere in 
Italy, making suitable proviaon for his 
fiimily in case of his death. He proceed- 
ed to the coast, under escort ot graeral 
Bravo, and embarked May 11, lS3» for 
Leghorn. He mi^^t have continued to 
live happily in one of the charming villas 
of Tuscany, had he not been impeiled by 
an insane ambition to attempt the recov- 
ery of his lost empire. With this object, 
' he left Italy for England, and embarked 
for Mexico May 11, 1824, precisely a year 
ofler his departure from it, and amved 
iu sight of the port of Soto la Marina 
July 14. During the year that had elaps- 
ed, the Mexicans had adopted a republi 

Digitized by ^UO^ Ikl 



143 



ITURBIDE— IVORY. 



can constitution, and Iturbide had no par- 
ty nor fiiends in the nation. The govern- 
ment had been apprised of his leaving 
Italy, and 8u«)ected his design. A decree 
was passed, bearing date April 28, 1824, 
declaring him to be proscribed as a traitor, 
and requiring that, in case he landed in 
the country, the mere fact should render 
him a public enemy. Wholly deceived 
in regard to the fat6 which awaited him, 
Iturbide landed at Soto la Marina, accom- 
panied only by his secretary, a Pole, named 
Beneski, and was almost immediately ar- 
rested by order of D. Felipe de la Garza, 
the commandant-general of the state of 
Tamaulipas, in \raich Soto la Marina is 
situated. La Garza lost no time in con- 
ducting his prisoner to Padilla, the provin- 
cial capital, and demanding instruction 
how to act, of the piovincid legislature. 
He was instructed to put in execution, 
forthwith, the decree of conffress, of April 
28th, by causing Iturbide to he shot, — ap- 
prehensions bemg entertained lest any 
delay in the enforcement of the decree 
should be the cause of some troublesome, 
although of necessity abortive, move- 
ment, on the part of the people. This 
took place Juhr 18th ; and, on the 19th, 
La Grarza notified Iturbide to prepare for 
death on the same day. Iturbide in vain 
solicited for a reprieve until the general 
government could be informed of his sit- 
uation, and have opportunity to decide 
upon his case. This, of course. La Garza 
denied him; and at six o'clock in the 
aAemoon, after having confessed himself, 
he was conducted to the place of execu- 
tion, where 60 or 70 soldiers stood in their 
ranks, under command of La Garza. 
Iturbide then made a short address to the 
assembled people, protesting his innocence 
of any treasoname purpose, exhorting them 
to observe the duties of patriotism, religion 
and civil subordination, and declaring that 
he pardoned his enemies. He was shot 
dead at the first fire ; and his body was 
interred as decendy as the means of the 
small town pennitted. While this was 
passing at Padilla, the wife of Iturbide 
and two of his children, who had accom- 
panied him from England, had landed at 
Soto la Marina. They brought with them 
a large quantity of proclamations, circu- 
lars and other jtapers, intended to aid the 
design of the ex-emperor, together with 
his imperial mantie and other insignia. 
So soon as the captain of the brig in 
which they came learnt the fate of Itur- 
bide, he cut his cables and stood out to 
sea, leaving the widow and children of 
Iturbide totally destitute of every neces- 



saiy, and at the mercy of the very men 
who had just ordered the execution of her 
husband. But the feelings of the Mexi- 
can government were just and libera). 
They continued to the widow the pension 
promised the family of Iturbide at the 
time of his abdication, annexing only the 
condition that she should live either in 
Colombia or the United States, in which 
latter country she has ever since resided. 
Such was the end of a man, estimable iu 
his private character, and not without tal- 
ents, who, if his fortune had led him to 
use his influence in the establishment of a 
free government, miffht have continued 
long at the head of aflairs, and finally 
have departed from tife respected and 
honored as a patriot, instead of prema- 
turely suffering the ignominious death 
of a malefactor. (PampMeteer,'So,56\ An- 
nates BiograpMqms pour 1826 ; Poinsett's 
Mexico,) 

Ituzainoo ; the scene of a celebrated 
victory gained by the troops of Buenos 
Ayres, under Alvear, over the Brazilians. 
In the campaiffn of 1827, the republicans 
pushed their rorces into the province of 
Rio Grande, and encountered the enennr 
on the field of Ituzainso, Feb. 20, 1827. 
The battie was obstinately disputed for six 
hours, but was gained at length by the re- 
iterated and furious chaises of the cav- 
alry of the Banda Oriental The Bra- 
zilians lost marshal Abreu, ten pieces of 
artillery, all their munitions of if^ar and 
l^^Bg^) ^^^ about 2000 men. {Ann. 
RtffisUr.) 

Itts, son of Tereus and Procne. (See 
PhUomde,) 

I VIC A, IvizA, or Ibiza {ESlnuu»)\ an island 
of the Mediterranean, belonging to Spain, 
and the principal of the group called the 
PUhyusfB, Its extent is 190 square miles ; 
its population, 21,094. The soil is fertile, 
producing com, wine, oil, fruit, flax, and 
hemp, witii littie labor. About 15,000 
tons of salt are annually obtained by 
evaporation ; and it forms, with fish and 
wood, the chief article of export 52 
miles from Majorca. — ^The capital is of 
the same name, and has a good harbor. 
Population, 2700. 

IvoRT ; the substance of the tusk of the 
elephanL Ivory is esteemed for its beau- 
tiful cream color, the fineness of its grain, 
and the high polish it is capable of re- 
ceiving. That of India is apt to lose its 
color, and turn yellow ; but the ivory of 
Achem and Ceylon is not chargeable with 
this defect Ivory is used as a material for 
toys, and as panels for miniature-paint- 
ings. To prepare it for the latter puipose. 

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IVORY—IWAN. 



14B 



it k to be washed with the juice of garlic, 
or some other abeorbent compoeitioo, to 
remove its oily particles. The shavings 
of ivory may be reduced into a jelly, of a 
nature similar to that of hartshorn ; or, by 
bttmin^ in a crucible, they may be con- 
verted mte a black powder, which is used 
in painting, under the name of ivory-black. 
Ivoiy may be stained or dyed : a black 
6ok>r is eiven it by a solution of brass and 
a decoction of logwood ; a green one, by 
a solution of verdigris ; and a red, by 
being boiled with Brazil-wood, in lime- 
water. The use of ivory was well known 
in veiy early ages. We find it employed 
ibr arms, ^rdka, sceptres, harnesses of 
horses, sword-hilts, &c. The ancients 
were also acquainted with the art of 
sculpturing in ivory, of dyeing and en- 
crusting iL Homer refers to the extreme 
whit^ieas of ivory. The coffer of Cyp- 
seluB was doubtless the most ancient 
monument of this kind in basso-relievo, 
and we meet with similar instances in the 
temple of Juno at Olvmpius, in the time 
of rausanias ; that is to say, 700 years 
after it had been built The ancients had 
numerous statues of ivory, particularly in 
the temples of Jupiter and of Juno, at 
Olympius. In these statues, there was 
veiy nequently a mixture of gold. The 
most celebrated are stated to have been 
the Olympian Jupiter and the Minerva of 
Phidias : the former was covered ^th a 
ffolden drapeiy, and seated on a throne 
H>rmed of gold, of ivory and cedar wood, 
and enriched with precious stones. In 
his hand the god held a figure of Victory, 
also of ivory and gold. The Minerva was 
erected in tlie Parthenon at Athens dur- 
ing the first year of the 87th Olympiad — 
the year which commenced the Pelopon- 
nesian war. Pausanias likewise makes 
mention of an ivory statue of Juno on 
her throne, of remarkable magnificence, 
by Polycletes, together with numerous 
others. 

IvoRT Coast ; part of the coast of 
Guinea, between cape ApoUonia and cape 
Palmas. (See Guinecu) 

IvT [hedera hdix) ; a shrubby vme, cel- 
ebrated ixom remote antiquity, and held 
sacred in sonae countries, as in Greece 
and Egypt The leaves are smooth and 
shining, varying much in form, fit>m oval 
entire to three or five lobed ; and their 
perpetual verdure gives the plant a very 
beautifiil appearance. The flowers are 
greeniirii and inconspicuous, disposed in 
dobose umbels, and are succeeded bv 
oeep green or almost blackish berries. It 
ascends to the summits of the tallest U'ees, 



having a stem sometiines tluee inches in 
diameter, and also clin^ to the rides of 
old walls, rocks, &c. It is found through- 
out almost the whole of Europe, and in 
many parts of Aria and Afiica. 

IwAN, or Ivan ; the name of several 
persons distinguished in Russian history. 
The most celebrated are Ivan Warilie- 
witsch and Ivan II, who laid the fbunda- 
tion of the Russian empire. (See Rusdcu) 
Ivan V (or II), Alexejewitsch, who inherit- 
ed the crown during his minority, was 
half brother of Peter I, but, on account 
of his mental imbecility, took no part in 
the government Ivan VI (or III) was 
grand-nephew of the former, and son of 
the grand-princess Anna and of Antony 
Ulrich, duke of Brunswick- WolfenbfitteL 
The empress Anna (q. v^ took him, in 
1740, out of the hands of her niece, de^ 
clared him her son, and jeave him an apart- 
ment near her own. She soon after de- 
clared the child her successor, and her ft- 
vorite Biron was to be his guardian and 
regent Biron caused the oath of allegi- 
ance to be taken to the prince, and, when 
he was banished, the parents of the child 
assumed the reins of government, until 
the daughter of Peter I, Elizabeth (q. v.), 
ascended the throne. The young Ivan 
was taken fix>m his cradle by soldiers, and 
shared the fiite of his banished and im- 
prisoned parents. He was at first im- 
prisoned at Ivangorod, near Narva, it be- 
mg intended to keep him always in Rus- 
ria ; but his parents, who were confined at 
first in Riga, were to be sent to Germany. 
He never saw them again, but always re- 
mained a prisoner in dlfierent places, par- 
ticularly in Western Prussia. In 1756, 
he was carried to the fortress of Schliis- 
selburg. In 1763, Mirowitch, a nobleman 
of the Ukraine, who was lieutenant in the 
garrison of the above fortress, conceived 
the design of delivering the prince. He 
induced several soldiera to assist hiin, and, 
by means of a forged order fix>m Catha- 
rine, he attempted to obtain admisrion to 
Ivan ; but two officers, who guarded him, 
when they saw that resistance was firuit- 
less, stabbed the unfortunate prisoner, ui 
consequence of an order formerly given 
by the empress Catharine, that he should 
be put to death in case of an attempt to 
dehver him by fbree. She had already 
destroyed every proof of the claims of 
the prince to me throne, and prohibited, 
wider penalty of death, the keeping of 
coins which could remind the nation of 
him. The chapel in Schlfisselburg, in 
which he was buried, was afterwards de- 
stroyed. 



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Google 



144 



DQON-J. 



Ixi«uf ; ft king c^ TbeflBaly^ mm of 
PUegyw, or of Leontea, or, according to 
Diodorira^ of Antion by Pefimelay daoffh- 
ter of AmytbaotL He married Dis, 
daughter of DeioDeos, and promiaed hia 
ftther-in-bw a valoable present for the 
choice he had made tti falm to be his 
daughter's husband. His unwiliingnesB 
to fulfil his promiaes, obliged Dei<Mieas lo 
have recouEse to violence, and he stole 
away some of Ldon'b hoises. Jzion coo- ' 
cealed his leaentment, invited his Either- 
in-law to a feast at Larissa, the ci^ntal of 
his kingdom, and, when Deioneus vras 
cotne according to the appointment, he 
threw him into a pit, which he had previ- 
ously filled with wood and baming coala 
This treadiery so irritated the ne^hboring 
princes, that all of them refiised to per- 
Krm the usual ceremony, by which a man 
was then purified of murder, and Ixion 
was shunned by all mankind. Jupiter 
had compassicMD upon him, and phiced him 
at the table of the goda Ixion became 
enamored ni Juno, and attempted to se- 
duce her. Juno was vriUing to giatily the 
paaeion of Ixion, or, according to some, 
she informed Jupiter of the attenaqpts 
which had been made upon her vktue. 
Jupiter made a cloud in the shape of Ju- 
no, and carried it to the place where Ix- 
ion had amiojnted to meet Juno. Ixion 
was caugm in the snare, and finom his 
embrace witfi the cloud, he had the Cen- 
taurs. (See CemUmn,) Jiroiter banished 
him firom heaven ; but when he heard 
that he had the rashneas to boast that he 
had sedyeed Juno, the god struck him 



with his thunder, and ordered Mercury to 
tie him to a wheel in hell^ which continu- 
ally whirls round. The wheel was per- 
petually in motion ; therefore the puzHsh- 
inent of Ixion was etemaL 

Ithx ; daughter of Pan and Echo, or 
ofPeitho (the Suada of the Romans). She 
inveigled Jupiter into his intrigue with 
lo. As a punishment, Juno changed her 
into a bird, called the tory-iteek (fynx tor- 
qtdUa), which still possessed the power of 
exciting love. When it became desirable 
that Medea shoukl be enamored of Jason, 
Venus gave the hero the mi^^ iynx, md 
instructed him how to use it m order to 
inspire Medea vrith a passion for him. 
From this time, the iynx became a pavt 
of the love-speUe among the Greeks. The 
enchantress tied the bird to a fbur-spoked 
wheel, which she turned while she mut- 
tered her incantations ; or, acc<mling to 
some tradidonB, she only stretched upon 
the wheel the entrails of the wry-neck. 
Another method was, to consume the bird 
over the coals, on a wheel of wbx. <rhe 
magic wheel was also called ^hk, because 
the inrd or its entrails were extended up(»i 
it. It is sometimes used as a symlx^ of 
the art of exciting love in general, and 
more particularty of ^unchaste love. In. 
the sequel, the signification of the word 
^fir became difierent ; and it was ex- 
tended to every charm in poetry and mu- 
sic, in this sense, the iynx went under 
the name of the nightingale ; and it ia 
thus represented on the monument of 
Sophoefes, and in the temple of the 
Pythian ApoUo. 



J. 



•J ; the tenth letter, and seventh conso- 
nant, of the Engfish alj^ab^ The char- 
acter j designates ve^ difierent sounds 
in die dififerent langiiages. In EngEsb, 
according to Mr. Webster, it represents 
the sound tkk or edzk. It has, in fact, the 
same sound oa gin GUea. In French, it 
ia ahrays sounded hke the French g be- 
fore e and i. In Geraian, it hasthesound 
ef the English y in ym. In Italian, it is 
diways a vowd (tong t\ and the character 
j is now little used fy UaUan printers, ex- 
eeptattheendof wor^fortc In Span- 
ish, it is guttural, a little sofUr dian the 



German ck in acL How nearly the sounds 
which are expressed bjr J are related, has 
been shown m the article G ; and, in the 
article J^ it is mentioned^ that i before 
another vowel naturally becomes the 
German j. (For other observatk>n8^ also 
relating to j, see the article /.) Tfaou^i 
the cliaracter J is very ancient, it is only m 
recent times that it has been taken for a 
consonant, and still more recent is its sep- 
aration from t in dictionaries. In France, 
the use of ^ for the cimsonant, and % for 
the vowel, was not established in the mid- 
dle of the 17th century. Among otl^er 

Digitized by ^UO^ VC 



J-JACK. 



14S 



die mixture continued later. 
James Pelletier, of Mans, is said to have 
6nt i^aoed t&e j at the beginning of 
wonfe which bean with this consonant, 
in his French Grammar (1550). GiJle 
Bej-B, printer in Paris, imitated him in 
1584. In regard to the separation of 
words beginning with the two letters, in 
dictionanee, the editors of the French 
Gnauk Enofdapidit^ printed in 1765, did 
not dare to make it ; and English diction- 
ariee^ even at the present day, are too of- 
.en cfisfigured by the mixing together of / 
and /, as weU as (7 and V. The Enofdo- 
pSdie Modamt calls j a leSJtrt pnpr^nerU 
Ihtnfoise. The other nations adopted it 
fixun the French. The Romans, in inscrip- 
tions and legends of medal8,wrote all words 
which we write with a^', as Jtyiter^ Jm- 
iamsy with an t, as Aipiier, lushnua. Yet 
the character t existed several centuries 
Ijefore the €m of the Roman republic. , 
Tlie Greeks had it not. 

Jablonskt; the name of several learn- 
ed ttermans. — Daniel Emul was bom at 
Dantzic, in 1660 ; became a minister in 
Ma^efauiv ; in 1686, rector of the gym- 
nasium at Lissa ; in 1690, pastor in K6- 
njgsberg, and went afterwards to Berlin, 
where he died, in 1743, being then bishop 
or senior of the Bohemian Brethren in 
Prussia (Proper) and Great Poland. He 
endeavored to unite the Lutherans and 
Calvinists. Through queen Anne o^ Eng- 
land, he received the dignity of doctor of 
divinity, from the universi^ of Oxford. 
He published a number of sermons and 
several learned works on theology ; amonj^ 
which are his BMia Htbraica cum Mita 
Htbr. (Berlin, 1699) ; Jura tt LAtHates 
DUsidentium in Polonia ; Oppressorum in 
PoUmia Evangd. Desideria. — ^His brother, 
John Theodore, was likewise an author. — 
Paul Emafj son of John, bom at Ber- 
{Jn, 1698, was appointed professor of the-' 
ology and preacher at Frankfort on the 
Oder, where he died, 1757. He wrote 
many works : Disguisitio de lAngua Zmco- 
onica (Berlin, 1714, 2d edit., 1724) ; Erer- 
cikdio de JSTeitorianismo (ib., 1724] ; Rem- 
phah JEfrypUorum Deiuab IsraelUiB in De- 
serto ctdlus (Frankfort, 1731) ; Diaserta- 
tionea VlUde Terra Gosm (ib., 1715, 1736, 
4to.) ; Pantheon j^guptiorum sive de Diis 
eorum Commentarius (3 vols., ib., 1750 — 52); 
De Memnone Grcecorwn et Mgypfiorum (ib., 
1753, 4to., with engravings) ; Opuaculaed. 
J a ^aier(4 vols., Leyden, 1804 to 1813). 
—CharUa (hutavua; a naturalist, bora 
1756, and died at Berlin, 1787, while sec- 
retary to the queen of Prussia ; particu- 
larly known by the work commenced by 

VOL. VII. 13 



him — ^Natural System of all known na- 
tive and fbrefgn Insects, as a Continua- 
tion of Bufibn's Natural History — of 
which, however, he executed only voL 1, 
the Beetles (Berlin, 1783), and vols. 1 and 
2, the Butterflies (ib., 1783 and 17841 It 
was continued and finished by T. F. W. 
HerbsL 

Jacamar {gaOfulaj Brisson). These 
brilliant birds are nearly connected with 
the kinj^fishers, from which, however, 
they diTOr by the form of their beak and 
feet Their nluma^ has a metallic lustre, 
which it is almost impossible to imitate by 
art. They live in dan^ woods, and-&ed 
on insects. Most if not all the true jaca- 
mare, are nadves of tropical America. 
There are several species found in India, 
having a shorter and stouter beak, to 
which Le Vaillaut has given the generic 
name o€ jacamerops. 

Jack. Mr. Tyrwhitt, io his note upon 
V. 14,816 of Chaucer, says, *<Iknow not 
how it has happened that, in the principal 
modem languages, John^ or its equiva- 
lent, is a name of contempt, or at least of 
slight. So the Italians use Gianni, firom 
whence zani; the Spaniards, Juan, as 
bobo Juan, or fooUsh* John; the French, 
Jean, with various additions; and in 
English, when we call a man a John, we 
do not mean it as a title of honor. Chau- 
cer, in V. 3708, uses Jack^ool as the Span- 
iards do hobo Juan, and I suppose Jaekaas 
has the same etymology." To this we 
will add, that the Germans use jETan^, their 
nickname of John, for the same purpose ; 
as, Hani narr, Jack-fi)ol; dummer Hans, 
stupid Jack, &c. Pennant also, in his 
Zoology (iii. 342), remarks, ''It is very 
singular that most nations give the name 
of theu- &vorite dish to the fiicetious 
attendant on mountebanks. Thus the 
Dutch call him Pickle Kcrrins ; the Ital- 
ians, Macaroni; the French, Jeanpotagt; 
the Germans, Hans umrst, L e. Jaeksau- 
sage ; and the English give him the title 
of^ Jack-pvdding.—The name of Jack 
Ketch seems to have become permanently 
generic for the common hangman.^ — ^Tho 
names of the bootjack and roasting Jack 
are derived by Watts, in his Logic, from 
the circumstance that boys (who of coarse 
oflen had the common name Jack) were 
formerly employed to pull off boots and to 
turn -spits; and when instruments were ^ 
invented for these purposes, the common 
name of the boys was pven them in sport. 
— ^The common roasting jack consLsts of 
a double set of wheeli^ a barrel, round 
which the rope ftstened to the pul- 
leys is wound, a perpetual screw, and a 

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146 



JACK— JACKDAW, 



flv. Occasionally there is added a multi- 
plying wheel, round which the rope is 
first wound, before it paases upon the 
oarreL As this wheel is considerably 
larger than the barrel, the jack is proper- 
tionably longer in running down. — Phe 
fmo&e lodt is moved by a fan placed hori- 
BontaUy in the chimney, and, beinff car- 
ried about perpetually, by the draught of 
the fire, requires no machinery for wind- 
ing it up. Spiral flyers, coiling about a 
vertical axle, are sometimes used, and 
occasionally a vertical wheel, with sails 
like the float-boards of a milL — Jack is 
also used for a coat of mail, and likewise 
for the garment worn over iL — Jcbck boots 
are large boots to cover and protect the 
legs. — Jack is also used for a horse or 
wooden frame to saw timber upon ; for a 
great leathern pitcher, in which drink was 
formerly put, for the small bowl that 
serves as a mark at the exercise of bowl- 
ing; and for a young pike. — Jack^ in sea 
knguage, is a sort of flag displayed fix>m a 
mast erected at the outer end of a ship'b 
bowsprit. 

Jackal UanU aureus^ Lin.). There is 
no essential difference between the dog 
and the jackal, as they will breed together, 
producing prolific oflipring. This spe- 
cies of quadrupeds is very widely ex- 
tender! throughout the warmer renons 
of the old world. It is found in Amca, 
from Barbary to the cape of Good Hope ; 
in Syria, in Persia, and throughout all 
southern Asia. It is about two feet and a 
half in lenffth, and about 14 inches in 
height; the length of the tail, about eight 
inches ; the eyes are small ; the tail bushy ; 
the head, neck, sides of the belly, thighs, 
and outer part of the limbs and ears, of a 
dirty yellow; underneath and on the sides 
of the lower jaw, the end of the upper lip, 
under the neck and beUy, and the inner 
surfiice of the limbs, somewhat white ; the 
back and sides of the body, to the tail, of a 
ffray-yellow, which is ahruptly divided 
from the surroundmg lighter colors ; the 
tail, a mixture of yellow and black hair, 
the black prevailing at the extremity ; the 
muzzle and najls black. All travellers 
who have been in the countries where the 
jackals are ft>und, mention the ravages 
they conunit, and their dreadful nocturnal 
cries, which, answered as they are by all 
their companions, produce the most ap- 
palling effects. Their voice has often 
been described as more terrific than the 
howl of the hyaena or the roar of the 
tiffer, and deprives of repose all hearers 
iWio have not been long accustomed to it 
The jackal can be tamed with tolerable 



facility, but always preserves an extreme 
timidity, which he manifests by concealing 
himself on hearing the slightest unusucd 
sound, or at the sight of a person whom 
he is unaccustomed to. This fear is dif- 
ferent from that of most wild animals, and 
he closely resembles a d^ in fear of chas- 
tisement, for he wiU ofi^r no resistance 
when he is touched. The most celebrated 
commentators on the Bible consider that 
the 300 annuals, to whose tails Samson 
tied firebrands, were jackals. This opin- 
ion is grounded on the great number of 
these animals found in Svria, and on their 
assembling in larse pocks; whereas the 
fox is comparatively scarce, and is always 
solitarv. The jackal has been populariy 
termed the liov?8 provider^ from an opinion 
that it rouses the prey for that quadruped. 
The feet appeals to be, that every creature 
in the forest is set in motion by the fearful 
cries of the jackals ; the lion and other 
beasts of prey, by a sort of instinct and the 
call of appetite, attend the chase, and 
seize such unud animals as betake them- 
selves to flight at the noise of this nightly 
pack. Bunon gives the following charac- 
ter of the jackal: "It unites the impu- 
dence of the dog with the cowardice of 
the wolf, and, participating in the nature 
of each, is an odious creature, composed 
of all the bad qualities of both." 

Jackdaw (corvus monedula, Lin.). This 
bird ii one of the crow kind, and has been 
celebrated for his copious vocabulary and 
ffamilous habits. It is alwut 13 inches in 
length, with black hill; white eyes; the 
hinder part of the head and neck of a 
hoaiy-gray color ; the rest of the plumage, 
of a nch glossy black above; beneaStb, 
dusky ; the legs aro black. The jackdaw 
is very common in England, where it 
remains the whole year ; in France, and 
various other parts of the continent of 
Europe, it is migratory. It is ^pnegarious, 
frequenting old towers and rums, whero 
it builds its nests. The female lays i&ve 
or six eges, of a greenish color, and is 
exceedingly assiduous in her attention to 
the young after they are hatched. These 
birds principally live on worms and the 
larvflB of insects, but they also appear to be 
capable of taking fish. Bingtey states 
that he was wimess to an instance where 
a jackdaw was veiy successful in this 
mode of obtaining feod. It is easily 
tamed, and may be taught to pronounce 
many words with littie difiicmty. The 
jackdaws are notorious thieves, not only 
stealing food, but appearing to he particu- 
larly fond of shining substances, as money, 
&C., and have frequentiy occasioned su»- 



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JACKDAW-JACOB. 



147 



picioiifl of theft in persoDS who were after- 
wards proved innocent. So far do they 
cany this propensity, that they have been 
known to carry on spectacles irom per- 
sons who were reading. 

Jackson; the name of numerous coun- 
ties and towns in the U. States. The 
Jacksons, JacksonviUes, Jacksontowns, 
Ja^Bonborougbs, &c^ are chiefly in the 
Western States, and have mostly received 
their names since general Jackson's suc- 
cessful defence of New Orieans. 

Jackson, William, a n^usical composer, 
was bom in 1730, at Exeter, and received 
the rudiments of a clasfflcal education, 
with a view to his following one of the 
Dberal profesraons. His taste for music 
displayed itself, however, so decidedly 
while he was yet a youth, that his friends 
were induced to place him under Travers, 
the organist of the cathedral belonging to 
his native city. Having passed two years 
in the metropolis, where he availed him- 
self of the instructions of some of the best 
musicians of his day, he returned to Exe- 
ter in 1750, and, succeeding eventually to 
the otuation of organist, there passed the 
remainder of his ufe. In 1782, he pub- 
li^ed two octavo volumes, containing 
Thirty Letters on various Subjects, which 
went through three cflitions. He also 
printed, in 1701, some Observations on the 
present State of Music in London. His 
musical compositions are sdll justly popu- 
lar, and are distinguished by chasteness 
of conception, ingenuity, and truth of ex- 
{Mission. He di^ in 1804. 

Jackson, HaU, an eminent physician, 
and the son of an eminent physician of 
Portsmouth, N. H., doctor Clement Jack- 
son, was bom in that town alx>ut the year 
1740. He went to London to complete 
his medical studies, and was there honor- 
ably noticed by the faculty for an ingeni- 
ous invention, by which a ball was ex- 
tracted from a gun-shot wound, that had 
baffled the skill of all the surgeons. Afler 
his return to his native place, he speedily 
acquired distinction, particularly as a sur- 
geon. He was the first who attempted, 
in tiiat part of the country, the operation, 
of couching the eye, in which he was uni- 
formly successful. As an accoucheur, 
also, he was in great repute. It is said 
that he was the first surgeon of this coun- 
try who introduced the method of healing 
wounds by the first intention, and that the 
idea was entirely original with him, al- 
though it may previously have been acted 
upon in Europe. The merit, Ukewise, of 
having introduced the use and cultivation 
of foxglove into New England, is ascribed 



to him. He died Sept. 28, 1797. He 
published a small tract containing obser- 
vations on the putrid malignant sore 
throat, which prevailed in New Hamp- 
shire fivm 1784 to 178a 

Jackson, James, an officer in the Amer- 
ican revolutionary army, was bom at 
Moreton-Hampstead, in Devonshu:e, Eng- 
land, Sept 21, 1757. In 1772, he left Ins 
native country, and settled in Georgia. 
When but 19 years of age, he assisted in 
the attack upon Savannah, in which he 
displayed great intrepidity, and shortly 
afterwards was appointed to the command 
of a volunteer company of light infantry. 
In the latter part of the vear 1/78, he was 
chosen brigade-major oi the Georgia mili- 
tia, and, on the capture or dispersion of 
that force, enrolled himself as a private in 
a volunteer corps formed by the officers 
of Geoi^ who had no commands. In 
1780, he was badly wounded in both of 
his knees, in a duel with heutenant-gov- 
eraor WeUa, who k>st his life. Afler his 
recovery, he continued to serve with dis- 
tinction throughout the rest of the war, 
being constantly and actively employed 
in the most hazardous way ; and when tlie 
British evacuated Savannah (July 12, 
1782), colonel Jackson was ordered by 
geneitd Wajrne to receive the keys and 
toko possession of the town, ** in considera- 
tion of his severe and &tiguhiff service in 
advance." In the same month, the gen- 
eral assembly of Geor^a presented him 
with a house and lot in Savannah, as a 
testimonial of their sense of his merits. 
As he had been educated to the law, he 
now commenced its practice, which soon 
became sufficiently lucrative to place him 
in possession of a competencv. In 1783, 
he was elected a member of the legisla- 
ture, and, in the following year, was ap- 
pointed colonel of the first regiment of 
Georgia militia. In 1786, he was nuned 
brigadier-general, and was also admitted 
as an honoraiy member of the Georgia 
Cincitmati society. In 1788, he declined 
the digninr of govemor of Greorgia, to 
which he had been elected. He was dien 
promoted to the rank of major-general of 
the militia of the state, and subiequently 
chosen by the legislature a senator in 
congress. Whilst attending to his duties 
in this last capacity, he died in Washing-^ 
ton, Jan. 19, 1 806. He was a man of great 
impetuosity of temper, but of undaunted 
courage, and unyielding devotion to liberal 
principles. 

Jacob ; the son of Isaac, and the grand- 
son of Abraham ; the last of the patriarohs, 
and the true ancestor of the Jews. In his 

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148 



JACOB. 



mother's womb, he quarrelled with his 
brother Esau, whom he held bv the heel 
as he came into the world. Hence his 
name, Jacob (heel-holder). Being the ob- 
ject of maternal indulgence, he was gentle 
odid weiJc, and was disposed to advance 
himself by cunninc rather than by cour- 
age. While a youui, he purchased of his 
brother (who returned home weary and 
hungiy m>m the chase) his birthright for 
a mess (^ pottaffe, and, at the instigation 
of his mother/ di8^^<l 1^^^ Esau, he 
obtained from the bund and infirm Isaac, 
the blessinff of the first-bom, on which 
depended me inheritance of die promise 
made to Abraham. He was obuged to 
flee fi!om the anger of his brother; and, 
on his way to Laban, his mother's brother, 
he received the first intimation that the 
inheritance of the divine promise had de- 
volved on him. He saw in a dream a 
hdder reaching fifom heaven to earth, and 
ancels ascending and descending upon it, 
a^ the guardian Godof hisfiumly,whom 
he supposed to be in the tent of Isaac, 
conferred on him the blesang of Abraham. 
After this vision, he firmly believed that 
Jehovah had chosen him to be the father 
of a sreat people. This belief and the 
hyveof I^ihan's dau^ter Raxdiel^ were his 
oonsoladon during me bitter years which 
he was obliged to devote to die flocks of 
his uncle, in order to obttin his mistress. 
After bavins served seven vears, he found 
in his veiled bride Leah (whom he did not 
love), the elder sister or Rachel, and, in 
Older to obtain Rachel, he was obliged to 
serve seven years more. Besides these 
14 yean, he served six years for a herd, 
and, afier having repaid the deceit of his 
fkther-in-law, l^ an artifice which much 
increased his possessions (Gen. xxz. fX7 — 
43X he depaited privately vrith his wives 
and children and property. Laban pur- 
sued him, and scarcely had Jacob ap- 
peased him, when, after 20 yeare* absence 
mm home, he met the fdUowers of his 
brother Esau. In this dilemma, Jacob 
sought relief in praver, and a man* wrestled 
with him all ni^t until the morning 
dawned. Jacob came off victorious, 
though with a lame thigh, and he was 
called by his guardian God, whose hand 
he saw in this event, brad, i. e. the hero 
cf Gody in remembrance of the contest. 
This afterwards became the title of his 
house, and the Hebrews (q. v.), from him, 
are called bradiU$y i. e. strong and tUnd, 
Jacob now went forth with more confi- 
dence to the much dreaded meeting with 
his Ixtither, and appeased his rough, but 
noble nature* by his submission. His 



great 



return to his ftthei^s tent made a 
chan^ in the character of Jacob, 
cunning and avarice appeared to him, as 
it has since to his descendants, the neces- 
sary means for makins his way through 
the difiiculties of his dependent situation. 
Now that he had become rich, and un- 
controlled master of his possessions, he 
showed himself worthy of his father ; . and 
if he did not i^esemble Abraham in great- 
ness and power, he did in piety and ten- 
der love tor his children. Yet through 
them he was destined to sufiTer the greatest 
afilictions. As he had two lawful wives, 
and, according to the custom of the coun- 
try, two concubines (Bilhah and Zilpali), 
with 12 sons and a daughter, he could not 
escape domestic troubles and dissensions. 
His beloved Rachel died soon afttr his 
return home. A prince of the Hivites 
violated his daughter Dinah, and his sons 
revenged the injuiy by plundering and 
murdering that people. He could neither 
prevent tms norlhe incest committed by 
Reuben with tfilhah. Humiliation and 
repentance for the sins of his youth 
seemed now his lot But his greatest 
afiSictiOn was the loss of his &vorite son 
Joseph, whose brothers, full of envy 
against him, had sold him to a caravan of 
Ishmaelitc merchants, and brought his 
coat, stained widi blood, to their fiulier, as 
a proof that he had been devoured by 
wild beasts. This event decided the des- 
tiny of the house of Israel. Joseph (q. y,\ 
subsequently became, in consequence of^ 
his wisdom, the hi^eet ofiicer at the 
court of Pharaoh, and, in this capacity, 
recognised his brothers when they came 
to Egypt to purchase corn, pardoned 
them, and called the whole house of his 
father out of Canaan to dwell in a fhiitfiil 
region of Egypt The aged Jacob asain 
embraced his favorite son, whom he had, 
for many years, supposed dead, and en- 
joyed, under his protection, a happy old 
age. A short time before his death, Israel 
collected his* sons around his bed, and 
pronounced c^er each of them a blessing 
full of prophetic anticjpations of the char- 
acters and future fate of his descendants. 
He bestowed the privileges of the first- 
bom on his fourth son, Judah, Reuben 
having forfeited them by die crime above- 
mentioned, and Simeon and Levi by the 
murder of the Hivites. Te his grandsons, 
Manasseh and Ephraim, the sons of Jo- 
seph, he gave privileges equal to those of 
his sons. The descendants of Judah com- 
posed the most powerful tribe among the 
Hebrews, who were l^ence called Jtwg, 
(q. V.) In conformity with Jacobs last 



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JACOB-^ACOBINa 



149 



'will, Joseph buried lum in the tomb of 
Abitthain, before Mamre, in Canaan. 

Jacobi, John George, a German poet, 
bom at DflaseldorC 1740, son of a wealthy 
merchant, studied theology, in 1758, at 
Gdttingeu, and, later, in Helmstadt, then 
became profeaeor of philosophy and elo- 
quence in Halle, where he published the 
tris (1774 to 1776, three volumes), a pe- 
riodical for ladies. Joseph II appointed 
him professor of belles-lettres in the uni- 
verei^"^ of Freyburg in the Brissau (1784). 
FTt)m 1795 to 1800, he pubhshed the Uber- 
Jlusstger Taschenbuch, and from 1803 to 
1807, the Iris. An edition of all his works 
was published at Zurich, in seven vol< 
umes. He died Jan 4, 1814. 

Jacobi, Frederic Heniy ; a distinguish- 
ed Germafi philosopher, younger brother 
of the precediDg, bom at Dusseldorf, in 
1743. His father intended him for a mer- 
chant He early showed a religious tum, 
which, on his being sent to Fraokfort as 
an apprentice, exposed him to ridicule. He 
therefore soon went to Geneva, where his 
mind was cultivated by intercourse with 
the most distinguished scholars, and by 
the study of the best productions of 
French literature. In consequence of the 
taste he had acquired for letters, he remm- 
ed home with reluctance, in order to take 
charge of his father's business. He soon 
after married a lady of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
adomed with the finest quaUties of mind 
and person. Afler having conducted the 
business for some time, an appointment 
at coiut was conferred on him, which re- 
he ved him from any further mercantile 
engagements. His brother introduced him 
to an acquaintance with Wieland, and he 
soon appeared as an author. In 1779, he 
was called to Munich, but soon fell into 
disgrace on account of his exposure of tlie 
abuses of the Bavarian system of customs. 
More of his writings appeared at tliis 
time, and his summers were spent at 
Pempelfort, in a aharming country seat, 
whicn he bad built. But the death of his 
wife intermpted this tranquil and happy 
Ufe. He now applied himself^ with re- 
newed zeal and mdustiy^to his studies, 
encouraged by a journey to Weimar, 
where he saw Gothe again, and became 
acquainted with Herder. His Letters on 
Spinoza appeared in 1785, from which 
time his mind was much occupied with 
metaphyseal speculations on religious 
subjects. As the influence of the French 
revolution extended itself, he went from 
Diisseldorf^ in 1794, to Holstein, the native 
country of his father, and lived part of the 
time at Wandsbeck and Hamburg, and 
13* 



rartly at Eutin. In 1801, he went to 
Paris, and returned to Eutm, where he 
intended to end his days; but, in 1804, 
having received an invitation to the new 
academy erected at Munich, he was in- 
duced to accept it on account of the loss 
of a considerable part of his fortune by the 
misfortunes of his brother-in-law. He 
was made president of the Bavarian acad- 
emy, and retired from office at the age of 
70 years, retaining, however, his ^ar}'. 
His last days were occupied with the col- 
lection of his works. He died Mareh 10, 
1819. — Jacobi's works are rich in what- 
ever can attract elevated souls, yet die 
opinions respecting him are very differ- 
ent. He has been called the German Pkdoy 
on account of the rehgious glow in his 
metaphysical writings. But, whatever 
opinions may be entertained respecting his 
philosophy, all admit that he was a most 
exemplary man, tmly revered by all 
who had the good fortune to be acquaint- 
ed with him. His philosophy, among 
other trcdts, is characterized oy an aver- 
sion to systems, all of which, he maintains, 
when consistently carried out, lead to 
fanaticism. His views were opposed to 
those of the dogmatic Mendelssohn, the 
critical Kant, the idealizing Fichte, and 
the pantheistic Schelling. Of his works, 
we mention Edward Allwill's Collection 
of Letters (Konigsberg, 1792) ; WoUkmar^ 
a philosophical novel (Konigsberg, 1794); 
Letters on the Doctrine of Spinoza (Bres- 
lau, second edition, 1789); his work on 
Mendelsohn's charges against these let- 
ters (Leipsic, 1786) ; David Hume on Be- 
lief, or Idealism and Realism (second edi- 
tion, Ulm, 1795J; Sendachreiben an IMie 
(Hamburg, 1799). His works were pub- 
lished by Fleischer (Leipsic, in six vol- 
umes), to which is to ne added his Corre- 
spondence (pubhshed by Fr. RoUi, in two 
volumes, 1825 and 1827). Schlegel's re- 
view of Jacobi's WoUkmar (in volume 1, 
page 1 to 46 of CharakierigUkm und Kri- 
tiken) deserves the attention of the student 
of Jacobi. His dispute with Schelling 
was carried on with considerable jmimos- 
ity. It gave birth to Schellin^s DenJanal 
dtr Schnji wm den Gmichen Dingen (TO- 
bingen, 1812). 
Jacobine Monks. (See Dominican,) 
Jacobins. The club of the Jacobios is 
one of the most surpriainff phenomena in 
history. That, in a civihzed nation, so 
large a body of men could be found, unit- 
uig rare energy with execrable vice, polit- 
ical madness and outrageous cmelty, com- 
mitted always in the name of virtue, is a 
historical phenom^on of the highest in- 
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i 



teresL It is of great importance for the his- 
torian to know this period, but it requires 
extensive study to understand thoroughly 
the proce^ings of this club and meir 
causes. In the article JFhmctf division 
Fhmee before the JRevo/ufum, the deplorable 
state of that countty before that event is 
set forth. The great mass of the people was 
totally uneducated and srievously oppress- 
ed, and the whole political organization 
so rotten, that, once touched, it nece^-sarily 
fell to pieces. The religious state of the 
country was not unlike me poiiticaL The 
church was too corrupt to withstand the 
bold attacks of reformers, enthusiastically 
devoted to their new systems. The :;ourt, 
and the higher classes in general, had for 
centuries set an example of gross im- 
morali^ to the people, which had pro- 
duced its namral effects in vitiating tneir 
character. The opponents of the church 
and aristocracy, wiio came into power 
upon the overthrow of the old order of 
diings, were wholly unacquainted with 
the practical administration of govern- 
ment, and had nothing to guide them but 
general philosophical principles. Under 
Uiese circumstances, the excesses which 
the French people committed, when left 
tosovem themselves, are matter of sorrow 
rather than wonder. The Jacobin club 
had the following origin. Before the 
breaking out of the revolution, particularly 
after the American revolution, political 
societies were formed in Paris (where 
bureaux cTesprit, or associations for the 
discussion of literaiy subjects, had previ- 
ously been common), modelled after the 
London debating societies, in which po- 
litical subjects were debated, and the 
members of which were almost universal- 
ly inclined to republicanism. The exam- 
Ele of Great Britain and the U. States viras 
efor6 the French. Some distinguished 
membe]s of the first national assembly, 
principally from Bretagne, and common- 
ers, on account of the opposition of the 
privileged classes and of the court party, 
saw the necessity of acting in conceit, and 
of prepdrinff for the measures of each day by 
previous deliberations ; for which purpose 
they assembled in the evenings at the house 
of one of their body, or held a caucuSf as we 
should term it Among them was count 
Mirabeau, who, when the Jacobins subse- 
quentiy passed the constitutional limits, 
seceded from them, and even denounced 
them. The same was the case with La Fay- 
ette- But, when both perceived that they 
could effect nothing in the national assem- 
bly without the consent of the Jacobins,they 
return^ to the club, in order to influence 



the assembly by this meani|. Meanwhile 
Mirabeau died, April 2, 1791. The nx>- 
narehical club, under Clermpnt-Tonnerre, 
which opposed the arrogance of the Jaco- 
bins, was menaced by the mob, Jan. 27 
and March 28, 1791, and finally dispersed 
by violence. The Jacobins now became 
sensible that the pike-men were their real 
auxiliaries. The flight of the king stilt 
more exasperated llie most zealous of 
them, and, after the close of 1792, their 
principles were so exaggerated, that the 
original Jacobins were now expelled from 
the club as royalists or modiris; for in- 
stance, Fr6ron, Lesendre and others. 
Whatever was resolved upon in these 
and similar meetings, was supported by 
all the members of tiie club in the national 
assembly. The Bretons soon admitted a 
greater number, in order to carry through 
tiieir opinion with more certainty. Thus 
the members became pledged to a certain 
line of conduct on eacli question, before it 
was brought forward in the general assem- 
bly of national representatives, and a par- 
ty was fonned which, in the assenmly, 
always voted together. Besides the intol- 
erance towards those of difterent opinions, 
which afterwards degenerated into politi- 
cal proscription and persecution, personal 
motives had a powerful influence on the 
members, llie private house in which 
they first assembled soon became no longer 
capable of containing the number of 
friends of the revoltdumj as they at first 
called themselves ; they therefore chose 
for their place of meeting, at the end of 
1789, the church of a suppressed Jacobin 
monastery, in the street St Houore, in the 
centre of Paris. This was the origin of 
the name Jacobins, thou^ they continued 
for a time to term themselves the friends of 
the constitution,' Their extemei symb^ol 
was a red cap: afterwards, a dirty dress 
was the token of their sansculottisnu The 
revolution proceeded rapidly, and, in all 
the large and small towns, and, in 1793, 
even in some villages, similar societies 
were formed, which the mother society at 
Paris rendered dependent on itself; and 
thus it became enabled to direct the pub- 
lic opinion of all France. In 1792, the 
leaiiing club, in ifvhich sometimes more 
than 2500 members convened, kept up a 
con'e^)ondence with more than 400 hmli- 
ated societies, and the number of Jac- 
obins in all France was estimated at about 
400,000. It is unnecessary to designate 
the principal memberaof the mother soci- 
ety, as it is well known that all men of 
any note, who played, or wished to play, a 
part in the revolution, were Jacobinii. 

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The ioflueQce whieh Paris, more than any 
other European capital, exerts over the 
countiy, greatly increased the power of 
the Jacobins there. Whatever they 
agreed to propose in the national asscm- 
b^, however daring it might be, they 
were sure of the assent of the other popu- 
lar societies, from their connexion with 
the principal members of the other clubs. 
This naturally induced ambitious individ- 
uals, even of the higher classes, to join it, 
and to renounce the privileges of their 
order, with a view of obtaining greater 
consequence in the new state of things. 
The exaltation of the revolutionary spirit 
W9B 80 rapid, and so much dissension was 
excited among the revolutionists by the 
intrigues of the opposite party, aided by 
foreign influence, that the boldest charac- 
ters formed a smaller club, which, from its 
place of meeting, in the church of the 
Franciscan friars, was called the clvb qf 
ike CordiUcrs (q. v.),and which was join^ 
by all the exalUs^ as they were denominat- 
ed. This was the proper field for the 
daring Danton, and here the monster Ma- 
rat, flx>m 1789 editor of the Friend of the 
People, found credence to his wild and 
criminal maxim, that the end justifies the 
means. Here sansculoUism was fuUv de- 
veloped in its violence, its hatred of reli- 
gion, and contempt of morality and law. 
The circumstances of this agitated period 
required the boldest measures, and the 
most unscrupulous men were of course 
the most daring. The ex-Capuchin Chabot, 
Anacharsis Cloots, CoUot d'llerbois and 
others carried their temerity to the highest 

Sitch in their pubUc speeches. As the 
acolHns and the combined Orleanists and 
BrisBotists, who labored to overthrow the 
crown, the former for the duke of Orleans, 
and the latter to establish a repubhc, took 
the right side of the apartment of the na- 
tional assembly ; the members of the oth- 
er popular societies placed themselves on 
the left. Few, however, attended the as- 
sembly for the purpose of deliberation, 
their purpose being only to vote for what 
had already been agreed upon. The Jac- 
obins and other similar clubs therefore 
adopted the forms of the national assem- 
bly. Preffldents and secretaries were cho- 
sen, the order of the da^' determmed, 
resolutions passed by a majority of votes, 
and seats or tribunes assigned to the audi- 
ence. To such popular societies the na- 
tional assembly gave a legal existence in 
the constitution which it chew up. From 
this time, the Jacobin club exercised a 
perfect tyraimy over it Whenever die 
Jacobins were not sure of the majority in 



the assembly, their followers fiDed the 
tribunes of the hall of the deputies, and, 
by their disorderiy conduct, and fiequent- 
ly by loud threats against individual mem- 
bers, discouraged all opinions or resolu- 
tions which did not coincide with those 
of their party. This was e^cially the 
case vrith respect to the king, against 
whom the Jacobins and Cordeliers, par- 
ticularly since 1791, had chculated tlie 
grossest calumnies. The democratic Cor- 
deliers therefore joined with the Orleans 
party, which labored unvrittingly for the 
objects of the republicans, by uttering the 
most slanderous charges against the kine 
and queen, and by having the lowest of 
the rabble on their side, and partly even 
in their pay. This was the reason that a 

E>pular insurrection opposed vrith vio- 
nce, April 18, 1791, the departure of the 
king to St. Cloud, where he wished to 
spend tlie Easter holvdays. Even the 
national guard, in disobedience to the or- 
der of their commander. La Fayette, re- 
fused to escort the king, who was already 
seated in the carriage, through the multi- 
tude. The party of the king's enemies 
was the more powerful, as the more mod- 
erate members had withdrawn from the 
Jacobin club, and the Cordeliers had 
again formed a junction with it, June 21. 
The latter, however, continued their meet- 
ings at the Capuchin monastery, in order, 
by being prepared and united, to manage 
the dehberations of the Jacobin club. 
After the flight of the king, June 21, 1791, 
they made use of the popular hatred 
against him, and loudly demanded the 
deposition of Louis and the erection of a 
repubhc. But the more moderate party, 
who for a long time were called FeuiUanU, 
from the pli^ce of their meeting, opposed 
their designs, and the insurrection of July 
15—17, 1791, failed of its object. But, on 
the other hand, the retired deputies of the 
constituent assembly failed of dissolving 
the Jacobin club, before the close of its 
own session. When the legislative as^ 
sembly, the new delegates to which had 
been chosen almost entirely under the 
influence of the Jacobins, had opened its 
session, Oct 1, 1791, the friends of the 
king, among whom the Girondists (q. v.| 
were, conspicuous for talents, maintained 
for some time the majority against his en- 
emies (the Cordeliers), even in the Jaco- 
bin club, so that the leaders of this club— 
Danton, Marat, Robespierre — ^were obliged 
to disguise their projects. But their influ- 
ence was augmented by the circumstance 
that the mayor of Paris, Pethion, and with 
him the municipal authorities of Paris^ 



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JACOBINS. 



composed of Jacobins, espoused their 
cause. Even the moderate Jacobins, and 
among them some of the royal ministers, 
inclined to the party of the enemies of the 
king. Thus, bV the popular insurrection 
of May 29, 1792, they obtained a resolu- 
tion of the national assembly, requiring 
the king to disband the body ffuard, de- 
creed to him by the first assembly of the 
nation ; but they were unable, by the in- 
surrection of the suburbs of St. Antoine 
, and St. Marcell of June 20, to compel the 
king, whom only four Swiss grenadiers 
protected against the atUicks of the furious 
multitude, to revoke the veto that he had 
a^xed to two resolutions of the national 
assembly ; but they gained a majority of 
the assembly to protect from condign 
punishment the authors of this tumult — 
Pethion, Manuel and others. Meanwhile, 
the Jacobins, offended by a note of tlie 
Austrian minister of state, prince Kaunitz, 
had effected, against the will of the Corde- 
liers, a declaration of wiur against Austria, 
April 20, 1792; and Jacobinism soon dis- 
played its influence in 'the selection of 
generals, in the proclamations, and in the 
disposition of the armies, so that neither 
La Fayette, in 1792, nor Dmnouriez, in 
1793, could excite the army against the 
Jacobms. But all the occurrences subse- 
auent to June 20— the arrival of the con- 
federates from Brest, Marseilles and other 
places, July 13; the attack of the Tuile- 
ries on the night of Au^. 9; the carrying 
of the kinff and his fiimily as prisoners to 
the Temple by the municipal officers of 
Paris, Aug. 13; the massacre of the pris- 
oners. Sept 2—7, who were murdered 
without trial ; the choice of new members 
of the convention, in September of the 
same year ; all the acts of the national 
convention, from Sept 21, 1792, to May 
20, 1795, even after the 9ih Thermidor 
(July 28, 1794), especially the execution 
of the king ; and, finally, the establish- 
ment of the revolutionary tribunal, March 
9, 1793— may be regarded as more or less 
effected by the Jacobins. The Jacobins 
were divided into two parties: agreeing 
as to the end, they thought differentiy 
concemmg the means. Tallien, who 
overthrew Robespierre, was as true a Jac- 
obin as the latter was. The enthusiastic 
suspected the moderate. The victory was 
long doubtful. Finally, the moderate 
were vanquished. The genuine republi- 
cans — the Girondists, or the party of the 
Plain — ^were subdued May 31 and June 2, 
1793, by the more violent Jacobins, or 
Mountam party.* These again were gov- 
* The commoD fate of parties in periods of 



emed by the Maratisto or Cordeliera, who 
ruled in the Jacobin club with iron sway, 
under the duiimvirate of Robeepietre the 
Incorruptible, and l>anton, the formidable 
creator of the revolutionary tribunal, with 
Marat for an assistant On the other hand, 
the moderate party was victorious in the 
previnces, at Marseilles, Bordeaux and 
Lyons. The south took up arms against 
tlie Jacobin convention. But the Moun- 
tain party succeeded in depriving the con- 
vention of power, and, on the proposal of 
Billaud de Varennes, the constitution gave 
way to the reign of terror (from August, 
1793, to July, 1794). But the triumph 
of Jacobinism was tne establishment of 
the committee of safety, which completed 
the reign of terror under R!bbespierre,and, 
by means of the revolutionary armies, sup- 
pressed rebellion with fire and sword in 
Vendue, and in the south. Cities like 
Lyons, Marseilles, Toulon, were to be de- 
molished, and all Vendue to be transform- 
ed into a great field of blood and ashes. 
Fourteen armies, the guillotine, and an 
iron smbbornness, finally nvon the victory 
for the system of terror. France, it vras 
said (and, for the moment, it was true), 
wanted only iron and bread. Not till the 
dictator Robespierre (q. v.) had perished 
under the guillotine, July 28, 1794, and 
with him 104 of his partisans, together 
Mrith the municipal council of Paris, did 
the convention recover its authority. It 
denied to all popular assemblies any inter- 
ference with the government In vain did 
the Jacobin club attempt an insurrection, 
Nov. 11, 1794, in order to tear the mon- 
ster Carrier from the sword of the la^~. 
This was its last struggle. The citizens 
of Paris surrounded the hall of the Jaco- 
bins till the military arrived and dispersed 
the meeting: Legendre closed the halL 
The finishing stroke ivas given to this 
victory by the decree of the convention, 
that the Jacobins should not renew their 

mat popular commotion, wbose exasperated 
feelings lead Uiem to put the worst construction 
on each other s doings, was never more clearij 
exhibited than in the case of the Girondists find 
Jacobins. Whilst the GirondisU accused the 
Jacobins of being in the pay of foreiffncrs, of hav- 
ing admitted .tl^ English into Toulon, dec. {the 
Memoirs of Brissot are full of these chaiges), the 
Jacobins accused the Girondists of being for tlio 
kin^, &c. It must be ackuoi^iedged that the Gi- 
rondists—as virtuous a partjr as ]^rfaaps e^'er ex- 
isted^— were merely theoretical politicians, and 
never could have saved France, in the slate which 
it then was. The^ made the virtue of the nation 
the basis of their political edifice — a mistaUl 
which never could have been more serious than at 
that very time. Both parties, it was erideiit, 
could no longer exist together. 



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meediigB. But their principles surviyed 
tfaeir defeat They took advantage of the 
geoeral &mine to stir up a rebellioil, April 
], and May 20—23, 1795. The last one 
brouffbt the convention to the verge of 
disBoTution. A member named Ferrand 
was murdered ; all the rest took to flight, 
except 14 of the former Mountain party, 
who immecUately passed a number of de- 
crees conformably with the will of the 
Jacobins. Not without difficulty were 
the Paris committee able to quell this 
bloody tumult By the disarming of the 
faubwrg St Anioine, the Jacobin party 
lost its principal support, as it had already 
lost its boldest orators— Barrerc, Collot 
dlleriwis and Billaud de Varennes, who 
were transported to Cayenne, April 2; 
1795. Of the 14 deputies who had desar- 
ed to restore the system of terror, 6 killed 
themselves aAer their condemnation, July 
17,among whom was the talented Romme. 
Even in Toulon, the Jacobins were at 
iirBt victorious ; but the troops of the oon- 
rention occiipied the city again, May 29. 
Thus the Jacobins prepared. May 20^ 
th^ own downialL Uouxts>martial con- 
demned them every where to death as 
teiTorists^ and the fuiy of the prevaiHng 
moderate party, as it vras called, outstrip- 
ped the demands of justice. The consti- 
tution soon after drawn up, June 23, 1795, 
and the directorial government, /which 
was actually commenced Oct 27 of the 
same year, suppressed the (ast struggles 
of the Jacobins and terrorists^ till the exe- 
cution of BarbcBuf and his associatesi 
May 25, 1796. But, when die constitu- 
tion of 1795 seemed annihilated by the 
victonr of the directors Barras, Rewbel 
and Liar^veillere on the 18th Fructidor 

iSept 4, 1797), Jacobinism arose anew. 
[t souffht to penetrate mto the offices 
of the legislative coundls, but found no- 
where a point of union. Many of the 
party soon denounced republicanism. 
Most of them became the fiiends of Napo- 
leon. — ^Much has been written respect- 
ing the Jacobins, and the supporters of 
old institutions in Europe have been in 
the habit of branding with the name of 
Jacobinism every attempt to promote the 
cause of liberal principles. See, for in- 
stance, Robinson's Proofs of a Qmapiracy 
against all ike Rdtgions and Governments 
of Etaropey &c. (fourth edition, London, 
1798) ; and the prolix but emptv accusa- 
tion of the abb^ Bamiel, founded on Rob- 
inson's work, and on similar emissions of 
party spirit, and directed against philoso- 
phy and secret societies in general — Mi- 
moires pour servir h VERsUnrt du Jacobin 



nisine (five volumes, Hambmig, 1800) ; also 
the LeUres cTtm Voyageur it VJibhi Barrudy 
ou nouoeauz Docwnens pour ses Memoires 
(London, 1800), written m a similar spirit 
To learn the true character of the Jaco- 
bins, the debates of the national assembly 
should be studied.-^In 1814, the violent 
ultras (q. v.) were called xohiie Jacobins ; 
whilst, in turn, the adherents of Napoleon 
were called rtd Jacobins. As the aristoc- 
racy, before the revolution of 1792, called 
the people, in contempt, la cancnUt (q. v.), 
so, before the revolution of 1830, eveiy 
liberal, however loyal he miffht be, viras 
called a Jacobin, Immediately after the 
revolution of 1890, popular societies were 
formed, or at least appeared openly, two 
of which soon gave uneasiness to govern- 
ment, and their proceedings were subject- 
ed to a judicial investigation. The name» 
of these societies were Vami du psuplt 
and Aide4ai ei DUu faidera. Th^ were 
abolished. An association is now forming 
in France, the professed object of whicE 
is to protect the country agunst invasion, 
and to guard against the return of the elder 
line of die Boiuix)naL 

Jacobites ; Monophyate Christians in 
the East, who, oppressed and dispersed 
amidst the religious contests of the sixth 
centuiy, were united by a Syrian monk, 
James (Jacobus) Bardai, or Janzalos (578), 
during the reign of Justinian, into a dis- 
tinct religious sect Out of gratitude te 
their founder, they called diemsehres by 
his name, and had, in Syria, £^pt and 
Mesopotamia, numerous communitie8,vrith 
bishops and patriarchs. On account of 
their separation fiom the Catholic church, 
they were glad to obtain the nrotection of 
the Saracens, who possessea themselves 
of the East in the middle of the seventh 
century. The Egyptian Jacobites, hav- 
ing abused the indulgence granted them 
by the Saracens, suffered a persecu- 
tion in 1358, after which, being much 
diminii^ed in numbera, and restrained in 
the exercise of their religion, and being 
gradually separated from their Asiatic 
Methren, they formed a distinct sect, 
which exists at this day in Egypt, under 
the name of Ckfts. (q. v.) Internal dis- 
putes and political causes occasioned a 
separation, about the same time, of the 
Abyssinian and Armenian Monophysites, 
from the great body of the Jacobites ; and, 
after numerous attempts by the popes to 
bring them over to the Roman Catholic 
church, they still maintain themselves as 
an independent sect in Syria and Meso- 
potamia, and consist of about 30 or 40,000 
families. These Jacobites are governed 

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JACOBITES-JAFFA. 



by two patriarchs, appointed by the Turk- 
ish gOTernora, one of whom, with the title 
of the patriarck ofAfdiochy has his seat at 
Diarbekir or Aleppo ; the other, the Syr- 
ian, resides in the monastery of Saphran, 
near Mardin, and governs the Mesopota- 
mian societies. Circumcision before bap- 
tism, and the doctrine of the single nature 
of Christ (hence their name, MomphysHes), 
are conrunon to them with the Copts and 
Abyssinians ; but, in other respects, they 
deviate less than the other Monophysites 
from the discipline and liturgy of the or- 
thodox Greek church. 

Jacobites, In Great Britain, this name 
was applied to the adherents of James II 
(who was deposed 1688) and bis posterity, 
and in particular to the non-jurors, whose 
separation from the English church con- 
sisted merely in their refusal to take the 
oath of allegiance to the new kins ; and 
who had their own meetings, for the pur- 
pose of praying for the Stuart family. 
They were most numerous in Scotland, 
and were very much lessened by the de- 
feat of the mtender (1745) ; and when, at 
length, he died at Rome (1788), they be- 
gan to pray for George III. 

Jacobs, Frederic Christian William, 
was bom at Gotha, in Saxony, 1764, stud- 
ied theology in Jena, in 1781, and, in 
1784, went to Gottinffen, where he aban- • 
doned his theological studies, in order to 
devote himself to philology. In 1785, he 
became a teacher in the eymnaaium of 
his native city, where he published several 
works, and, in coniunction with several 
learned iiiends, undertook (he Charadere 
dor Dichter aUer JVationen (7 vols.), as a se- 
quel to Sulzer's Tlieorie der Schmen Wis- 
sensehqflen, the continuation of which 
was prevented by the death and separa- 
tion of the contributors. Amone his oili- 
er works are the following : Bion and 
Moschusjin 1795 ; in 1796 and 1797,Ercrct- 
tatumes miica in Scriptores veteres (2 vols^. 
His EmerukUiones in AnUiol. (hac. (1793J 
was followed by a reprint of the part of 
the Analecta of Bninck, which belongs to 
the Anthology, with indexes (Leipsic, 
1794 to 1814, 8 vols.). His Tempe (Leip- 
sic, 1803, 2 vols.) was prepared contem- 
poraneously with his commentaiy on the 
Anthology,*^ which he finished in 1803. 
Of his EUmentiwbuck der Griukisehen 
Sprachey two volumes had appeared when 
he was appointed ( 1 807) professor of ancient 
literature in the lyceum in Munich, and 
member of the new Bavarian academy, 
lu Munich, he completed the 3d and 4&i 
vols, of his Greek Elementcarbiick, and, in 
three years, returned to Gotha. where he 



was appointed chief librarian and super- 
intendent of the cabinet of coins. Here 
he made out a catalogue of the valuable 
library, and published 3ie Greek Antholo- 
gy, from the only MS. which has been 
preserved, under the tide ,^Kthologia ad 
Fidem Codicis Vaiicani edita (Leipsic, 1813 
to 1817). The number of his philological 
publications is very great, besides several 
works of a different character, as AUwin 
und TheodoTf Roscdiens JVachlasSf Die bd" 
den Marien, School for Women (7 vols., 
1827), and Tales (5 vols., Leipsic, 1824— 
1827), &c. ; and few writings are so well 
adapted, particularly for young females, as 
his. The first volume of his Greek Reader 
had passed through seven editions in 
1819 ; and selections from the work have 
been introduced, as a text book, into Eng- 
land and the U. States ; in the latter, un- 
der the title of the Greek Reader, edited 
by E. Everett (2d edit., Boston, 1829). In 
connexion witn Doring, he has also pub- 
lished a Latin Reader. 

Jacquin, Nicholas Joseph, baron of; a 
celebrated botanist, who was a native of 
Leyden. He was bom in 1727, and stud- 
ied medicine at Antwerp and Louvain. 
The emperor Francis I sent him to the 
West Indies, to collect curious plants for 
the gardens of Sch6nbrunn. He com- 
menced his voyage in 1754, and returned 
to Germany, aner an absence of six years, 
with a rich store of plants from the Antil- 
les, Jamaica, St. Dorfiingo and Curacoa. 
He published, in 1760, an account of bis 
researches and the collections with which 
he had enriched the gardens of Schon- 
brunn, and of the university of Vienna, 
which were under his direction (Higtoria 
Stirpium Americ,). Two years after, ap- 
peared his catalogue of plants growing in 
the neighborho^ of Vienna, and, in 
1773, a magnificent work, entitied Flofra 
Austriacoj fol., with 500 colored engrav- 
ings. He engaged in the practice of med- 
icine in the Austrian metropolis, and also 
occupied the professorships of chemistry 
and botany in the university of that city. 
He was created a baron in 1806. He died 
Oct 24, 1817. A list of his numerous 
scientific publications may be found in the 
Biog. Unw. and Bwg. JMauv. des ConUmp. 

Jaffa ; the ancient Joppa, a town of 
Asiatic Turkey, in Syria, m the pachalic 
of Damoscus, 16 leagues N. N. £. from Raz- 
z6 or Gaza ; 12 leagues N. W. of Jerusa- 
lem, and 22 leagues S. S. W. of St. Jean 
d'Acre, on a tongue of land advancing into 
the Mediterranean ; lat N. 32° S' 2^' ; 
Ion. E. 34'^ 46^ W. Jaffa is situated on a 
hill, and is surroimded wiUi a strong wall of 



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JAFPA-ST. JAGO. 



165 



from 12 to 14.feet iu height The port is 
defended by two forts. There are several 
mosques and three convents. Vessels 
cannot approach the city nearer than a 

^ quarter of a league, on account of the 
breakerai Several consuls of European 
powers reside here. Pilgrims who pro- 
ceed to Jerusalem frequent this city much. 
It contains 9650 inhabitants. The envi- 
rons of Jafib produce fruits of the best 
quality, paiticuJarly fine and large orange& 
The Greeks and Phenicians considered 
Jafib as a very ancient place, and it cer- 
tainly existed 1500 years before the Chris- 
tian era. lop&a was the Phenician name. 
Joppais mentioned several times in the 
Scriptures. During the crusades, Joppa 
become the capital of a small country of 
the some name. Saladin burnt it, but St 
Louis reeeialblished it Jaffa is coimected 
with two remarkable circumstances in the 
life of Napoleon: one, the bold exposure 
of his life by traversing the plague hos- 
pitals, and touching the poisonous sores, to 
give courage to his soldiers ; the other, the 
''massacre at Jafia.'* This place contain- 
ed a garrison consisting or Turkish and 
other soldiers, in the employ of Djezzar 
Pacha, when general Bonaparte attacked 
t A breach was made in the walls, 
March 7, 1799, when, according to the 
rules of war, die Turkish commandant 
was called upon to surrender ; instead of 
which, he cut off the head of the messen- 
cer. . The fortress was taken and pillaged. 
Bonaparte, in his letter to the directoiy, 
23d Ventose, year VII (March 13, 1799), 
savH, "At five o'clock, we were masters 
of^the city, which, during 24 hours, was 
exposed to pillage and all the horrors of 
war, which never appeared to me so hid- 
eous." (See Mhfunrea de ^apoUoriy ecriU 
par le GMrcd Baron Gourgaud, vol. 2, 
p. 376.) 3000 men, says the duke of Ro- 
vigo, in his Mhnoiresj were made prison- 
ers, die greater part of whom were the same 
soldiers to whom life and liberty had been 
granted at £1 i^rish, under the condition 

. not to bear arms against the French with- 
in a year, and to proceed to Bagdad. At 
the same time, news was received that 
the Porte, after paving put in irons all the 
French agents, had declared war against 
France, and assembled an army at Rhodes, 
which was to be sent to Egypt To give 
liberty again to these prisoners, was to 
send recruits to the Turiss; to conduct 
them to Egypt under on escort, would 
have weakened the small army under Bo- 
naparte's command at Jaffa. A council 
of war was held, and it was determined 
that all ahoukl be put to the sword. Even 



Bounienne, who had accompanied Bona* 
parte in the expedition to Egypt, states in 
his Mimairesy that the massacre of the 
remnant of the garrison of Jaffa was 
the result of the deliberations of two coun- 
cils, at which M. de Bourrienne himself 
was present, and in which *< horrible act 
of necessity,** if he had been privileged 
to vote, he would have concurred, believ- 
ing it to be justified by the scarcity of pro- 
visions, which were all required for the 
French army, and the smallness of its 
numerical force in the midst of a country 
where every individual was an enemy* 
The Egyptians were not, as has been of- 
ten asserted, previously separated firom the 
other prisoners. As to the poisoning those 
affected with the plague, M. Bourrienne, 
whose statements, however, cannot alwavs 
be admitted unqualifiedly, says that he 
knows that the order fer poisoning was is- 
sued; but Napoleon, according to Las 
Cases, told him that no opium was admin- 
istered. Las Cases also (pvee, as the re- 
sult of his own inquiries in Paris, among 
the principal actors on this occasion, that 
the proposal was made by Bonaparte to 
the chief p|iysician, who declincMl ; that 
no order was given to administer opium ; 
and that there was not a ffrain of it, at 
this time, in the army. (Mhnarial de 
SU. Helene, Paris, 1823-4, page 268 et 
seq.) 

Jaoellones. (See Poland,) 

Jaoemahn, Christian Joseph, librarian 
of the duchess Amalia of Weimar, was 
bom 1735, in DingelstMt, and destin- 
ed b^his Cadiohc parents for the cloister. 
Having escaped from the Augustine 
monastery, he was aflerwards sent to 
Rome, as a penance. He lived there sev- 
eral years, and acquired that taste for Ital- 
ian literature which made him a distin- 
guished writer on the fine arts and litera- 
ture of Italv. He is the author of a De- 
scription or Tuscany ; a History of Arts 
and Sciences in Italy (3 vols. 8vo.) , a 
Magazine of Italian Literature (8 vols. 
8vo.) ; the Life of Galilei ; an Italian and 
German Dictionary (2 vol& 8vo.) ; and an 
Italian Grammar ana Chrestomathy. He 
died Feb. 4, 1804. 

Jaogernaut. (See JuggtmauL) 

Jago, St. ; the Spanish for Si, James, 
(See James, SL) 

Jaoo, St.; one of the laraestof tho 
Cape Veid islands, one of the best 
cultivated, and most fertile; about 00 
miles in circumference. The people in 
general are of a mixed color, except the 
officers of government and most of the 
priests. Cotton is produced in abun- 

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156 



ST. JAGO-JAHN. 



dance, and handsome goods are made of it, 
of which no small quantity is exported. 
The chief fruits of uie island, besides a 
profusion of plantains, are grapes, citrons, 
lemons, oranges, musk and water-melons, 
limes, guavas, pomegranates, quinces, cus- 
tard-apples, papas, &c The chief towns 
areSt. JaffoandPraya. Lon. 23^ 4(y W. ; 
lat 15P 4' N. ; population, 20,000. 

Jaoo de Cuba, 8t. ; a town in the 
island of Cuba, near the south coast ; k>n. 
76»y W.;lataO°aKN. It is situated in 
the interior of a bay, on a river of the 
same name, about six miles from the sea, 
and was long considered as the capital of 
the island, but is much reduced nom its 
former splendor. It is handsomely built, 
and contains a coU^e, an hospital, a cathe- 
dral, two or three convents, and 16 prima- 
ry schools. It has a large trade, princi- 
pally in susar and tobacco. It hasa eood 
haibor, defended by a casde called 23 
Mono. Population, as given in the CStadro 
Estadislico de Cuba (Havana, 1829), is 
26,738. Its situation is unhealthy. 

Jaoo de Composteixa, St. (See 
CompoHdla.) 

Jaoo, St., or Santiago ; c^)ital of Chi- 
le. (See Saniie^.) 

Jaguar (fiUs onca, linJ). This name, 
having been applied to several different 
qpecies, is apt to create some degree of 
confusion. The jaguar holds the same 
rank among the animals of the new con- 
tinent as the tiger among those of the old. 
On the whole upper part of its body, 
it is of a bright yellowish fiiwn color, 
which passes on the throat, belly, and in- 
side or the legs, into a pure white. On 
this ground, the head, limbs and under 
sur&ce are covered with full black spots, 
of various sizes, and the rest of the body 
with annular patches, either with a black 

Eoint in tlie centre, or formed of small 
lack spots arranged in a circular form. 
This animal is found in the swampy for- 
ests of South America, especially in the 
neighborhood of lai^ge rivera, which he 
swims with great ease. Of his power of 
swimmins, as well as of his extraordina- 
ry strengm, tlie following circumstance, 
related by D'Azara, will give some idea : — 
A jaguar, afler having attacked and de- 
stroyed a horse, carried the body of his 
victim to the bank of a broad and rapid 
river, about 60 paces distant, over which 
he swam with his prey, and then dra^[cd 
it into the adjoining wood. Possessed of 
such tremendous powers, this animal is 
the dread of the inhabitants of the coun- 
tries he infests. It is seldom, however, 
that he attacks the human race, though he 



will not diun maxi when he meets widi 
him. His favorite prey appeara to be the ^ 
larger quadrupeds, such as oxen, hones, 
sheep and dogs, which he attacks indis- 
criminately, and in the same treacherous 
manner as the rest of his tribe, uniform- 
ly singling out the last of a herd as the 
object of attack. When he has made 
choice of a victim, he springs on its back, 
andfplacing one of his paws upon the back 
of die head, whilst he seizes its muzzle 
with the other, twists its head rouiid with 
a sudden jerk, thus dislocating its spine, 
and instantly depriving it of^life. The 
jaffuar is generally considered as untam- 
able, and to maintain his savage ferocity 
even in the captive state ; but this asser- 
tion is amply contradicted b^ facts. The 
inhabitants of South Amenca hunt the 
jacuar in various ways, either with a pack 
of dogs or by means of the lasso ; this 
latter mode, however, can only be -em- 
ployed upon plains or open grounds. The 
Indians are even hardy enough to attack 
tliis formidable creature, single-handed, 
armed with a lance of &ve feet in length, 
and their left arm enveloped in a sheep 
skin ; by means of which, they frustrate 
the fLrst onset of the furious animal, and 
gain sufficient time to plunge their weap- 
on into his bodv, before he has time.ror 
a second attack. Notwithstanding the 
strength and ferocity of the jaguar, he 
finds a powerful opponent in the great ant- 
eater, although this latter animal has no 
teedi to defend himself; as soon as the 
jaguar attacks the ant-eater, it lies down 
on its back, and suffocates or strangles 
him with its long claws. 

Jahn, Frederic Louis ; inVentor of the 
modem system of gynmastics, bom in 
1778, in Pomerania, in the vOlage of 
Lanz, near Lenzen. His father was a cler- 
syman. He studied in Jena, Halle and 
Grei&walde, and exerted himsdf much 
to suppress the LcmdsmcMsdu^ten (combi- 
nations of the students, according to the 
sections of the country to which they be- 
longed), which excited so much sectional 
feehng among them. (For an account of 
these zifOndlnium^cAa/ten, see Vnwerrities,) 
In 1809, he went to Berlin, and became 
an instmcter in a private institution. At 
that time, the French were masters of 
Germany, and the best means of prepar- 
ing the Gennans for a contest with tncir 
oppressors constantly employed the mind 
of Jahn and others of his countrymen. 
With the view of exciting patriotic feel- 
ing aiAong the young men of Germany, 
he established, in 1811, his first gymnasium. 
No conversation was perautted in French, 

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JAHN-JAMAICA. 



187 



or in any language but their own ; nation- 
al MtigB were sung. Gymnastic exercises 
bad long before been introduced into 
Schre{^enthal, by Guts-muths; butJahn 
first conceived tne idea of making gym- 
nasia national establishments for educa- 
tion. (See GvmnagHes.) During the war 
which soon after broke out between €rer- 
oiany and France, the gymnasia were 
suspended ; but when peace was con- 
eluded, in 1814, Jahn reopen^ his insti- 
tutions, and exerted all his powers again 
to make them schools of patriotism. In the 
meantime, the liberal spirit which spread 
oiFertibie continent of Europe, found its 
way into the gymnasia. The German gov- 
emments began to dread the efiects of that 
love of fieedom in the nation, which they 
had themselves used for the overthrow of 
the French. After the murder of Kotze- 
bue, by the student Sand, the govem- 
menti fearing or professing to fear the ex- 
istence of secret combinations of a polit- 
ical character in the gymnasia, Jahn and 
many of his friends were arrested, and 
treated in a very arbitraiy and illesal man- 
ner. In 1825, the tribunal at Frankfort 
declared Jahn to be innocent Several of 
hia scholars were also imprisoned, and, 
after a long confinement, liberated without 
trial 

Jahn, John, bom at Taswitz, in Mora- 
via, in 1750, professor of theology in the 
univerraty of Vienna, died in August, 
1816. Jahn published, among other works, 
a Chaldaic and Syriac Grammar (Vienna, 
1798) ; Arabian Granunar (1796) ; Bibli- 
cal Archeology (2 vols., ib., 1797 to 1800 ; 
ad edit, ib., 1817 to 1818, port of which 
has been translated into English, under the 
title of the Hebrew Commonwealth, Ando- 
ver, 1828} ; Eiementarbuch dtr HAraischen 
radujiyols^lT^y^ArabischeCkrestoma- 
^1802]; bdrodadioinlAJbrosSourosveteris 
derU (ib., 1804 ; 3d edit, ib., 1825) ; ^- 
dut^ogia BiblHca^ an abridgment, m Lat- 
in, of the laner work on Biblical Ar- 
chflBobgy in German (Vienna, 1804; 2d 
edit., Vienna, 1814), nranslated into Eng- 
lish (Andover, Ist edit, 1823; 2d edit, 
1827); GrammaHca Hdraica (ib., 1809); 
VaJUcinia PropAetoruii^Ctmimettfarntf trUx" 
CUB in Uhros Prophdearum vet. Ikstcan. (ib. 
1815); Api^endix to his theok)gicai works 
(1821). 

Jail, or Gaol ; aprison or place of le- 
gal coi^ement This word is formed 
trcmi the French geoU, and that from the 
bariMTOin Lb^ word geokij gtwla^ gayola 
(a cage) ; whence the Picards still call a 
bird-cage gcofcUe. (For some remarks on 
the subject of prisons, see Prwon.) 

VOL. VII. 14 



Jalap has received its name from be- 
ing principally brought from the envux>ns of 
Xalapa ; though the plant which produces 
It is abundant in other parts of Mexico, 
even in the immediate vicinity of Vera 
Cruz. It is much employed in medicine, 
as a very valuable purgative, and has been 
known m Europe since the year 1610. It 
is exported exclusively from Vera Cruz, to 
the amount of about 400,000 pounds annu- 
ally. The plant is the convokndus jalapa 
of authors, an herbaceous twining vine, 
having entire cordate or three tofivelobed 
leaves, and large white flowers with pur- 
ple veins. The root, which is the part 
employed, is very large, sometimes weigh* 
in? 50 pounds. 

Jamaica ; one of the West India islands, 
belonging to Great Britain, and the 
most considerable and valuable of her 
possessions in that quarter. It is of an 
oval form, about 150 miles in length, and, 
on a medium, about 40 miles in breadth ; 
lying 30 leagues west of St Domingo. A 
lofty range of mountains, called the Blue 
mountains, runs through the whole island 
from east to west, dividing it into two 
parts, and rising in some of its most ele- 
vated peaks to 7431 feet above the level 
of the sea. On the north and south sides 
of these mountains, the aspect of the 
country is extremely different On the 
north fflde of the island, the land rises 
from the shore into hills, which are more 
remarkable for beauty than boldness, be- 
ing all of gentie acclivity, and commonly 
senarated from each other by spacious 
vaJes and romantic inequalities. Eveiy 
valley has its rivulet, and every hill its 
cascade. On the southern side of the 
island, the scenery is of a different nature, 
consisting of the stupendous ridges of the 
Blue mountains, of abrupt precipices and 
inaccessible cli^ approachmg me shore. 
The soil of Jamaica is in some places 
deep and fertile ; but, on the whole, £d- 
vTBTdB pronounces it to be an unfruitfhl 
and laborious countiy, compared vrith 
those which have been generally regarded 
as fertile. He calculates the island to con- 
tain 4,080,000 acres, of which not more 
than about 2,000,000 have been granted to 
individuals by .patent from the crown. 
The island is well watered. There are 
about 100 rivers, which take their rise in 
the mountains, and run, commonly vrith 
great rapidity, to the sea on both sides of 
uie island. None of them are navigable, 
except for boats. Black river is the deep- 
est, and has the greatest current There 
are sprmgs, both sulphureous and chalyb- 
eate, in difierent parts of the country 

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158 



JABiAIC\. 



The climate of Jamaica on the olaios is 
hot, the average heat from Juoe to Novem- 
ber inclunve, being 80^ Fahr^ and, in the 
colder season, from 70 to 80. On the 
higher grounds, the heat is less. The 
year, as in all tropical countries, may be 
divided between the wet and dry seasons. 
Sugar, indigo, cotton and coffee are the 
most important natural productions of Ja- 
maica. Maize, or Indian, and Guinea 
com, and rice, are also cultivated. The 
bread-fruit tree, with several other useful 
plants, has been introduced by the exer- 
tions of sir Joseph Banks. The island al- 
so abounds with different kinds of sraas, 
of excellent quality. The several kinds 
of kitchen garden produce, namely, those 
edible roots and pulse which are in use 
throughout Europe, thrive well in the 
mountainous parts. There are also ex- 
cellent vegetables of native growth. The 
other indigenous productions are plantains, 
bananas, yams oi several varieties, calalue 
(a species of spinace), eddoes, cassavi and 
sweet potatoes. Fruits are found in equal 
perfection and variety, and no country af- 
fords so magnificent a dessert The moun- 
tains are also covered with extensive 
woods, contaiiiinff excellent timbers, some 
of which are of prodigious growth and 
solidity ; while others, as the well known 
mahogany, are well adapted for cabinet 
work. The indigenous quadrupeds of the 
island were the agouti, the pecare or Mexi- 
can hog, the armadillo, the opossum, the 



raccoon, the musk-rat, the afco, and the 
monkey. The agouti perhaps remains, 
and the raccoon was numerous in the time 
of sir Hans Sloane. The other animals 
are extirpated. Of the lizard, there are 
many varieties. The woods and marshes 
abound in great variety of wild fowl, 
some of exquisite flavor. Parrots are still 
found in the groves ; but the flamingo is 
nowhere to hs seen. The limit of the 
miasmata and pestilential atmosphere, in 
this zone, is supposed to be at an elevation 
of about ISOO feet above the sea. At that 
heiffht, the air is perfectly salubrious. The 
high district, called Pedro jdams, on the 
south-west coast of Jamaica,is said,by Bryan 
Edwards, to vie with any spot on the sur- 
&ce of the globe, in the mildness of its 
temperature and the purity of its air. At 
the estate of Cold Spring, 4200 feet above 
the level of the sea, he thought the cli- 
mate the most delightful he had ever ex- 
perienced ; the thermometer seldom falls 
below 55^, or exceeds 70^ ; biJa many 
English fiuits, as the apple, peach, 
strawberry, &c., flourish there in perfec- 
tion. Jamaica is situated near the limits 



of the great volcanic region of Booth 
America, and it is, in conseauence, liable 
to earthquakes. Jime 7, 1802, at mid-day, 
an earthquake destroyed the town of Port 
Royal. The convulsion lasted about three 
minutes, when the town sunk several ftth- 
oms under water. The walb of the 
buildings may still be seen in cakn weath- 
er. The heavy buildings throughout the 
island were thrown down, shattered moun- 
tains ruined many settlements, general 
sickness ensued, order and industry were 
at an end, and a mischievous confusion 

Prevailed until the terror subsided ; 3000 
ves were lost by this visitation. Smart 
shocks are fek almost every year ; in 1802, 
and again in 1816, they were more violent 
than usual. Hurricanes are more fiequent, 
and, in many cases, more terrible and de- 
suructive than earthquakes. A succession 
of hurricanes desolated this and some of 
the neighborinff islands for seven years, 
beginning in 1780, with the exception on- 
ly of 17& and 178a The first, in 1780, 
was much the most destructive. The 
amount of property destroyed exceeded 
2,000,000 pounds steriing. The grazing 
farms have lately increued much, and 
homed catde are abundant They feed 
on Guinea grass, which was introduced 
by means of seeds brought and dropped 
by birds, in the middle of the last centu- 
ry. The oxen are chiefly from the Span- 
ish breed, small, but hardy. The sheep 
are said to have been originally African. 
The swine are smaller than those of Eu- 
rope, and have short pointed ears. The 
pork is said to be much whiter and sweet- 
er than that of Great Britain. The wild 
hog abounds in the remote woods. The 
chase of the wild boar is a &vorite diver- 
sion of the Creole whites. The Creole 
horses are small, but active. The Englisfa 
and North American horees do not so well 
endure the climate. The mules do the 
heavy work of the plantations, and are ca- 
pable of enduring twice as much fatisue 
as a horse. The hitter is seldom used as 
a beast of burden. The carts and wagons 
are drawn by oxen. The rats are very 
numerous and destructive, particulariy to 
the sumr cane ; in some years, whole 
fields of this plant are as completelv de- 
stroyed by them as if a Might had alight- 
ed on them. Eight or ten hogsheads of 
sugar are supposed to be annually lost in 
this way out of eveiy hundred. 50,000 
rata have been caught on some properties 
in a nngle year, but no sensible dmiinution 
of their number takes place. The nomem 
eat them dressed in molasses. The ^gis- 
lature of Jamaica is composed of the gov- 

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JABIAICA. 



159 



of a council nominated by the 
crown, consistinff of 12 gentlemen, and a 
house of aasemDiy containinff ,43 mem^ 
ben, who are elected by thelroehOldefB. 
The most important articles of export 
produced in the island are sugar, rum, 
molames, coiiee, cocoa, cotton, indiffo, pi- 
mento and ginger. Population of Jamai- 
ca at different periods : 

Tmtb. WUtea. FVu Peoplt ^ Color, Savoo, 

1658 . . . 4,500 1,400 

1787 . . 90,000 10,000. . .250,000 

The slaves amounted in 1812, to 319,912 ; 
in 1817, to 346,150; in 1836, 331,119. 
This decrease is, owing chiefly to the 
manumission of the slaves. iThe free 
people were supposed, in 1812, to amount 
to 40,000 ; but it is probable that the whites 
alone exceed that number at present, that 
the free people of color are as many 
more, and that the whole population ex- 
ceeds 400,000. The capiml is St Jago de 
la Vega, or S|)anish Town (7000 inhabi- 
tanti). Kingston is the principal place in 
tlie island (35,000 inhabitants). Lon. 76^ 
45^ W.; laLl8'12'N. 

mBtorical Sketch. — Jamaica was discov- 
ered by Columbus, May 3, 1494, in his 
second expedition to the new world. In 
June, 1503, being on his return from Vera- 
gua to Hispaniola, he was driven by tem- 
pestuous weather uimn this island, where 
he remained upwaras of 12 months, having 
lost his vessels, and suffered every variety 
of hardship. After his death, his son 
Diego, as hereditary viceroy of the coun- 
tries discovered by his father, sent out, in 
1509, to Jamaica, Juan de Esquivel, who 
conciliated the natives by his kindness ; 
and the island prospered under his admin- 
istration. His successors, however, appear 
to have adopted the cniel {K)licy of other 
governors of that period . So entire was the 
extermination of the Indians at Jamaica, 
that of a population of 60,000 persons living 
at the discovery of Columbus, not a single 
descendant was alive little more than a 
centuiy and a half afterwards. In 1596, an 
Endish party took the capital, and deliver- 
ed it up to pillage. Forty years after- 
wards, it was again invaded by a force 
from the Windward islands, and the town 
of St Jago de la Vega was plundered. 
Jamaica was finally conquered by the 
English during the administration of Oli- 
ver CromwelE The whole number of 
whites at this time did not exceed 1500, 
and the number of negroes was about the 
same. The Spanish inhabitants, rendered 
desperate by oppression, made a manly 
resistance, and for a long time the English 
were harassed bv their vindictive incur- 
sions. Cromwell encouraged emigration, 



both fix)m Great Britun and the other colo- 
nies in the West Indies. Two or three thou- 
sand pereons were engaged by Henry 
Cromwell in Ireland, and a considerable 
number embarked from Scotiand for this 
purpose ; and, in the hands of governor 
D^Oyley, the government was administer- 
ed with energy. In May, 1658, an attempt 
was made by the Spaniards to recover the 
island ; but the force which landed for this 
purpose was repulsed. About this time, 
the settiement became the resort of the 
buccaneers, who spent their immense 
gains in characteristic extravagance, and 
enriched the inhabitants. After the resto- 
ration of Charles II, Jamaica became a 
place of refu^ for many republicans who 
had distinguished themselves in the civil 
contest One of the first measures of the 
monareh was to continue D'Oyley in of- 
fice, and authorize the election of a coun- 
cil and assembly of representatives by the 
people. This, which was the first estab- 
lishment of a reguhur civil government, 
the island having fc«en previouay govemed 
by martial law, took place in 1631. Af- 
terwards, controversies arose between the 
assembly and the crown, which unsettied 
the affiius of Jamaica for a space of fifty 
years. At length, in 1728, a compromise 
was effected. The assembly consented to 
scttie on the crown a standing revenue of 
£8000 per annum, on certain conditions, 
of which the following are the principal : 
1. That the quit rents arising within the 
idand should form nan of tiie revenue : 
SL that the bodv of^ their laws should 
receive the royal assent; and, 3. that all 
such laws and statutes of England, as had 
been esteemed laws in the ismnd, should 
continue such. The most important 
event in the recent histoiy of Jamaica, is 
the final overthrow and exile of that for- 
midable band of fugitive negroes, who, un- 
der the name of Jnaroons, JEad formed an 
independent and hostile community in the 
island, for the greater part of a century. 
On the conquest of the island from the 
Spaniards, a multitude of African slaves 
fled to the mountains, beyond the reach 
of the invaders, and maintained them- 
selves in these fasmesses in spite of all their 
efforts. Their numbere were continually 
increased by the accession of deserting 
slaves, and a harassing conflict was kept 
up with the whites, in which the jatter 
were the principal sufferera. In 1736, an 
accommodation was effected, and a spe- 
cies of independence guarantied to these 
hardy outlaws ; but at kngth, in 1795, hos- 
tilities broke out again. The activity and 
skill of the Maroons rendered them an 
overmatch for the great ^^c* bretight 

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JAMAICA-^AMEg I OF SCOTLAND. 



aflavDst them. In this state of things, the 
luitish resorted to the use of blood-hounds, 
100 of wliich were imported from Cuba, 
and, under the direction of experienced 
huntsmen, were let loose upon tlie moun- 
taineers, to seize and tear the unhappy 
fugitives. Thus hunted down like wild 
beasts, and hemmed in by a force too 
powerful to be overcome, they had no al- 
ternative but submission. The expulsion 
of this brave and unhappy race was de- 
termined upon, and finally carried into 
effect Atx)ut 600 were transported to 
the cold and bleak shores of Nova Scotia, 
where many of them perished miserably. 
(See Long's HisL of Jamaica (3 vols., 1774) ; 
Edwanl?s HisL of ike W. Indies (1809); 
Roughley's/amotcaPton^^ Guuie(1820). 

JiJffBLicHus ; an eminent philosopher, a 
native of Chalcis, in Coelosyria, who flour- 
ished in the beginning of the 4th ceutuiy. 
He was the scholar of Anatolius and of 
Porphyry, and, having become perfect in 
the mysteries of the Plotinian school, he 
taught with vast reputation. He professed 
to perfonn wondeis by the aid or invisible 
bem^ His writings discover extensive 
leadmg^ but his style is inelegant, and he 
borrows fieely, especially from Porphyry. 
The school of Jamblichus produced many 
eclectic philosophers, who were dicpersed 
throughout the Roman empire. The 
philosophical works of Jamblichus, now 
extant, are, the Life of Pythagoras ; an 
Exhortation to the Smdy of Philoso|rfiy ; 
Three Books on Mathematical Learning ; 
a Commentary upon Nicomachus's Insti- 
tutes of Arithmetic ; and a Treatise on 
the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans 
and Assyrians. St Jerome states that he 
also wrote a copious commentary on the 
golden veises of Pythagoras. He died 
about 333. This Jambljchus must be dis- 
tinguished from the person of the same 
name, to whom the emperor Julian ded- 
icates his episdes, for Julian was scarcely 
bom when the successor of Porphyiy 
died. The best editions of Jambhchus 
are these: De Mjfst. Egypt. ChakL d Jls- 
n/r. nee non aUi Ttactatus pkUosophici, 
Aldus (Venice, 1497); De Myst. Egypt, 
nee non Porphwii Epistola, dtc, Gr. dZat., 
Gale (Oxon. 1678) ; and De Vita Pythag., 
Gr. etLat, Kuster (Amsterdam, 1704, 4to. 

James, St., called the Greater, die son 
of Zebedee and the brother of John the 
evangelist, was bom at Bethsaida in Gali- 
lee. He was called to be a& aposde, to- 
gether with St. John, as they were mend- 
mg their nets with their fether, Zebedee, 
who was a fisherman. Christ gave Aem 
the name of Boanerges, or sons of ^Jbin- 



dtr. They then followed Christ, were 
witnesses with St Peter of the transfigura- 
tion on mount Tabor, and accompanied 
our Lord in the garden of Olives. It m 
believed that St James first preached the 
gospel to the dispersed Jews, and after- 
wards returned to Judea, where he 
preached at Jerusalem, when the Jews 
stirred u» Herod Agrippa against lum» 
who put him to a cruel death, about the 
year 44. Thus St. James was the first of 
the aposdes who suffered martyrdom. 
St. Clement of Alexandria relates that 
his accuser was so struck with his con- 
stancy, that he became converted, and suf- 
fered with him. There is a magnificent 
church at Jerusalem^ which bears the 
name of SL Jamts, and belongs to the Ar- 
menians. The Spaniards pretend that 
they had St. James for their apostle, and 
boost of possessing his body ; but Baronius, 
in his annals, refutes their pretensions. 
— James, St., called the LeM, an aposde, 
the brother of Jude, and the son of Cle- 
ophas and Maijr, the sister of the roodier 
of our Lord, is called in Scripture the 
Just, and the hrothsr of Jesus, who ap- 
peared to him in particular after his reaur- 
rection. He was the first bishop of Jeru- 
salem when Ananias II, high priest of 
the Jews, catised him to be condemned 
and delivered into the hands of the people 
and the Pharisees, who threw him dowa 
from the steps of the temple, when a ftiller 
dashed out nis brains with a club, about 
the vear 62. He vras the author of tbe 
epistle which bears his name. 

Jamss, St., op the Swoed T 
Espada) ; a military order in Spain, Insti- 
tuted in 1170, by Ferdinand II, king of 
Leon, to stop the incursions of the Moors. 
The knights must prove their descent fix>m 
fiunihee that have been noble on both sides 
for four generations, and that their ances- 
tors have neither been Jews, Saracens nor 
heretics, nor called in question by the in- 
quisition. Their vows are those of nover- 
tv, obedience, conjugal fidelity, and tne de- 
fence of the immaculate conception of the 
holv virgin. 

Jam£s I, king of Scodand,of the house 
of Stuart, bom in 1394, was the son of 
Robert III, by Annabella Drummood. 
In 1405, his fiither sent him to France, in 
order tliat he might escape the danger to 
which he was exposed by die ambition of 
his uncle, the duke of Albany ; but, behdg 
taken by an English squadron, he and bis 
suite were carri^ prisoners to the Tower 
of London. Here he received an excel* 
lent education from Henry IV of Engkind, 
and, to relieve the tedium of captivity, ap- 



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JAMES I OF SCOTLAND-JAMES I OF ENGLAND. 



161 



plied himself to those poetical and literary 
pufKiits, the eadstinff evidences of which 
do him honor. Robert III died the fol- 
lowing year, and James was proclaimed 
king ; but, during the remainder of the 
reign of Heniy IV, and the whole of that 
of Hemy V, he was ungenerously detain- 
ed in England, with a view to prevent the 
alliance of Scotland with France. This 
did not, however, prevent the apprehend- 
ed result At length, under the regency 
of the duke of Bedford, he was restored 
to his kingdom, after a detention of 18 
years, at vvnich time ho was in his 30th 
year, and highly accomplished, both men- 
tally and in the manly exercises. He 
married Joanna Beaufort, a lady of dis- 
tinguished beauty, of the blood royal of 
England, who is thought to be the fiiir 
dame alluded to in his pleasing poem of 
the King's Quhair, of whom he became 
enamored, from beholding her in the royal 
gardens £bom the vrindows of his apart- 
ments, while a captive in Windsor castle. 
On his return to Scotland, finding that the 
duke of Albany and his son had alienated 
many of the most valuable possessiQ^ of 
the crown, he caused them to be convicted 
and executed as traitora, and their estates 
to be confiscated. These and some other 
strong measures in the resumption of im- 
provident granta, under the regency of 
the dukes of Albany, were atoned for by 
the enactment of many good laws in his 
parliaments ; and, as far as a lawless no- 
bility would allow them to l)e put in prac- 
tice, they much improved the state of 
society in Scotland. In 1436, he renewed 
the Scottish alliance with France, giving 
his daughter Marsaret in marriage to the 
dauphin, and sending with her a splendid 
train and a large body of troops. A fruit- 
less endeavor of the English to prevent 
this marriage, by intercepting the Scottish 
fleet in its passage, so exasperated James, 
that he declared war against England. He 
was, however, on such bad terms with his 
nobility, in coiiseouence of his endeavors 
to cuib their amoition and improve bis 
revenue, that he was obliged to disband 
his army, under the apprehension of a 
conspiracy. He then retired to the Car- 
thusian monasteiy of Perth, which he 
had himself founded, where he lived in a 
state of privacy, which facilitated the suc- 
cess of a plot formed against his life. 
The chief actors in this tragedy were 
Robert Graham, and Walter, earl ofAthol, 
the king's uncle, the former of whom was 
actuated by revenge for the resumption 
of some famds improperly granted to his 
fiunily, and the latter bv the nopes of suc- 



ceeding to the crown. By means of 
bribery, the assassins gained admission to 
the king's apartment ; and an alarm being 
raised, the queen's ladies attempted to 
secure the chamber door. One of them, 
Catharine Douglas, thrust her arm through 
the staple, in which state she remained 
until it was dreadfully broken by the as- 
sailants. The instant the assassins got 
into the apartments, they dragged the king 
from his concealment, and, in spite of the 
cries and remonstrances of the queen, 
who in vain threw herself between them 
and the object of their resentment, out 
bun to death by multiplied wounds. He 
perished in the 44th year of his ace, and 
13th of hisieign, Feb. 20, 1437, leaving 
one son and five daughters ; and his mur- 
der was punished by the deaths of 
the conspirators in exquisite tortures. 
The king, who may be said to have fallen 
a martyr to his attempts to abolish the 
anarphy and disorder which prevailed 
throughout his kingdom, holds no incon- 
^derable place in the catalo^e of royal 
authors, by his poems of the long's Quhair, 
already mentioned, Christ's Kirk o' the 
Green, &c., the latter of which is humor- 
ously descriptive of the manners and pas- 
times of the age. James is also said to have 
been a skilful musician, and some attribute 
to him the composition of several of the 
most admired of the Scottish melodies ; but 
of this doctor Bumey is much inclined 
to doubt An accurate list of the works 
of James I will be found in Park's edition 
of Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors. 

James V of Scotland succeeded, in 
1513, at the death of his fiither, James IV, 
though only 18 months old. His mother, 
Margaret of England, governed during 
his childhood ; but, at the age of 17, he 
assumed the reins of government, and, in 
lS35j married Magdalen, daughter of Fran- 
cis I, who died two years afler. He after- 
wards married Mary of Lorraine, widow 
of Louis of Orleans, and died Dec. 13, 
1543, leavmg the throne to his only child, 
Mary Stuart, who was bom only eight 
days before his death. 

Jambs I. of England, and VI of Scot- 
land, was the son of Mary, queen of Scot- 
land, by her cousin Henry lord Damley. 
He was bom at Edmburgh casde, m June, 
1566, at the unfortunate jseriod when his 
mother was at variance with her husband, 
and bad begun to ^x her affections on the 
earl of Botfawell. In th# stomiy and dis- 
graceful times which followed, the infant 
prince was committed to the charge of 
the eari of Mar ; and, in the foltowing year, 
Mary being forced to resign the crovm, he 



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1» 



JAMES I OF ENGLAND. 



was solemnly crowned at Stirling, and 
from that tbne all public acts ran in his 
name. His childhood was passed in ciyil 
wars, under the regencies of Murray, Mar 
and Morton, during which time he resided 
in Stirling castle, under the tuition of the 
celebrated Buchanan. His progress in 
school-learning was rapid ; but, as his char- 
acter opened, an instabiliw and weakness 
of temper became manliest, which indi- 
cated what, in the sequel, proved to be 
the case, that he would become an ea^ 
prey to flatterers, and his reign be marked 
by mjudicious favoritism. From the first, 
too, he seems to have imbibed those ex- 
tdted notions of the royal authority ami 
divine right which proved so injurious to his 
posteri^. Some injudicious measures, in 
the spirit of these opinions, early produced a 
conspiracy of his nobles against him, who, 
in 1582, took possession of his person at 
Ruthven casUe. A new confederacy, 
however, effected his liberation, and he 
again put himself under the direction of 
his favorite, the earl of Arran. The pol- 
icy of queen Elizabeth, whose apprehen- 
sions from the Catholic party in ravor of 
Mary, led her to employ every art to keep 
up a dissatisfied party in Scotland, was 
gready assisted by the violent and unprin- 
cipled measures of Arran against the con- 
nexions of the late conspirators, many of 
whom fled to England. When, howev- 
er, it became apparent that the life of his 
mother was in danger from the sentence 
of an English judicature, James, who had 
hitherto treated her vei^ irreverentiv, felt 
himself called upon to mtcrfore. He ac- 
cordingly wrote a menacing letter to Eliz- 
abeth on the subject, appealed to other 
courts for assistance, and assembled his 
nobles, who promised to assist him either 
to prevent or revenge that queen^s injus- 
tice. When the news of the catastrophe 
arrived, he rejected with proper spirit the 
excuses of Elizabeth, and prepared for 
hostilities; but he was finally prevented 
from engaging in actual war by the inad- 
equacy of his resources. One of the first 
acts of his majority was to reconcile the 
feuds of his nolnlity, whom, for that pur- 
pose, he invited to a grand festival at Ho- 
I3rrood house. On the threatened invasion 
of England by Philip II, he judiciously 
resolved to assist Elizabeth against the 
Spaniards, and was zealously supported 
by his people for the preservation of Prot- 
estantism, who entered into a national 
covenant to maintain it In 1589, James 
iiianied Anns^ daughter of Frederic, king 
of DenmariL On his return home, after 
poasmg the winter in festivities at Copen- 



hagen, he was in some danger fiiom con- 
spiracies against his life ; and, for seveni 
succeeding years of his reign, the history 
of Scotland displays much turbulence 
and party contest In 1600, while the 
country was in a state of unusual tnm- 
quillity, a very extraordinary event took 
place, the causes of which were never 
discovered. While the king was upon a 
hunting excursion, he was invited by the 
brother of Ruthven, eari of Gowrie, to 
ride with a small train to the earl^ house 
at Perth. Here he was led to a remote 
chamber, on pretence of a secret to be 
commuiucated to him, where he found a 
man in complete armor ; and a dagger was 
put to his breast l^ Ruthven, witn threats 
of immediate death. His attendants, beirijg 
alarmed, came to his aid. Gowrie and his 
brother were slain, and the king escaped 
unhurt. In 1603, James succeeded to the 
crown of England, on the death of Eliza- 
beth, and prMieededy amidst the acclama- 
tions of his new subjects, to London. One 
of his first acts was to bestow a profusion 
of honors and tides on the inhabitants of 
both countries, in which, as in many otlier 
points, he displayed a contrast to the max- 
ims of the late reign. A conference held 
at Hampton court, between the divines of 
the established chiuch and the Puritans, 
afforded James an opportunity of exhibit- 
ing his skill m theological controveray,and 
the ill will he bore to popular sch<nnes of 
churoh government The meeting of 
parliament also enabled him to assert 
those principles of absolute power in the 
crown which he could never practically 
maintain, but the theoretical claim of 
which provided the increasing spirit of 
freedom in the house of commons with 
constant matter of alarm and conientioo. 
Although James had behaved with great 
lenity to the Catholics in Scotland^ those 
in England were so disappomted in their 
expectations of fiivor, that tlie famous 
gunpowder plot vras concerted in 1606^ 
the object of which was to blow up the 
king and pariiament (See Gur^plowdcr 
PloL) His cares for reducmg and improv- 
ing Ireland do him honor. In 1612, be 
lost his eldest son, Henry, a prince of 
peat promise, then of the age of 19; and, 
in the following year, the eventful nuu*- 
riage of his daughter Elizabeth with the 
elector palatine took place. About this time, 
the object of the weak passion of James 
for handsome fiivorites was Robert Carr, a 
youth firom Scotland, who in a short tinie 
was raised fiom acourt page to be eail of 
Somerset, and was loaded with honon 
and riches. The scandalous murder of 



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JAMES I OF ENGLANn-^AMES U OF ENGLAND. 



ur Thomas Oveibury, by the machiDations 
of this tninioo and liis infamous couotesa, 

gut an end to the king's partiality, although 
e disgracefully panloned the principals 
in the murder, while he allowed their 
agents to be executed. The fate of Som- 
eiset pared the way for the rise of George 
yUIierB, duke of Buckingham. (See Buck- 
ingham,) No circumstance in the reign of 
James was more unpopular than his treat- 
ment of the celebrated sir Walter Raleigh. 
Soon after the king's accession, that states- 
man, who had been oppoeed to the Scottish 
euccession, engaged in a plot to set aside 
James in favor of the lady Arabella Stuart, 
for which he was tried and capitally con- 
victed, but, being reprieved, was kept 13 
years in prison. In 1615, he obtained ins 
release by dint of money, and was allowed 
to set out upon an expedition to the South 
seas, in search of gold, with the sentence 
of death hanging over his head. He was 
unsuccessful m his objects, and James, in- 
stigated, as it is supposed, by his demre of 
an alliance between prince Charles and the 
Infanta of Spain, listened to the suggestions 
of the latter power, and, to the great scan- 
dal of the whole nation, sir Walter was 
executed upon his former sentence. The 
match with the In&nta, notwithstanding, 
failed, and Charles married Henrietta Ma- 
ria, daughter of Henry IV of France, with 
the disgraceful stipulation, that the chil- 
dren should be brought up by their mother 
until 13 years of age ; to which arrange- 
ment the future relijdous opinions of 
Charies U and James U may, perhaps, be 
attributed. The close of the lire of James 
was maiked by violent contests with his 
parliament, which prepared dreadful con- 
sequences for his successor. He was also 
much disquieted by the misfortune of his 
son-in-law, the elector palatine, who, hav- 
ing been induced to accept the crown of 
Bohemia, and to head the Protestant in- 
terest in Germany, was stripped of all his 
dominions by the emperor. Urged by 
national feelings for the Protestant cause, 
he was at len^Ui, in 1624, induced to de- 
clare war against Spain and the emperor; 
and troops were sent over to Holland to 
act in conjunction with prince Maurice. 
The defeat of this enterprise, through 
sickness and mismanagement, it is thought, 
produced the king so much uneasiness as 
to cause the mtermittent fever by which 
he was soon after attacked, and of which 
he died in March, 1625, in the ^ih year 
of his age. — James was not destitute of 
abilities nor of good intentions, but the 
former were not those of a ruler, and the 
latter were defeated by {Ability and im- 



manly attachments. His rdgn, althougb 
not i^iprosperous to his subjects, was in- 
glorious in character and loss of influence^ 
and he was neither bek>ved at home nor 
esteemed abroad. He received during 
his lifetime a ^reat deal of adulation, on 
the score of his literary abilities ; but he 
merits far more as an encourager of learn- 
ing, than for the fruits of it msplayed by 
himself, all of which were debased by 
pedantiyand prejudice. Upon the whole, 
the ffood quahties of James were unstates- 
maiuike, and his bad ones unmanly and 
puerile. 

James II, kinc of England, and VII of 
Scotland, second son of Charles I and of 
Henrietta of France, was bom in October, 
1633, and immediately declared duke of 
York. Afler the capture <^ Oxford by the 
parliamentaiy army, he escaped, in 1648, 
at the age ofl^ and was conaucted to his 
sister, the princess of Orange. He soon 
afler joined his mother at Paris, and, when 
he had reached his 20th year, served in 
the French army under Turenne, and 
subsequently entered the Spanish army in 
Flanders, under don John of Austria and 
the piince of Cond^. In these campaigns 
he obtained reputation and experience, 
although with the display of no very great 
or shining qualities. At the restoration, 
he took the command of the fleet, as lord 
high admiral He had previously married 
Anne, daughter of chancellor Hyde, after- 
wards lord Clarendon (see CUtrendon), 
apd ungenerously attempted to free him- 
self from the union ; but the marriage be- 
ing satisfactorily established, he could not 
succeed. In 1664, he took a leadine part 
in promoting a Dutch war, for the aneg^ 
interests of trade, and, June 3^ 1665, with 
a powerful fleet under his command, en- 
gaged that of the Dutch under Opdam, 
who, with his ship, was blown up m the 
action, and 19 of his squadron were sunk 
or taken, with tiie loss of only one on the 
part of the English. In 1671, the duchess 
of York died, leaving her husband two 
daughters, who became successively 

Sueens of England. Before her death, 
lie declared herself a convert to the Ro- 
man Catholic feith, which had been se- 
credy tiiat of the duke for many years, 
and was now openly avowed by him. 
This declaration produced a great impres- 
sion on the people, and laid the founda- 
tion of the opposition which finally drove 
him from the throne. In the Dutch war 
of 1672, he was again placed at the head 
of die fleet, and, being attacked by De 
Ruyter, a fbrious engagement ensued. 
The Dutch fleet at length retired. Atesta<rt 



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164 



JAMES II OF ENGLAND. 



being soon after passed, to prevent Roman 
CathoUcs from noldinff public eraploy- 
ments, the duke was obliged to resign his 
command — a result whicn induced him to 
join heartily in the plot of the king and 
certain of bis counsellors, to restore the 
Roman Catholic religion. In 1671, he 
married Maiy Beatrice of Este, daughter 
of the duke of Modena, and, in 1677, his 
eldest daughter, Mary, was united to Wil- 
liam, prince of Orange. Durine the vio- 
^ lent proceedings on account of the sup- 
posed popish plot in 1679, by the advice 
of the king, he retired to Brussels, and a 
bill passed the commons for his exclusion 
from the throne, which was, however, re- 
jected by the lords. When the royal 
party again prevailed, the duke, in 1681, 
was sent into Scotland, where he acted 
with great rigor, not to say cruelty, to the 
remnant of the Covenanters. It is even 
said that he sometimes personally assisted 
at the torture of criminals, and altogether 
exhibited himself as a man of a severe 
and unrelenting temper. Dunne the 
whole of the remaining reign of Cnaries 
II, indeed, during which he possessed 
ffreat influence in the government, he was 
rorward in promoting all the severe meas- 
ures that disgraced it On the death of 
Charles II, in February, 1685, the duke 
succeeded, under the Utle of James II, 
and, from the time of his ascending the 
throne, seems to have acted with a steady 
determination to render himself absolute, 
and to restore the Roman Catholic re- 
ligion. After disgusting the great majori- 
ty of his subjects, by attending mass with 
ml the ensigns of his dignity, he proceed- 
ed to levy ttie customs and excise without 
the authority of parliament He even sent 
an agent to Rome, to pave the way for a 
solemn reftdmisBion of England into the 
bosom of that chureh, and received ad- 
vice, on the score of moderation, from the 
pope himself. This conduct encouraged 
the rebellion of the duke of Monmouth. 
The unrelenting temper of James was 
again exhibited in the executions on this 
account The legal proceedings under 
Jeffreys weie bruml in the extreme ; and 
it is estimated that no fewer than 251 per- 
sons suffered in the west of England by 
the cruel proceedings of that infkmous 
iudge, which it was the custom of the 
kinff to gibe upon, under the name of 
Jtfiey^ eampcn^. The temporary awe, 
produced by this severity, even in parlia- 
ment, was so great, that Jamas was en- 
couraged to throw off almost all disguise, 
both in regard to lehgion and government 
By jdrtue of his aissumed dispensing pow- 



er, he rendered tests of no avail, and filled 
his army and council with Roman Cath- 
olics. He put Ireland entirelv into their 
hands, and governed Scotland by a few 
noblemen who had become converts to 
the same &ith. He gradually proceeded 
to a direct attack on the established 
church, by the foniiation of an ecclesias- 
tical commission, which cited before it all 
clergymen who had done any thing to 
displease the court A declaration of in- 
dulgence in matters of religion, was or- 
dered to be read by the clergy in all the 
churches of the kingdom. Seven bishops 
met, and drew up a lo^al and humble pe- 
tition against this ordmance, which step 
being considered as an act of disloyalty, 
they were sent to the Tower. The inno- 
vations, in regard both to the religion and 
government, gradually united opposine 
interests, and a large body of nobiUty and 
gentry concurred in an application to the 
pricTce of Orange, who had been secretly 
preparing a fleet and an army for the in- 
vasion of the country. James, who was 
long kept in ignorance of these transac- 
tions, wnen informed of them by his min- 
ister at the Hague, was struck with terror 
equal to his former infatuation ; and, im- 
mediately repealing all his obnoxious acts, 
he practised every method to gain popu- 
larity. All confidence was, however, de- 
stroyed between the king and the people. 
William arrived with his fleet in Torbay, 
Nov. 4, 1688, and landed his forces; but 
the remembrance of Monmouth's rebellion, 
for some time, prevented the people in 
the west from joining him, until, at length, 
several men of rank went over, and the 
royal army began to desert by entire regi- 
ments. Incapable of any vigorous reso- 
lution, and finding his overtures of accom- 
modation disreganled, he resolved to quit 
the country. He repaired to St Gfer- 
main, where he was received with great 
kindness and hospitality by Louis XIV. 
In the meantime, the throne of Great 
Britain was declared abdicated, and was 
filled, witii the national and parliamentary 
Consent, by his eldest daughter, Maiy, and 
her husband, William, conjointly ; Anne, 
who had, equally with her sister, been 
educated a stnct Protestant, bein^ declared 
next in succession, to the exclusion of tlie 
infant prince. Assisted bv Louis XIV, 
James was enabled, in March, 1689, to 
make an attempt for the recovery of Ire- 
land. The battle of the Boyne, fought June, 
1690, compeUed him to return to France. 
All succeeding projects for his restoration 
proved equalljr abortive, and he spent the 
hat years of his life in acts of ascetic de- 



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JAMES U OF ENGLAND-JAMESON. 



185 



votkn. He is even said to have entered 
into the society of Joeus. He died at St 
GrermaiD, September 16, 1701, at tlie age 
of 68. 

James III, the Pieteoder. (See Stuart, 
James Edward IVaneis.) 

James, Robert, an iiuj^eDious physician 
and medical writer, but beat known as the 
inventor of a specific for the cure of fever, 
was bom in ] 703. He practised medicine 
in I>oDdon, and engaged in the compila- 
tion of a medical dictionaiy, which ap- 
peared in 1743, in three volumes, folio. In 
tliia wock James is said to have been aa- 
aisted by his fiiend doctor Johnson, who 
has warmly eulogized his proiessional 
skin, in his Lives of the Poets. He pub- 
lished, in 1751, a DissertatioB upon Fevers, 
the purpose of which was to reoommend 
a peculiar medicine, since known by the 
name of James*$ powder. For this prep- 
aration he procured a patent, and sokl it 
as a secret remedy, by which he exposed 
himself to the hostility of his professional 
brethren, who looked upoA his conduct as 
inconsistent with the dignity of the med- 
ical character. James's powder is now 
known to be antimoniated phorohate of 
fime ; and a preparatifMi veiy similar to it^ 
if not exactly the same, has long had a 
place in the London FbannaeopoBia. 
The general respectability of his charac- 
ter as a man of science and literary ac- 
quirements, enabled him, in a great de- 
gree, to triumph over the prejudices excit- 
ed by a mode of conduct which placed 
him so near the level of those pests of so- 
ciety, the majority of advertisinf^ empirics 
and venders of patent medicines. In 
1760, he published a work entitled the 
Practice of Physic (2 vols., 8va), and sub- 
sequently a treatise on canine madness^ 
and a dispensatoiy. One of his last lite- 
raiy labors was, a Vindication of the Fo- 
yer Powder, not published till after his 
death, which took place in 1776. 

James's Palace, St., in Pall-Mall, 
London, a royal palace, stands on the 
site of an hospital of the same name. It 
has been the acknowledged town rea- 
dence of the English kings since White- 
ball was consumed, in 1^5 ; but, though 
pleasantly situated on the north side of St. 
James's park, and possessing many ele- 
gant and convenient apartments, calcu- 
lated for state purposes, yet it is an irregu- 
lar brick building, without a single exter- 
nal beauty to recommend it ss a palace. 
In the front, next to St James's sureet, 
little more than an old gate-house ap- 
pears, which serves as an entrance to a 
small square court, vrith a piazza on the 



west of it, leadmg to the mod staircase. 
The buildings are low, plain and mean, 
fieyond this are two other courts, which 
have little appearance of a king's palace. 
The state apaitments look towards the 
park ; and this side, though certainly not 
imposing, cannot be pronounced mean. 
It is of one story, and has a regular ap- 
pearance not to be found in other parts 
of the building. The south-east wing 
was destroyed b^ fire in 1806, and baa 
never been rebuilt, though the whole of 
the palace was repaired in 16S1 — 3-~3. 
The rooms of the kinc are nagnificent in 
a high degree. It is mm this palace that 
the cabinet of the lung of Great Britain is 
called the cMnet ^ 8L Jmmea, Behind 
this palace is St James's park. 

James's Park, St., was a complete 
marsh till die time of Henir VIII, vrfao, 
having built St James's pakee, endooed 
it, laid it out in walks, and, colleciing the 
waten, gave the new endosed gromd and 
buiklingthenameofiSt. Jsaief. Itwasaf- 
terwar£i much improved InrCharles IL 
He formed the oaBaJ,wbichis9800 feet kng, 
and 100 broad. Succeeding kings allowad 
the pe<^ the privilege of waH£ig here. 

Jajus Rivkr; a river, in Virginia| 
formed by the union of JadwonV and 
Cowpasture rfven. At the point where 
it begins to break through the Blue ridce, 
it is joined by North river. It pass es Try 
the nourishing towns of Lynchbuig ana 
Richmond, and eommunicates, througli 
Hampton road and the mouth of ne 
Chesapeake bay, with the Athntic. As 
genenu course is south of east A forty- 
gun ship may go up to Jamestown, and^ 
by lightening herself^ to Harrison's bar, 
v^ere there are 15 feet of water. Vea- 
sels of 250 tons go up to Warwick, and 
those of 120 to Rockets, just below Rich- 
mond. The river is navigable fer bat- 
teaux 390 miles above Richmond. It 
opens a navigation into a country abound- 
ing in tobacco^ wheat, eora, henqs eoal, 

Jameson, Robert, bom at Leith, near 
Edinburgh, is one of the most eminent 
British minendogisis, r^us professor of 
natural histoiy in the university at Edin- 
bujvh, keeper of the museum, presidont 
of die Wemerian sodety, member of the 
royal sodety of Edinburgh, of the antiqua- 
rian and Linniean societies. His lectures 
on geology, mineralogy, and the kindred 
sciences, have given him much reputa- 
tion, which has been increased by his 
writings. His first wortc (Outlines of the 
Mineralogy of the Sbedand Islands, and 
of the IsGmd of Amn) appeared in 1796. 



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106 



JAMESON-JANIZARIES. 



His Outlines of the Mineralogy of the 
Scottish Isles, &c. (1800,2 vols., 4to.), and 
his Treatise on the external ObaracteFS 
of Minerals (1605), which appeared with 
additions in 1816, embracing the Chemi- 
cal and Physical Characters, are particu- 
larly distinguished. His greatest woik 
(System of Mineralogy, 1804—1808, three 
volumes) is founded on* the Weroerian 
theoiy, and is rich in ori||inal researches. 
In the third edition of this System (1820) 
there are some deviations from this theo- 
ry, and the natural historical method is 
principally followed. Jameson published 
(1814) Cuvier's Essay on the Theory of 
the E^urth, with an introduction and min- 
eraloffical notes. He has also contributed 
valuable papers to Nicholson's Journal, 
and Thomson's Annals. 

Jaiixstown; a town in James City 
county, in Virginia, on an island in James 
river, 32 miles above its mouth, 8 S. W. 
^(iTilliamsburg, 65 £. S. E. Richmond. 
1%]S town was estabhriied in 1608, and 
was the fiist tovm settled by the English 
in the U. States. The town is now in 
ruins, and almost desolate. Two or 
three old houses, the ruins of an old stee- 
ple, a churchyard, and fiiint marks of the 
rude fbrtificatjons, are the only memorials 
of lis former impmtance. 

Jahi, or Djamt (properly Abd Mrhor 
mam ebn Aekmtdl a celebrated Persian 
uoet, bom in 1414, had his surname from 
his native place Jam, in the province of 
Chorasan. He eclipsed the greatest ge- 
niuses of his time. The sultan Abu Said 
invited him to his court at Herat; but 
Jami, who was a follower of the doctrine 
of the Sophi, preferred the ecstasies of a 

X'c to the pleasures of the court He 
sat in the hall of the great mosque 
at Herat, where he convened in a free 
and friendly manner with the conmion 
people, instructed them in the principles 
of virtue and religious faith, and won 
their hearts by his gentle and persuasive 
eloquence. When he died, in 1494, the 
whole city was in sorrow. The sultan 
gave him a magnificent funeral, at the 
public cost, and the earth, say the Persian 
poets, opened of itself like a shell, to re- 
ceive this invaluable pearl. He was one 
of the most fruitful of the Persian authors, 
leaving more than 40 works, mosdy of a 
mystical character. Seven of the most 
interesting he joined together, under the 
title of the Seven Stare of the Bear. To 
this belongs Jussuf and Zuleika, one of the 
most entertaining works in Persian, of 
which Law, in the Asiatic Miscellanies, 
has published some fragments; also the 



charming fiction Mejnoun and Leila, 
which has been translated into French by 
Chezy (Paris, 1805), and into German by 
Hartroann (Leipsic, 1807, 2 vols). His 
Bdunrigtan, a treatise on moraliQr, m verae 
and prose, is compared to Sadi's GkuUs- 
tan. Extracts from it have been printed 
by Jenisch (in the Anthologia Penica) and 
by Wilken (in the ChrtgUmaOda PersicOf 
Deipsic, 1805). According to Gothe, he 
combines all the excellences of the ear- 
lier Persian poet& 

Jamieso!!, John, doctor; a philologiaU; 
minister to a congregation of secedera 
from the Scottish church, in Edinburgh, 
member of the royal society of Edm- 
burgh, and secretary of the antiquarian 
society, &c. He firet appeared as a poet 
in 17^, when he published the Sorrows 
of Slaveiy. In 1798, appeared his Eter- 
nity, a poem in which he endeavors to 
IcMid freethinkera back to the faith. He 
also published a number of sermons 
against skepticism, and opposed the views 
of doctor Priestley and othere in several 
works (1795—1802). This pious scholar 
is highly esteemed as an antiquaiy and 
lexicographer. His Etymological Dic- 
tionary of the Scottish Language (1806 
et seq., two volumes, 4to.) is a master- 
piece of learned research. He published 
an abridgment of it in 1818. His Htrmts 
Sytfdew (1814), his Historical Account 
orithe ancient Culdees of lona, and his 
contributions to the Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Transactions, are fiivoraUy 
known. 

Janeiro, Rio de. (See Rio dt Janei- 
ro.) 

Janiculuh (catUUum)f or Mons Jantcu- 
Lus ; one of the seven bills of Rome, 
on the right bank of the Tiber, also 
called nums Aureus, on account of the 
yellow sand (corrupted into Montorio\, 
According to tradition, it received the 
name of Janiculum, because Janus first 
cultivated it It afforded the most beiui- 
tiful view of the city. The vons SubU" 
eiua connected it with the otner part of 
Rome, to which Ancus Martins added it 
The hill is now called Giamculo. 

Janina. (See Joanmncu) 

Janizaries. ^ In the year 1389," says 
Gibbon, ''the Turkish cimeter was 
wielded by Amurath I, the son of Orchan 
and the brother of Soliman. He subdu- 
ed the whole province of Romania or 
Thrace, from tbe Hellespont to mount 
Hffimus and the' verge of the capital. 
He marched against the Sdavonian na- 
tions between the Danube and the Adri- 
atic — ^tfae Bulgarians, Servians^ Bosnians 



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JANIZARIES. 



107 



ad their wariike tribei^ 
who had so offceD insulted the majesty of 
the empire, were repeatedly broken by 
his destnictiYe inroads. The natives of 
the soil have been distinguished in every 
age by their hardiness or mind and body, 
and they were converted, by a prudent 
iiiatitution,into the firmest and most fidth- 
.fiil supporters of Ottoman greatness. 
The vizier of Amursth reminded his sove- 
reign, that, according to the Mohammedan 
kw, he was entitled to a fifth part of the 
spoil and the ciqitives, and that the duty 
might easily be levied if vigilant ofilcers 
were stationed at GalUnoli to watch the 
passage, and to select for nis use the stoutest 
and most beautifiil of the Chrisdan youth. 
The advice was followed; the edict was 
proclaimed ; many thousands of the Eu- 
ropean captives were educated in the 
Mohammedan religion and- arms, and the 
new militia was consecrated and named 
by a celebrated dervish. Standing in the 
mHit of their ranks, he stretched the 
abo v e of his gown over the head of the 
fore m os t soklier, and his blessing was de- 
livered in these words-** Let them be 
called Janizaries {ymgi eftm, or new sol- 
diers); may their countenances be ever 
bright; their hand victorious; their 
swords keen; may their i^ar always 
hang over the heads of their enemies; 
snd, wheresoever they go, may they re- 
inra with a white fiuse.' Hldte und hiaick 
face are common and provert>ial ex- 
pressions of innaise and reproach in the 
TuikiBh language. Hie niger est, hime to, 
HosuBie, eoveto, was likewise a Latin sen- 
tence. Such was the orijrin of these 
naughty troops, the terror of the nations, 
and sometimes of the suhans themselves.** 
They were kept up by continual additions 
fitnn the sultan's share of the captives, 
and bv recruita, raised every five years, 
firom the children of the Christian subjects. 
Small parties of soldiers, each under a 
leader, and each provided with a perticu- 
kr firinan, went firom place to place. 
Wherever they came, the fraiogtro$ as- 
sembled the inhabitantB, with their sons. 
The leader of the soldiers had the rwht 
to take awav all the youth who were £s- 
tinguished by beauty or strength, activity 
or talent, atiove the age of seven, lie 
carried them to the court of the grand 
seignior, a tithe, as it were, of the subjects. 
The captives taken in war by the pachas, 
and presented by them to the sultan, mclud- 
ed Poles, Bohemians, Russians, Italians, 
and Gennana. These recruita were divid- 
ed into two classes. Those who composed 
the one, especially in the earlier pmods, 



were sent to Natolia, where they were 
trained to agricultural labor, and instructed 
in the Mussulman faith ; or they were re- 
tained about the seraglio, where they car- 
ried wood and water, and were employed 
in the gardens, in tlie boats, or upon the 
public DuildingB, always under the direc- 
tion of an overseer, who with a stick 
compelled them to work. The others, in 
whom traces of a higher character were 
discemible, were placed in one of the 
four sera^^ios of Adrianople or Galata, or 
the old or new one at Constantinople. 
Here they weie lif^htiy clad in linen or in 
cloth of Saloniki, with cape of Prusa 
doth. Teachers came every morning, 
who remained with them until evening, 
and taught them lo read and write. At a 
particular time, they were all circumcised. 
Those who luid performed hard labor 
were made janizanes. Those who were 
educated in the seraglios became either 
spahis, or higher officers of state. Both 
classes were kept under a sttict discii^e. 
The former, particulariy, were accustomed 
to privation of food, dnnk and comfbrta- 
Me dothinff, and to hard labor. They 
were exercised in shooting with the bow 
and harquebuas by day, and spent the 
night in a long, lighted hall, with an over- 
seer, who wa&ed up and down, and per- 
mitted no one to stir. When they were re- 
cdved into the corps of the janizaries, they 
were placed in ck>ister-like barracks, in 
which the difierent odoB or wias lived so 
entirely in common, that the military dig- 
nities were called from their soups and 
kitchens. Here not only the younger 
continued to obev the elders in silence 
and submission, but all were governed 
with such strictness, that no one was per- 
mitted to spend the night abroad, and who- 
ever was punished was compelled to kiss 
the hand of him who inflicted the punish- 
ment The younger portion in the se- 
raglios were kept not less strictiy, every 10 
b^g committed to the care of an inexo- 
rable eunuch. They were empk>yed in 
sinodlar exercises, but likewise m study. 
The grand seignior permitted them to 
leave the seraglio eveiy three years. 
Those who chose to remain, ascended, ac- 
cording to their age, in the immediate ser- 
vice of their master, from chamber to 
chamber, and to constantiy greater pay, 
till they attained, perhafNB, to one of the 
four great posts of the innermost cham- 
ber, from which the way to the dignity of 
a berierbeg, of a capitan deiri (that is, an 
adnmal), or even of a vizier, was open. 
Those, on the contrary, who took advan- 
tage of this permisBon, entered, each one 



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168 



JANIZARIES. 



according to his previous rank, into the 
lour firat corps or the paid spahis, who 
were in the immediate service of the sul- 
tan, and in whom he confided more than 
in his other body-guards. This institu- 
tion fully satisfied expectation. An Aus- 
trian ambasBador lit the court of Soliman, 
Busbeouius^ whose accounts are to be 
perfectly relied on, speaks of the strict dis- 
cipline of these janizaries, which made 
them appear at one time like monks, and 
at another like statues, of their simple 
dress, with only a few heron^ feathers 
lor an ornament to their heads^ and of 
their temperate life. They would not 
sufier one among them, who had grown 
up in the indulgences of home. This 
corps has in many instances been the sal- 
vation of the empire. The batde of Var- 
na, the foundation of the Ottoman pieat- 
nesB, would not have been sained without 
them. At Oassova, the Kumelian and 
Natolian troops had already fled before 
the devUy as tney called John Hunniades, 
yet the janizaries obtained the victory. It 
was their boast that they had never fled 
in battle ; and Lazarus Suendius, for a 
long time a German general against them, 
confessed the truth of this assertion. In 
all accounts they were called the nerve 
and the sinew of the Ottoman army. It is 
worthy of remark, that this invincible in- 
ftntry of the East was formed about the 
same time (in 1367) as the not less invinci- 
ble Swiss inftntry. The former, however, 
vras composed of slaves, and the latter of 
f>ee mountaineers. The whole body was 
divided into four squadrons, each con- 
taining a certain number of ortaa (troops). 
ESach oriOj in Constantinople, was suppos- 
ed to have 100 men ; elsewhere, 200 or 900. 
In time of war, the complement was 500 
men. The regimental rolls produced on 
the pay days made the whole number of 
the corps 1120,000; but those lists were 
never correct, and they comprehended all 
in actual service, the supernumeraries 
who hved by their trades and callings, and 
succeeded in case of vacancies, and the 
honorary members. Three yean' service 
gave a right to pay in time of peace. As 
the government furnished only a small 
allowance of provisions, and clothing for 
13,000 men, the privates were suffered to 
work at their trades. All the men of one 
regiment were bakers, all those of two 
otheis butchere; othen, again, were all 
boatmen, masons, fee, and they were 
named accordingly. The kidahf or cap 
of dhty white felt, with a long strip 
hangirig down behind, vras the distinetive 
part of a janizaiy's dress. The Turkiah 



troops were required to find their own 
arms, but, in time of war, fire-orms vrere 
fbmished to such soldiem as bad none, 
from the arsenal at Constantinople. A 
firelock, pistols, mace and axe were the 
arms earned by the infantry ; and the jani- 
zaries prided themselves in having not 
only well-tempered, but also richly oma- 
mented arms. Besides the standards and 
horse-tails placed before the tent of the 
aga, or commander-in-chie^ each oria 
had its own particular ensign. But a 
more important distinction, in the esd- 
mation of these troops, were the cal- 
drons attached to each orte, two or 
three in number, placed under die 
care of the subaltern officers. The loss 
of these was considered as the greatest 
misfortune which could befall the regi- 
ment ; and, if they were taken in war, all 
the officere were immediately cashiered^ 
and in many cases the regiment was pub- 
licly disgraced. In these caldrons the 
broth vras carried daily fit>m the bamckB 
to the difierent guard-houses. The po- 
lice of the capital and the large towns 
was intrusted principally to the janizaries. 
Lampoons and seditious papera affixed to 
the gates of the mosques, and conflagra- 
tions in various parts of the city, were the 
means by which this fbrmidid)le body 
made its displeasure known to the sultan ; 
but that discontent was seldom excited by 
any thing except the power of some un- 
popular minister, or the revival of a more 
ri^ discipline. In various instances, sul- 
tans were deposed, insulted and murdered 
by the insurgent janizaries. This corps 
ofifen the on^ example in Turkish histo- 
nr of a public anathema or bann. After 
the dethronement of Osman U, a janizaiy 
of the 65th company dared to raise bis 
hand against his Men monarch, and 
strike lum in the streets of the city. 
Amunth III punished the crime by cut- 
ting off the whole company. The m«n- 
oiy of the crime and the punishment was 
renewed tvriceeveiy month. On Wednes- 
day, when the lights were distributed 
to the different barracks, the 65th con^fia- 
ny was caUed to receive then* poition, but, 
at the second call, an officer replied, 
^Let their voice be silent; let them be 
wholly extinguished." The rofomis 
which were attempted in this corps met 
with the greatest opposition on the part 
of the members, and produced several 
revolutions. It was finally entirely brok- 
en up in 1896. In May, 1896, the ianiza- 
ries had declared themselves vrilnng to 
have a new militia fbrmed, but on the 
14th June of that year, they rebdled oft 



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JANIZARIES— JANSENIUS. 



m 



tbis account ; but the sultan and aga 
Hussein Pacha, at the head of the gnuid 
seignior's troops, repulsed the rebels; 
their barracks were burnt, and many were 
executed. The proclamation of June 17 
abolished the corps forever, and laid a 
curse upon the name. The new troops 
are disciplined in the manner of the Chris- 
tian nationsi. 

Jaivsenius, Cornelius, bom 1585, pro- 
fessor of theology at Louvain, and fit>m 
1636 bishop of Ypres in the Netherlands, 
owes his fiune, which eclipses the name 
of the elder ComeUus Jansenius (bishop 
of Ghent ; died 1571 ; known as a biblical 
critic), to the controversy, during his age, 
concerning the nature and emcacy of 
divine grace, (q. v.) Owing principally to 
the di&rent representations of tins doc- 
trine by Aucustine, who found it necessaiy 
to express himself differently in his dis- 
pute with the Manicheans and in that with 
the Pelagians, this controversy was re- 
med at the time of the reformation. The 
vague and contradictory expositions of 
the papal court on the subject, served only 
to increasiB the contention in the Catholic 
church, where the pride and jealousy of 
the Dominicans and Augustines on one 
side, and the artifices of the Franciscans 
and Jesuits on the other, kept up this an- 
gry controversy with increasing warmth, 
the former contending for the strict anti- 
Pelagian principles of Augustine, the latter 
adopting a milder interpretation of them. 
The latter obtained a triumph over their 
adversaries, in 1567, by the papal bull con- 
demning 76 propositions taken from the 
writings of the chancellor and inquisitor at 
Louvun, Michael Baius (died 1589], a 
learned defender of the Augustme doctrine. 
But the Spanish Jesuit, Lewis Molina 
(died 1600], went too far on the other side, 
in his more than semi-Pelagian commen- 
tary on the dogmatics of Thomas Aquinas. 
The violence of the Molinistic controver- 
sies compelled the pope, in 1598, to estab- 
lish the congregation de ctuxilUs at Rome, 
for the examination of opinions concern- 
ing grace ; and, this proving ineffectual to 
restore harmony,he wisely required(inl61 1] 
of the contending parties, silence on this 
doctrine. Jansenius, who was an advocate 
of the strict Augustine system, which had 
always prevailed at the university of Lou- 
vain, died 1638, at Ypres, with an unblem- 
ished reputation for piety and purity of 
morals. But his ^ugustinua, a book in 
which he maintained the Augustine doc- 
trine of free grace, and recommended it as 
the true orthodox belief, in opposition to 
the semi-Pelagianism of the Molinists, re- 

VOL. Til, 15 



kindled the controversy on its publication 
in 1640. The book was condemned by a 
bull of pope Urban VIII, in 1643; but 
the partisans of Jansen declared the bull 
to be spurious ; the university of Louvain 
protested a^nst it ; and, even in France, 
it was inelroctual to suppress the applause 
with which many distinguished theologi- 
ans received the ^u^uatinus. Jansen's 
old friend, the abbot of St Cyran, known 
as the director of the nuns of Port Royal, 
and a zealous opposer of the Jesuits, as 
well as for his mysticism and ascetic 
pietv, John du Verger de Hauranne (died 
164^), had already prepared the mmds of 
the French theologians for Jansenism. 
The scholars of the Port Royal, Nicole, 
Perrault, Pascal (whose Provincial Letters 
had exposed the old sins of the Jesuits), 
and, above all, Ant Aniaud (bom 1612 ; in 
1643 made doctor of the Sorbonne), men 
distinguished no less for relisious princi- 
ples and unblemished virtue than for rare 
learning and talents, undertook the defence 
of Jansenism ; and the bull, in which the 
pope (1653) particularly condemned &ve 
propositions from the ^ugustimts, met 
with a strong opposition. The &ve prop- 
ositions were these: 1. That there are 
certain commandments of God which 
good men are absolutely unable to obey, 
Uiough they desire to do so, God not 
having given them a sufficient measure of 
grace. 2. That no person, in the fallen 
state of nature, can resist the influence of 
divine grace. 3. To render themselves 
meritorious in the sight of God, it is not 
requisite that men should be exempt from 
internal necessity, but only from outward 
constraint 4. That the semi-Pelagians are 
heretical in maintaining that the human 
will is able to resist or obey the influ- 
ences of divine grace. 5. That to say 
that Christ died for all men, is semi-Pela- 
gianism. These propositions are really 
contained in the book of Jansenius, but 
his partisans contended that his proposi- 
tions were not to be understood precisely 
in this sense, and that the pope was not to 
be regarded as infallible in determining 
the meaning of the writer. Hence arose 
the important question whether the pope, 
whose right to decide a point of doctnne 
had never been disputed, had authority to 
determine a historical fact Alexander 
VII assumed this in 1656, in a special 
buU, declaring that Jansenius had under- 
stood the propositions in the sense con- 
demned. The Jansenists were thus com- 
pelled either to recant or to secede from 
the Roman church. Although their pro- 
test against this unheard-of arrogance of 

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JANSENIUS. 



the Romish court, in pretending to know 
find to determine what a deceased author 
meant by expressions which admit of a 
double interpretation, could surprise no 
impartial person, it was yet regarded as 
an attack upon the infallibility of the 
pope, and drew down the displeasure of 
Louis XIV himself. This prince began, 
in 1661, to interfere in the controversy, 
<md to persecute the ianaenists, who were 
already out of favor at court for preaching 
repentance and boldly censuring the vices 
of the age. But their interest with the 
French ciergy and the influential men of 
the kingdom was such, that it was found 
impossible to force them to an uncondi- 
tional subscription of the bull of Alexander 
VII; and, in 1668, the agreement with 
Clement IX, by which a conditional sub- 
scription was permitted them, and the 
misunderstanding between the courts of 
Rome and Versailles, about the affairs of 
Spain, obtained for them a temporary re- 
pose. They lost, in 1679, their principal 
patron, Anna, duchess of Longueville, 
celebrated in connexion with the Fronde, 
and sister of the great Oond^; and Ar- 
nauld, to escape pereecution, retired in the 
same year into the Netherlands, where he 
continued till his death, in 1694, the most 
zealous and esteemed defender of Jansen- 
ism ; Init, notwithstanding these losses, the 
party stood its ground under the protec- 
tion of Innocent IX (died 1689), a friend 
of virtue and justice, who favored them 
as much as Louis XIV and the Jesuits 
opposed them. The Jausenists made 
themselves worthy of this protection and 
of the favor of the better part of the edu- 
cated men in France. By endeavoring 
to free theology from the chains of the 
hierarchy, and to promote a knowledge of 
the Scriptures among the people ; by in- 
culcating, in the place of formal piety and 
lifeless ceremonies, an ardent participation 
of the heart and soul in the exercises of 
devotion, and a strict purity of life, they 
rendered undeniable service to the cause 
of true religion ; and, these being consid- 
ered, their excessive austerity appears at 
least more excusable than the looser prin- 
ciples of the Jesuits. But this only ren- 
dered them moro odious in theeyesof tlie 
Jesuits. Jansenism, however, notwith- 
standing all the opposition to it on the 
part of the court, still continued to pre- 
vail Father QuesnePs Moral Observa- 
tions on the New Testament — the most 
univeiHally read book of this period — ^gave 
It new support. The Sorbonne, in 17(^ 
decided the celebrated case of conscience, 
whether a pnest, suspected of Jansenism, 



could grant absolution, in the affirmative, 
and the universally esteemed archbishop 
of Paris, cardinal de Noailles. used his 
power against the Jansenists no further 
than was necessary for the peace of the 
churoh. Clement XI at first pursued the 
same course, but La Chaise, confessor of 
Louis XIV, and his successor, the Jesuit 
Le Tellier, urged moro violent measures, in 
which the king, to whose diseased fimcy 
Jansenism and rebellion were synonymous, 
supported them. Quesnel, now at the 
head of the Jansenists, was struck from 
the list of the fathers of the oratory, and 
driven into exile. He died in 1709, at 
Amsterdam. In 1708, his New Testa- 
ment was prohibited; the monastery of 
Port Royal des Champs, which was con- 
sidered as the strong hold of Jansenism, 
was suppressed, by the royal police, in 1 709, 
the nuns dispersed, the buildings demol- 
ished, and the work of j^ersecudon finally 
crowned by the bull Unigenitus (in 17131 
which was forced fix)m the pope by Le Tel- 
lier. This bull, dictated no less by gross ig- 
norance than by furious thirst of vengeance, 
condemned 101 propositions from Ques- 
nePs Testament, which, according to this 
decree, were to be understood only in a 
Jansenist sense, although they were, in 
fact, mosdy scriptural sentences, forms 
from the liturgy, and articles of &ith taken 
from the ortliodox church fathers. The 
bull, therefore, onl^ excited indignation 
and contempt, and mcreased the numbers 
of the Jansenists. Louis XIV died in 
1715, during the efforts that were made 
to carry it into effect in France ; and, tak- 
ing advantage of the indifference of the 
regent, NoaiUes, with the majority of the 
French clergy, appealed from this decree 
of the pope to a general council. Al- 
though the Jansenists were the original 
authors of this appeal, yet all the appeUants 
were not Jansenists (see Umgemtus) ; but 
they all met with the same treatment, tho 
ministers Dubois and Fleuiy, out of com- 
plaisance to the pope, insisting on the 
unconditional reception of the bull, and 
rigorously persecuting all recusants. Great 
numbers of Jausenists emigrated to the 
Netherlands ; the power of their party 
rapidly declined, and the miracles (cures 
and suddon conversions) at the tomb of 
the abb6 de Paris (who died 1727, an 
early victim to voluntary penances) found 
credit only with enthusiasts and the Paris- 
ian populace. The ftinatical excesses of 
their party, from 1731, helped to ruin their 
cause. The frenzies of the ConvuIsionarieSy 
or those who were seized with spasms 
and ecstasies at the tomb of this wonder-- 



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171 



wotking saint — of the Secourists, who 
aTsiled themaelves of external means to 
produce convulsions, and had themselves 
tomiented with kicks, blows and stab&~ 
of the Naturalists and Figurists, who 
sometimes strove to represent the helpless- 
ness of human nature unaided by ^race, 
and sometimes the purity of the Christian 
church, by indecent exposures of the 
body— of the Discemants and Melangists, 
who divided on the tyiestion whether the 
raptures were produced by God or the 
de^ — these, and other fanatical sects of 
Jansenists and Appellants, must have ne- 
cessarily made a thing, of which the world 
was already tired, utterly ridiculous ; and 
the enersetic measures of the police, the 
continual burning of Jansenist nooks, the 
frequent imprisonments, but, most of all, 
the very natund subsiding of enthusiasm, 
at last put an end to the party. From 
this time, Jansenism ceased to exist in 
France, as a public and professed doctrine. 
Its pure moraMty and strict theology al- 
ways gained for it friends, however, even 
in that countiy ; and a part of the clergy, 
by their willingness to take the constitu- 
tional oath, during the revolution, showed 
that they would more readily renounce 
the authority of the pope than tlioir own 
opinion. But thou<;h the old division of 
the Jansenistij and Molinists continued up 
to the latest times, in the opposition be- 
tween those who took and those who re- 
fused the oath {prilrea msermenUs), yet 
we find but one separate society of the 
Jansenists, publicly acknowledged as such, 
and that in the United Netherlands, which, 
in accordance with the resolutions of the 
Jansenist provincial synod at Utrecht 
(1763), does not separate from the Catho- 
lic church, and even respects the pope as 
its spiritual head, but denies his infklh- 
Irility, rejects the bull VnigenUus^ and 
^upeiHa mm it to a general council. It 
maintains, also, the doctrines of Augus- 
tine, upholds moral stricmess, and regards 
the inward service of God as the greatest 
proof of piety. These Jansenists, who 
call themselves, by preference, the dUci- 
plea of Si. Augiutmty have had, since 
1723, an archbishop of their own at 
Utrecht, and bishops at Haariem and De- 
venter, forming a clergy which, being 
subject to the civil authority, without 
riches or power, performs its duties so 
much the more fiiithfuUy, and exercises a 
well ordered church government, which 
they owe to the protection of Protestants, 
while they are still condemned by the 
pope as apostates and schismatica 

Jajnuaaius, St., bishop of Benevento, 



was beheaded at Puzzuoli, in the begin- 
ning of the 4th centuiy, a martyr to the 
Christian faith, and is honored as the 
patron saint of the kingdom of Naples, 
in honor of him, the oi^er of St. Janua- 
rius was established there, in 1738. His 
body lies buried in the cathedral at Na- 
ples ; but his head, with two phials of his 
blood, which a pious matron caught, as 
the tradition is, at his execution, is pre- 
served in a separate chapel. Of this 
blood, the Neapolitans assert, that as soon 
as it is brought near the head of the saint, 
it begins to Bow, however hardly congeal- 
ed it was before. A trial is made every 
year, on the first Sunday of May ; it is be- 
lieved, that the patron saint is paiticulariy 
propitious if the blood moves briskly in 
the phials, and appears of a clear red, 
while the opposite is regarded as presaging 
some ill to the country. The reliffious 
phrenzy which prevailed at certain festi- 
vals of the ancients, has a coimterpart in 
the clamor for the liquefaction of the blood 
of St. Januarius, in the chapel of this 
saint, if it is delayed lon^ afler the com- 
mencement of the colebrauon. The writer, 
who was present on one of these occa- 
sions, could hardly determioe whether tho 
prevailing tone was that of prayer or im- 
precation. The reproaches agaiust the 
saint are not a fow. Sometimes, two or 
three days elapse before the blood becomes 
liquid ; it is in a bottle, which stands upon 
the alter, and is lifled, now and then, by a 

Eriest, to show to the people whetlier it 
as become liquid or not; if it has liouo- 
fied, all throng to the altar, and, kneeling 
down, kiss the offered botde, and then the 
priest presses it against the head of tho 
^thfuL It is said, that when the Freuch 
occupied Naples for the first time, the 
blood would not become liquid. The 
French general, apprehensive of a com- 
motion, sent to the archbishop, intimating, 
that if the saint's blood did not soon run, 
the archbishop's might The saint had 
compassion on his servant, and the mira- 
cle took place in due season. 

Jaetus ; one of the primitive deities of 
the Romans, entirely unknown to tho 
Greeks, and supposed to be of Pelasgic 
origin. The Pelasgi believed in two su- 
preme deities, under which tliey repre- 
sented nature and her productions. Some- 
times they were described as two different 
beings, male and female, and sometimes 
as imited in a single person. This deity 
passed from the Pelasgi to the Latins or 
aborigines, and received from them thci 
name of /onttf. In him they worshipped 
the god of gods (as he is called in the 

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JANUS-JAPAN. 



Saltan hymns), the ruler of the year, and 
of all human fortunes, the sovereign dis- 
poser of war and peace. He was repre- 
sented with a sceptre in the right hand, 
and a kev in the left, seated on a glitteiing 
tlirone ; he was also represented with two 
faces (an old and a youthful one), of which 
one looked forward and the other behind. 
Some conceive this to be a symbol of wis- 
dom which sees into the past and the fu- 
ture ; others a eymbol of the changes of 
the year, ^e vicissitudes of the seasons, or 
of the several quarters of the world, as he 
was sometimes painted vnth four faces, 
and of his double office of opening and 
shuttmg the gate of heaven. Plutarch ex- 
plained it l^ supposm^ that Janus had 
introduced agriculture from Thessaly into 
Latium, and hence one head looked to- 
wards Latium, the other towards Greece. 
Some believe that Janus was blended in 
one person with the other supreme deity 
of the original inhabitants of Italy, viz. 
Saturn, m reference to this circumstance, 
they relate the following story: Janus, 
one of the ancient kings of uie Latins, 
tauglit his people agricultun^ and intro- 
duced useful laws and religious institu-, 
tions. Saturn, driven from fis country by' 
his children, fled to Latium, where he 
was well received by Janus, and made 
joint ruler of the kingdom. Under their 
rei^ was the golden age of Latium. 
Ovid, in his Fasn (i. 90, sqq.), says of Ja- 
nus, that he was the supreme janitor in 
heaven and on earth, that he opened the 
gates of heaven to let out the day, and 
closed them again with the return of 
evening. All sorts of passages were under 
his care. After him, a door was called 
janua, and every open arched passage, by 
wMch people go out of one street or plac« 
into another, a Janus. For the same rea- 
son, he was the god of the day and the 
year, and fit>m him the first month in the 
year still has its name. The first day of 
the year and the first hour of the di^ were 
sacred to him ; in all solemn sacrifices he 
was first addressed, and had the title of 
father. Romulus erected to him the cele- 
brated temple, which was opened at the 
beguining of every war, according to the 
ordinance of Numa, and remained open 
as long as the war lasted, and until p^ce 
was established in all the countri^ subject 
to Rome. The temple, however, was 
shut only three times in the long space of 
700 years; once in the reign of Numa, 
again after the first Punic war, and the 
tmrd time, under the reign of Auirustus, 
A. U. C. 744. 
Japak. At the eastern extremity of 



Asia, between 31® and 49^ N. lat, is situ- 
ated the empire of Japan, consisting of a 
large cluster of islands, almost inaccessible 
by reason of mountains, precipitous rocks 
and a dangerous sea. It consists of tliree 
large islands : 1. Niphon (700 miles long, 
but so narrow, that its breadth in the cen- 
tre is only 48 miles), divided into 49 prov- 
inces, of which the principal cities arc 
Meaco, the residence of the dairi, or spir- 
itual chief, where all the coins are struck, 
and all the books printed; Jeddo (with 
1,680,000 inhabitants), the residence of the 
secular emperor (cubo, whose palace is 
5 leagues in circumference, and forms, of 
itself, a considerable city), on tlie river 
Tonkay, over which is a bridge, from 
which the distances of all parts of the em- 
pire are calculated; and Osacco, a rich 
commercial citv : 2. Ximo, or Kiusiu (186 
miles long, and 66 broad), consisting of 9 
provinces : and 3. Xicoco, or Sicof (84 
miles long, and 46 broad), containmg 4 

Erovinces. Around these great islands 
e a vast number of small rertile islands 
and bare island-rocks, which have proba- 
bly been separated from the main land by 
an earthquake. The superficial contents 
of the whole island, is estumted at 266,500 
souare miles, the population at 45 millions. 
The Japanese islands are mountainous, 
like the opposite coasts of tibe continent. 
The principal summit is called Fu3i ; it is 
covered with snow throughout the year. 
There are also many volcanoes. The great 
industry of the natives has alone made 
the sterile soil productive ; even the steep* 
est mountains are cultivated. Agriculture 
is prescribed as the principal employment^ 
by the laws of the state. Goats anfi sheep 
are banialied finom Japan, the former be- 
ing regarded as prejudicial to agriculture. 
Cotton and silk supply the place of wool. 
Swine are to be found only in the vicinity 
of Nangasacki. In general, there are but 
few qu»]rupeds in Japan, with the excep- 
tion of dogs, which are abundant The 
whim of a sovereign, of whom these ani- 
mals were favorites, has prescribed the 
breeding of them by a hiw of the slate ; 
they are supported at the public expense. 
It is uncertam whether the ancients koew^ 
any thing of Japan. At the end of the 
13th century, Marco Polo (q. v.) brought 
to Europe the first accounts of Japaa, 
which he called Zipangu. In 1542, three 
Portuguese ships under Meudez Pinto, on 
a voyage to China, were driven on the 
Japanese coasts by a storm, though witlw 
out this accident this island empire would 
hardly have remained unknown to the eax^ 
terprise of this commercial nation, whose 

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JAPAN. 



173 



oavigatoiB had collected information re- 
i^ieeting it in China. A colony was im- 
mediately founded on the newly discover- 
ed coast, and the Jesuit Francis Xavier 
proceeded to Japan, to pro})agate Chris- 
ti£nity. The Portuguese were allowed 
loKe access and commerce throughout the 
empire, e^iecially on the island Ximo. 
One of their principal colonies was on the 
island of Firando, now Deaima, or at the 
portof Kangasacki. Christianity prevailed 
emensively, though opposed hy the native 
priests. But the secular rulers, especially 
the small princes who possessed portions of 
the country under the supremacy of the 
emperor, supported the new doctrine and 
iss preachers. About the year 1616, nearly 
half were Christians, with many of the pet- 
ty princes. The Portuguese and Jesuits 
had been allowed uninterrupted access to 
all parts of the empire as merchants and 
spiritual teachers, for about 50 years, when 
several circumstances put an end to their 
influence. In 1586, a revolution deprived 
the emperor of Japan of all temporal 
power, which was usurped by the cubo, 
the chief officer of the government, who 
degraded tiie emperor to the rank of a 
mere high priesL Jejas, the successor of 
the fiist usurper, made, in 1617, the sov- 
ereignty hereditary in his family. Both the 
new rulers were enemies of die Portuguese 
and missionaries, as they saw presages of 
danger in the close union of the new re- 
ligious party, and in the influence of the 
Jesuits, who interfered in political affairs, 
and opposed the new order of things. 
The conduct of the Portuguese colonists 
was in the highest degree imprudent and 
licentious. The ambassadors of Portugal 
manifested an insupportable ]|)ride, which 
formed a strong contrast with the submis- 
sion of the Dutch, who had obtained free 
intercourse with all the ports of the empire, 
by their assurance that they were of a dif^ 
terent creed fiom the Jesuits. After many 
persecutions, the Portuguese, with their 
miaaonaries, were finally banished forever 
from the empure, in the year 1637 ; Chris- 
tians were exposed to bloody punishments, 
and the ports of the empire were closed to 
all fbreignera, except the Dutch. This per- 
jsecution of the Catholic religion continued 
40 years, in which time several millions of 
inen were sacrificed. In 1665, inquisito- 
riai tribunals were erected in all the cities 
of the empire, which w;ere to renew their 
invesiigationfl, every year, at indefinite pe- 
riods^ The Dutch, who contributed not 
a little to this catastrophe, now took the 
place of the Portuguese. They and the 
duDese were fix>m this time the only na- 
15* 



tions whose ships were allowed access to 
Japan ; but both had to submit to the se- 
verest conditions, and were veiy much 
limited in their exports, and the former 
were so restricted after 1634, when they 
had given cause for suspicion, that they 
were only permitted to land on the island 
Desima, connected by a bridge with the city 
Nangasacki. On this island, where tiieir 
storehouses were situated, lived about fif- 
teen Dutchmen, who carried on the trade, 
under the closest inspection, never being 
permitted to enter the city without attend- 
ants, overseers and interpreters. Notwith- 
standing these restrictions, and the extor- 
tions to which the Dutch had to submit, 
in the shape of deductiona from the prices 
agreed upon, and arbitrary changes m the 
\'alue of coins, their trade with Japan seems 
to have been very profitable, since they have 
continued, to the latest times, to send tiiither 
yearly two vessels fix)m Batavia, large 
three deckers, moedy belonging to Zeeland. 
In the middle of the 18th century, the 
profits of the Japanese trade were esti- 
mated at 4 — 500,000 guilders annually, ex- 
clusive of those arising from the sale of 
goods in India and Europe, and the profits 
of private individuals, which amounted to 
at least 250,000 guilders, of which half 
went to the council of Batavia. In the 
17th century, the English founded a colo- 
ny at Firando, and obtained important 
commercial privileges ; but this conmierce 
was soon lost, protMibly because the Japa- 
nese learned from the crafty Dutch, that 
the wife of the king of England was a 
Ponuguese princess. All proposals for 
opening a trade with Japan have of late 
been rejected in England, because the 
return cargoes must consist principally 
of copper and camphor, and the trade in 
Japanese copper would prevent the ex- 
portation of the English to India. The 
Russians, also, to whom the Japanese 
govenmient signified, as early as 1792, its 
aversion to a connexion with them, have 
lately tried, but without success, to form 
conmiercial connexions with Japan. The 
Japanese are a mixture of the Malay and 
Mongolian races, like the Chinese, €rom 
whom they have probably derived their 
civilization. The Japanese art, calcula- 
tion of time, medicine and astrolosy are 
purely Chinese. The present inhaEutants 
originated either fit>m China or Corea, or 
fix>m both ; but, separated by tempestuous 
billows fiom the rest of the world, left to 
themselves, and free fixim the subsequent 
invasions or neighboring nations, they be- 
came an independent people. Their lan- 
guage is a dialect of the Mongolian ; the 

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174 



JAPAN. 



Chinese is the learned lan^iage. The 
Japanese language has 47 radical syllables, 
ivith a small number of regular changes. 
The Japanese are the most civilized and 
refined nation of Asia, a noble, proud jpeo- 
ple, intelligent, docile, and desirous of in- 
struction. Art and science they value, 
even in nations whom they otherwise 
despise for their unworthy conduct, and 
the shameful treatment to which they 
are willing to submit for the sake of gain. 
Since the arrival of the Europeans, by 
whom they were taught, they have made 
considerable progress in several sciences. 
History, astronomy and medicine (in which 
cautery or burning with moxa, and acu- 
puncture are practised), are pursued with 
zeaL Their progress, however, in medi- 
cine and geography, is comparatively 
small. Poetry, music and painting are 
held in estimation ; and, in the latter, the 
Japanese are superior to the Chinese. 
Like the Chinese, they claim tlie inven- 
tion of gunpowder and of printing. Chil- 
dren are sent to school at an early period, 
and educated with great strictness. The 
exportation of books is prohibited, at least, 
of such as contain any account of the 
government and country, as well as of 
maps and coins. The importation of re- 
ligious books is as strictly forbidden. On 
the arrival of Dutch vessels, they are 
obliged to deliver their religious books in 
a box to the Japanese commander of Nan- 
gasacki, and receive them again on their 
departure. The Japanese are active, 
cleanly and laborious, kind, cheeiful and 
contented, but sensual and revengeful. 
Their superstition is encouraged by a 
priesdy government, opposed to all intel- 
ligence, and a numerous clergy. The 
government is despotic and severe, and 
3ie laws very, strict. The virill of the 
emperor is the supreme law ; after it, the 
will of the petty princes dependent on 
him, who rule their provinces as strictly 
as he does the whole empire, and, not- 
withstanding their dependence, possess the 
right of waging war a^nst each other. 
The greatest part of the inhabitants .are op- 
pr^sed by poverty, since the peasant is 
obliged to surrender half, and in many 
places even two thirds of his earnings to 
the landlord, who regards himself as the 
sole proprietor of the soil. In order to 
prevent conspiracies, each one is made, by 
the law of the land, the spy and surety of 
the others ; so that every one is accounta- 
ble to the state for those with whom he is 
in any way connected, and, in case of anjr 
offence, must suffer with them. Thus 
the father is accountable for his children. 



the master for his servants, the neighbor 
for his neighbor, every society for its 
members. A crime is never punished by 
fine, but always by impiisonment and ban- 
ishment, or loss of limb or life ; and every 
punishment is inflicted with inexorabfe 
rigor on high and low. All military and 
civil officers, for example, are bound to 
slit their belly, when ordered to do so, in 
consequence of any crime. Such a death 
involves no disgrace, and hence the con- 
tempt of death among all classes of Japa- 
nese, who, in general, prefer death to ig- 
nominy. The original rulers of Japan 
were cisdled mikaddo, from their progeni- 
tor. The high priest of Japan is still call- 
ed dairi, which was the title of the Jap- 
anese ernpenuis as long as they possessed 
spiritual and tempoml powers united. 
Since the revolution, which deprived them 
of the secular power, in 1586, when Yori- 
Tomo was appointed supreme ruler of the 
nation, the high priest has lived at Meaco. 
Under the present reigning dynasty of the 
Djogouns, his authority has <leclined still 
more. He is in the custody of a governor, 
answerable to the secular emperor. In 
order to make himself more sure of the 
descendant of the ancient rulers of Japan, 
the crafty policy of the secular emperor 
has transmuted the dairi into a holy i>er- 
sonage, who is visible to no human eye, 
at least to no man who is not in attend- 
ance on him. Whenever the dairi, as is 
very rarely the case, wishes to enjoy the 
fresh air in his garden, or in the inner cir- 
cle of liis extensive and well fortified pal- 
ace, a signal is given for all to withdraw, 
before the bearers raise the holy prisoner 
on their shoulders. In tliis palace, where 
he was bom, he lives and dies, without 
ever going out of its precincts ; and not till 
long afler his death is his name disclosed 
• beyond them. He enjoys a rich income, 
consisting of merchandise and natural pro- 
ducts, which the seci/lar emperor increases 
by considerable additions, and by the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of titles of honor, wliich 
belong to the dairi, as a prerogative. Or- 
ders are also issued in the name of the 
dairi. The secular emperor bears the 
title of cuboj and resided at Jeddo. Un- 
der him, the real, absolute sovereign of the 
empire, are the princes, who are responsi- 
ble to him. He concedes, however, the 
first rank to the dairi, accepts from him 
titles of honor, and rewards the distinction 
thus bestoweil on him by considerable 
presents. Formerly, the cubo made an 
annual journey to Meaco, in token of re- 
spect to the dairi; by degrees, these visits 
became less frequent, and now, as a sub- 



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JAPAN-JAPANNING. 



175 



slitute, presents are sent bim by amboasa- 
don. The cubo administere the goyem- 
mentj with the assistance of a council of 
state, of six affed men. He derives his 
revenues, whien con»8t merely of natural 
pnxluctions, from five imperial provinces, 
as they are called, and some cities, which 
are under his immediate jurisdiction ; in 
addition to which, he receives presents 
from the territorial princes, who govern 
the provinces. Each of these princes 
poeeesses a hereditary sovereignty in his 
own province; he receives the revenue 
without giving an account to the emperor, 
and defiays the expenses of his court and 
his army, repairs the highways, and, in 
short, provides for all pubhc expenditures ; 
but, in token of his dependence, he is 
obliged to spend six months every year at 
the court at Jeddo, where his wives and 
children live in a kind of captivity, as hos- 
tages and pledges of his fidelity. The re- 
ligion of the Japanese is of Hindoo origin : 
this is true of the older sect of the Siutos, 
as well as of the more modem one of Bud- 
so or Fo, which came from China. Besides 
these sects, there are others, more or less 
resembling them. The people worship a 
great number of inferior divinities, whose 
statues are placed in the temples of the 
greet deities. The numerous clergy, and 
the monks and nuns, who Hve in a multi- 
tude of monasteries, are under the dairi. 
The Hindoo religion has nowhere been 
more disfigured by superstition and subse- 
quent additions than m Japan. The Siu- 
to or Confucius sect, a philosophical sect, 
resembles the sect of the learned in Chi- 
na, and despises the folly of the popular 
belief! The army of the Japanese con- 
sists, in time of peace, of 100,000 men, be- 
sides 20,000 horsemen, clad in armor ; the 
infantry are protected only by helmets; 
their arms, bows, muskets, sabres and 
daggers, are excellent; they have very 
heavy cannon, but are even less skilful in 
the use of them than the Chinese. The 
single princes maintain, besides, 368,000 
infantry and 33,000 cavaliy. The navy is 
insignificant. The dairi formeriy had 
large fleets, and large vessels of cedar; 
but now the Japanese vessels are small, at 
most 90 feet long, like the Chinese. In 
war, the Japanese display much courage, 
which is inflamed by martial son^ and 
stories. The Japanese are well situated 
for commerce. Formerly their ships cov- 
ered the neighboring seas ; and l)efore the 
anival of the Europeans, they carried on a 
considerable trade, and an extensive navi- 
gation ; they had, for example, visited the 
north-west coast of America, beyond Beer- 



ing's straits, farther than the European 
navigators; they visited China and the 
East Indies as far as Bengal. Afler it had 
begun to be feared that foreigners would 
overthrow the state, and pervert the mor- 
als of the natives, all foreign commerce 
and navigation were prohibited. Their 
silk and cotton cloths, their porcelain 
wares, and their lackered tin-ware, with 
raised flowers or figures (japanned ware)» 
are well knovna, and in much demand as 
articles of commerce ; their steel- work is 
excellent, especially their swords and other 
arms, the exportation of which is strictly 
forbidden. Respecting the history of Ja- 
pan, see Thunberg's Travels (from the 
Swedish, London, 1795), and K&mpfer's 
History of Japan (translated from the 
manuscripts into English, London, 1728). 
Compare, also, Golownin's Narrative o/* ha 
htpnsonment in Japan, 1811 — 13 (Lon- 
don, 1817), Abel R^musat's Mhnovres 
sur la DynasHe regnante des Ejjogotms, 
Souvcraim du Japan (Paris, 1820), which 
Titsingh, who was 14 years Dutch resi- 
dent at Nanffasacki, compiled from Jap- 
anese originals. The EUmens de la Gram- 
maire Japonaise (fipom the Portuguese 
manuscript of fatner Rodriguez, Nanga- 
sacki, 1G04), traduHs du Porhig, par Lan- 
dresse, expiimiis par M, Rhnusat (Paris, 
1825), is preferable to the Japanese gram- 
mars of Alvarez and Collado.* 

Japanese Cyci.e ANn Mha. (See 
Epoch, vol. iv, pace 555.) 

Japan:* iNo is me art of varnishing in 
colors. All substances that are dry and 
rigid, or not too flexible, as woods, metals, 
leather, and paper prepared, admit of be- 

* The followiDg notice appeared in the news- 
papers in 1829 : " Doctor Siebold, the resident of 
the king of the Netherlands in Japan, has trans- 
mitted a work to the Asiatic Society of Paris, on 
the origin of the Japanese, &c., containing, in^ 
abridged form, the result of his researches during 
the last four years. The doctor wishes it to be 
published at the expense of the society, with notes 
and a critical preface. He writes, also, that he 
has collected the largest library of books which 
he believes was ever formed in Japan : it consists 
of more than 1500 volumes. His zoological ma- 
seum contains more than 3000 specimens, and his 
botanical collection about 2000 species, in up- 
wards of 6000 specimens. Assisted by his col- 
league, doctor Bamr, he has also formed a com- 
plete mineraloeic^ collection. He has visited 
the most remarkable cities, determined their lati- 
tude and longitude, and measured Uie heieht of 
several mountains. He has also established n 
botanical garden at Dezhna, at the expense of 
the government of the Netherlands, in which there 
are now more than 1200 plants cultivated. The 
doctor has also presented to the king of France 
a collection of plants in domestic use in Japan,, 
which he considers to be well adapted for the c\\ 
mate of tie south of France." 



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176 



JAPANNING-JASON. 



Ing japanned. Wood and metals require 
DO otner preparation than to have their 
Burfeces perfectly even and clean ; but 
leadier should be securely stretched, either 
on frames or on boards, as its benduig 
would crack and force off the varnish. 
Paper should bo treated in the same man- 
ner, and have a previous strong coat of 
size ; but it is rarely japanned, till convert- 
ed into papier machif or wrought into such 
form that its flexibility is lost. The article 
, to be japanned is first brushed over with 
two or uree coats of seed lac varnish, to 
form the priming. It is then covered 
with vamJsh, previously mixed ^\'ith a 
pigment of the tint desired. This is called 
the ground color; and, if the subject is to 
exhiDit a design, the objects are painted 
upon it in colors mixed with varnish, and 
used in the same manner as for oil paint- 
ing. The whole is then covered with 
additional coats of transparent varnish, 
and all that remains to be done is to dry 
and polish it. Japanning requires to be 
executed in ^varm apartments, and the ar- 
ticles are warmed before the varnish is 
applied to them. One coat of varnish 
also must be di-v before another is laid on. 
Ovens are employed to hasten the drying 
of the work. The same pigments which 
are employed in oil or water answer also 
in varnish. For painting figures, shell lac 
varnish is considered b^and easiest to 
work; it is therefore employed, m most 
cases, where its color permits. For tiie 
lightest colors, mastich varnish is employ- 
ed, unless the fineness of the work ad- 
mits the use of copal dissolved in alcohol. 

Japheth, a Hebrew word, signi^ing 
heauHfidly producingy is the name of die 
third son of Noah. His descendants, ac- 
cording to Genesis, x, 5, peopled the isles 
of the Gentiles. This is supposed to 
mean Southern Europe, and tiius Japheth 
is considered the ancestor of the European 
Face, and is believed to have been the 
same who is called by the Greeks Japetos, 
According to Herbelot's Bibliot Orient j 
the Arabians give to Japheth 11 sons, who 
became founders of as many Asiatic tribes. 

Jared ; a son of MehalaieePs,the father 
of Enoch. He I'eached the age of 968 
years, according to Genesis, v, S). 

Jarl, in the early history of the north - 
em European kin^oms ; the lieutenants 
or governors, appointed by the kings over 
each province. At a later period, only 
one jarl was appointed in each kingdom, 
and the tide ot duke given him, as was the 
case in Sweden, for instance, in 1163. In 
Norway, after 1308, during the reign of 
Hacon Vll,diitt rlignity was conferred ortly 



OD the earls of Orkney and the princes of 
the blood. (See the articles Eari, and ^- 
dermaru) 

Jasmine; a beautiful genus of plants 
Ijelonging to the diandria monogynia of 
Linnaeus. The corolla is funnel-shaped, 
and the fruit a two-seeded berry. Thirty 
species are knowi, which are shrubs, often 
with long, twining branches, bearing sim- 
ple or compound leaves, and beautiml and 
delightfully fragrant flowers. Two species 
are natives of the south of Europe. 

Jason ; son of iEson, king of lolchos, 
in Thessaly, and of Polymeda (according 
to some writers, of Polvmete, Alcimede, 
Polypheme, &c.); a hero of ancient 
Greece, celebrated for his share in the 
Argonautic expedition, before which he 
had distinguished himself in the Caledo- 
nian hunt His instructer was the Centaur 
Chiron, who educated most of the heroes 
of that time. His father abdicated the 
government of lolchos before Jason was 
of full age ; on which account his uncle 
Pelics administered the government as liis 
guardian. The causes of Jason's expedi- 
tion to Colchis ai'e commonly related thus : 
Pelias, Jason's uncle, sent an invitation to 
all his relations, and, among the rest, to 
Jason, to attend a solemn sacrifice to Nep- 
tune. When Jason, on his ^vavto lol- 
chos, came to the river Evenus (Enipeus, 
Anaurus), he found Juno there, in the 
form of an old woman, who requested 
hun to carry her over. He complied with 
her request, but lost one of liis shoes in 
the mud. Pelias, who had been warned 
by an oracle, that he should be deprived 
of his kingdom and life by the man who 
should come to the sacrifice without shoes, 
was alaimed at the sight of Jason in this 
condition, and asked nim what he would 
do to the man designated by the oracle a& 
his murderer. Jason, at the suggestion 
of Juno, replied, that he should send him 
to Colchis, after the golden fleece ; and he 
was accordingly sent Another account 
relates that Pelias had deprived his brother 
of his throne, and that Jason, when 20 
years old, having asked the oracle how he 
could get possession of his lawful inherit- 
ance, was directed to go to the court of Peli- 
as, at lolchos, in the dress of a Magnesian, 
with a leopard's skin on his shoulders, and 
armed with two lances. On the way, Ja- 
son lost his shoe in the manner above re- 
lated. All were surprised at his appear- 
ance, and Pelias, who did not recognise 
him, demanded who he was. Jason an- 
swered boldly that he was the son of 
iEson, caused himself to be sliown the 
dwelling of his father, and i^nt five days 



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JASON-^AUNDICE. 



177 



there with his relations, Pheres, Neleiis, 
Aclmetiis, Amythron, Acastus and Me- 
iampusyin celebrating his return. They 
then went together to Pelias, and demand- 
ed of him his abdication. Pelias dai*ed 
not refuse, but answered that he would 
resgn, after Jason had perfonned a glori- 
ous achievement by bringing back the 
golden fleece to Thessaly, as the oracle 
and the shade of Phryxus had commanded, 
5dnce his age would not permit him to go 
himself. On the voyage (see ^gonatUs), 
Jason had two children bv Hypsipyle of 
Lemnos — Euneus and Nebrophonus (De- 
ipylus). By the assistance of Medea 
(q. v.), he successfully accomplished the 
object of his voyage, and returned, carry- 
ing home Medea as his wife, after long 
wanderings. Here he avenged the mur- 
der of his parents and his brother, by put- 
ting Pelias to death. But he vms unable 
to retain possession of the throne, and was 
obliged to resign it to Acastus, son of Pe- 
lias, and flee, with his wife, to Corinth. 
Here they passed 10 happy ^ears, till Ja- 
wOf wearied of Medea, fell m love with 
Claiice, (Creusa acconling to some ac- 
counts]^ daughter of Creon, king of Cor- 
inth, married her, and put away Medea 
and her children. Medea, having revenged 
heraelf on her hated rival, fled finom the 
wmth of Jason, in her car drawn by dragons, 
to i£geus, king of Athens, after she had 
put to death Alermerus and Phesetus, her 
sons by Jason. Accordinff to some, Jason 
killed himself in despair ; but others relate 
that, after passing a miserable, wandering 
life, he came to his death by the following 
accident: As he was sleepmg one day, 
overcome by weariness, on the sea-shore, 
in the shade of the vessel which had borne 
him to Colchis, a beam fell upon him and 
crushed him. Others say tnat he was 
afterwards reconciled to Medea, and re- 
turned with her to Colchis, where, after 
the death of his father-in-law, he ruled 
many years in peace. 

Jasper. (See Quartz.) 

Jasst (Jash), capital or Moldavia, about 
18 miles distant from the Pruth, 200 miles 
east of Oczakow, 370 north of Con tanti- 
nople, has a citadel, and is the residence of 
the hospodar and seat of the Greek met- 
ropolitan of Moldavia, with 25,000 inhab- 
itants. The Roman Catholics are allowed 
the free exercise of their reliffion, and 
there are some Jews here. The city is 
an open place, and was almost destroyed 
by the janizaries Aug. 10, 1822: it now 
contains hardly 2000 houses. The streets 
are paved with logs. The excellent can- 
made here, and the wine of Catana- 



pou, in tlie neighborhood, are exported 
from Jassy to Constantinople. This city 
was taken by the Russians, in 1739 and 
1760, but each time restored to the Turks 
on the conclusion of peace. In 1788, it 
fell into the power of the Austrians; and, 
Jan. 9, 1792, the peace between Russia 
and Turkey was signed here. (See Rus- 
sia.) In 1821, the unfortunate Alexander 
Ypsilanti here raised the standard of the 
Greek Heteeria against the Turks. (See 
HeUBria, and Greece^ RevduHon of.) 

Jaucourt, Louis, chevalier de, one of 
the contributors to the French Encydopi- 
die^ bom 1704, at Paris, received the rudi- 
ments of his education in Geneva, passed 
three years at Cambridge, and studied 
medicine in Holland, under Boerhaave 
and Tronchin, but determined to practise 
it only for the benefit of the poor. On his 
return home, he devoted himself entirely 
to letters, and, at the instance of D'Alem- 
bert, he prepared the articles relating to 
me<Mcine and natural philosophy for the 
Encydopidk. He also contributed other 
articles, which are among the best in the 
work. Feeling his strength decline, he 
retired to Compi^gne, miere he died, 
1779. Besides his treatises in the Ency- 
dopidicj he published various works^ 
some original and some translated, on 
medical subjects. The manuscript of a 
universal medical dictionary, which he 
had prepared, in six volumes, folio, was 
lost on its way to the publisher in Amster- 
dam, in a vessel that was shipwrecked on 
the coast of North Holland. 

Jaundice is a disease of which the dis- 
tinguishing peculiarity is, that the whole 
^in becomes yellow. It proceeds from 
some disease about the liver, or its com- 
munication with the bowels. The inter- 
nal symptoms are those of all disorders of 
the digestive organs, except that the water 
is dark and loaded with bile, while the 
bowels appear to be deprived of it. The 
yellow color is first perceptible in the 
whiter parts of the body, as the white of 
the eye, ^c, and soon overspreads the 
whole body. There is often an extreme 
itching and prickling over the whole skin. 
After the disease has continued long, the 
color of the skin becomes gradually deeper 
and darker, till the disease oeeomes, at last, 
what is vulgarly called the black jaundice. 
This appearance arises from the bile being 
retained, from various causes, in the liver 
and gall-bladder, and thus being absorbed 
and circulated with the blood. It may be 
produced by obstacles to the passage of 
ihe bile of various kinds, and is often sud- 
denly induced by a violent fit of passion. 



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178 



JAUNDICE-JAVA. 



or more slowly by long continuance of 
melancholy and painful emotions. It is a 
very common figure of speech to say, 
that ^ a person views a thin^ or a person 
with jaundiced eyes ;" but this is founded 
in a mistake ; for it is not true, that jaundice 
communicates such a color to the trans- 
parent part of the eye, as to affect the 
color of objects. The above phrase is 
therefore inappropriate. 

Java; a large island in the Eastern 
seas, situated between &* and 9P of S. lat, 
and between 105'' and 115° of E. Ion. 
from Greenwich. It extends from east 
to west, and is 642 miles in length, its 
greatest breadth 128 miles, and its ave- 
rage breadth 95. To the south and west, 
its shores are washed by the Southern In- 
dian ocean ; to the north-west lies the 
island of Sumatra, finom which Java is 
separated by a strait, 20 miles wide in the 
narrowest part, known by the name of 
the Straits ofSunda; to the north is Bor- 
neo ; to the north-east, Celebes ; and, on 
the east, the islands of Bali and Madura, 
from the former of which it is separated 
by a narrow passage, called the Straits of 
BalL The island is divided nearly in its 
whole length by a range of mountains, 
running almost east and west, and rising 
to their greatest elevation towards the 
centre; but the range is much broken. 
In several hills of the great range of 
mountains are the craters of volcanoes, 
which formerly raged with fury, and 
poured forth torrents of lava ; but, at pres- 
ent, none are known to be in activity, 
though many emit smoke afler heavy 
rain. The most considerable rivers are 
the Joana, and the Sedani, or Tan^rang. 
On the bank or bar before Batavia, the 
flood rises about six 'feet, and higher at 
spring tides. High and low water like- 
wise occur only once in 24 hours. The 
island is traversed from east to west by a 
great militarv road, 700 miles in extent, 
consQructed by general Daendels, a gov- 
ernor of the isl&nd, before it was taken by 
the English. The year, as is usual in 
tropical climates, is divided into the dry 
and the rainy seasons; or into the cast, 
which is called the good tiwnsooTi, and the 
west, or the bad monsoon. Thunder 
storms are very frequent, especially to- 
wards the conclusion of tlie monsoons, 
when they occur almost every evening. 
The heat of the climate is various. Along 
the sea-coast, it is h ot and sultry. At Batavia, 
from July to November, the thermometer 
generally stands, in the hottest part of the 
day, between 84** and 90°, which it rarely 
exceeds; and, in the greatest degree of 



coohiess in the morning, it is seldom lower 
than 76°. In some parts, particularly 
among the hills, and in many of the inland 
towns, it ts oflen so cold as to make a fire 
desirable. Java possesses a soil of extraor- 
dinary luxuriance and fertility. In the 
forests, especially in those on the north- 
east coast, is found an abundance of lofly 
ti-ees, fit to be converted into masts,- whilo 
forests of teak supply the place of oak for 
building ships, adapted to all purposes. 
Palms and cocoa-trees are found in great 
variety, and are distinguished by their 
luxuriant growth, sometimes reaching to 
the astonishing height of 150 feet. Fruits 
of all kinds are also abundant, many 
of them of exquisite delicacy and flavor. 
In the high ground in the interior, they 
are found to dwindle and degenerate, in 
that equinoctial climate, llie various 
kinds of plants and great abundance of 
herbs found in Java, would aflbrd ample 
scope for the researches of the botanist, aa 
flowers exhale their perfumes at all sea- 
sons of the year. Garden-plants are pro- 
duced in great variety, such as endives, 
cauliflowers, beans, cabbages, pompions, 
melons, patacas or water-melons, yanos, 
potato^ &c. Maize, or Indian corn, is a 
favorite article of food with the natives, 
who eat it roasted. The natural fertility 
of the soil of Java supersedes the necessity 
of laborious tillage. The staple produce 
of the island is rice. Sugar, to the amount 
of 10,000,000 of pounds annually, is also 
made. Pepper is produced in great abun- 
dance and perfection ; also indigo of a 
very superior quality. Cotton is cultivated 
in almost every part of the island ; and the 
cofiee plantations are extremely luxuriant. 
The soil is also very fiivorable to the 
growth of tobacco. There are many oth^ 
herbs and plants, both medicinal and bal- 
samic, that are but imperfectly known to 
Europeans. Wheat and barlev are only 
grown in small quantities, on the hilly tracts, 
chiefly m the middle parts of the island. 
Oats and Bengal grain thiive likewise in 
those parts of the island, and would be pro- 
duced in great abundance, were due atten- 
tion given to their culture. The domestic 
animals in Java are buffaloes, and cattle of 
every description, and sheep, goats and 
pigs. Game, however, does not abound 
here so much as in other countries, tliough 
hares and rabbits ai'e pretty common ; and 
deer and antelopes are also plentiful. The 
horses, which are very numerous through- 
out the island, are small, but active. Wild 
hogs and monkeys are found in all the 
jungles. The forests abound with tigere, 
as powerful and as large as in Bengal A 



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179 



species of black tiger, which is often 
fbond, is yeiy ferocious. The rhinoceros 
is sometimes met with. Snakes are found 
here, as in ail other hot countries, in great 
numbens, and of various kinds. Some of 
these are from 25 to 80 feet in length. 
Lizards of all kinds, from the variable cha- 
meleon to the guana tribe, frequent the 
bushes, trees, and roo6 of the houses. 
Scorpions and mosquetoes abound in the 
marshes. There are, besides, various 
other sons of dangerous and disgusting 
vermin. Of the numerous feathered tribes 
found in Java, we may remark the casso- 
wary, a very large and powerful bird. 
White eagles have been seen here ; and 
every kind of bird of prey is continually 
on the wing. The aquatic tribe is equally 
diversified, and the extensive fisheries 
along this great line of coast are highly 
productive. At the mouths of the rivers, 
numbers of alligators, or caymans, are 
continually lurking for their prey. Id the 
several bays, numerous sharks swim about 
the ships ; and many animals, undescribed 
in natural history, abound in these seas. 
There are manufactures of cotton, leather 
and saddleiy ; also of iron, brass and tin. 
The principal articles of exportation are 
rice, sugar, coffee, pepper, indigo, teak 
timber and planks, spices (which are 
brought from the Moluccas), tin (from 
Banca), cotton, yam, salt, edible birds' 
nests. The imports are European articles, 
of every description — chintzes and mus- 
lins, silks, hats (which are a favorite dress 
with the Chinese and native chieftains), 
boots and shoes, cabinet ware, fire-arms, 
gunpowder, shot, haberdashery, hosiery, 
inathematicial and musical instruments, 
&c. The population of Java is composed 
almost entirely of natives, of a varied dis- 
tinct from the Malays and other inhabit- 
ants of the neighboring islands. In 1815, 
it amounted to 5,000,000, of whom one 
fortieth part were Chinese, Europeans, 
Arabs, Malays and Hindoos. The Java- 
nese are small, with a yellow complexion, 
flattened nose, high cheek bones, and thin 
beard. Their language is entirely differ- 
ent from the Malay ; their religion Moham- 
medanism. Numerous monuments of 
antiquity, buildings, statues, &c., prove 
that they were once in a more flourishing 
condition than at present. Thi"ee quar- 
ters of Java are in the power of the Dutch, 
whose immediate authority extends over 
three fiflhs of the inhabitants. The other 
quarter is divided between two native 
sovereigns in the south-east part of the 
island. Java was discovered oy the Por- 
tnguese in 1510. They made some settie^ 



ments there, which were taken possession 
of by the Dutch, towards the end of the 
sixteenth century. The latter, having 
conquered the native princes, made the 
island the centre of their Indian posses- 
sions in 1619. In 1811, the English made 
themselves masters of it, but restored it at 
the peace of Paris, in 1814. The exac- 
tions and oppressions have since occasion- 
ed several msurrections of the natives. — 
See RafSes's History ofJcsoa (second edi- 
tion, London, 1830); Crawfurd's [British 
resident at Java] .M^Eum Archipelago ; Mar- 
chal's Descript Giog^ Hist, d CoTtimerciale 
dt Java (Brussels, 1826.) Blume, a Dutch 
naturalist, who resided nine years in the 
island, has published a view of the vege- 
table kingdom of Java. 

Jat {garrvlus). These birds are distin- 
guished from the crows by having their 
bill rather short and straight ; upper man- 
dible somewhat inflect^ at tip; lower, 
navicular ; head feathers, erectile ; wings, 
not reaching to the tip of the tall ; colors, 
brilliant. The European jay ( G. gkmda- 
rius) and the blue jay of the U. States (G. 
critiatuji) are the most prominent and best 
known of this genus, and possess much 
the same characteristics, both in their 
virild and their domesticated state. They 
are lively, petulant, and rapid in their 
movements ; exceedingly noisy, having a 
faculty of imitating hareh sounds. When 
an owl or other bird of prey appears in 
the woods, they utter piercing cries, and 
assemble in great numbers to attack the 
common enemy. The same thing takes 
place when they see a sportsman, whose 
purpose they often frustrate by their vo- 
ciferous noise. They indulge no famil- 
iarity with man, and discover all that shy- 
ness and timidi^ so natural to thieves. In 
a domestic state, they are restless, and 
much addicted to transports of aneer. 
When confined in a cage, therefore, they 
soon lose their beauty, by the perpetual 
rubbing and breaking of their feathers. 
Like their kindred, the magpie and jack- 
daw (q. v.), they can be taught a variety 
of words and sounds, particularly those of 
a harsh and grating character, as that of n 
saw, &c. 

Jat, Antoine, a French author, bom 
Oct. 20, 1770, at Guitres, in the depart- 
ment of Gironde, studied at Niort, wnere 
Fouch^ was his instnicter ; a/ier which 
he applied himself to law at Toulouse. 
After having devoted himself to the cause 
of freedom m the revolution, and been im- 
prisoned and released, he travelled in the 
U. States, where he remained seven years. 
After his return in 1802, Fouch^ engaged 

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180 



JAY. 



lilra in the education of his children. His 
prize essays rendered him known, and, in 
IQli^ he became principal editor of the 
Journcd de Parisy and published the Gla^ 
veuTf or Essais de Nicolas Frtemaru In 
181^ the professorship of history at the 
Athenaeum was conferred on him, and his 
inaugural discourse exposed the errors of 
the romantic school (genre rtmumJtiqM)^ 
and of the fashionable prejudice in favor 
of tlie middle ages, which France has re- 
ceived from Germany. During the hun- 
dred days (1815), he was a member of the 
chambeV of deputies, and* employed his 
influence with leading men in ravor of 
many royalists and proscribed persons; 
he always voted in the chamber on the 
liberal side, and therefore demanded a re- 
vision of the Additional Act^ so called, and 
of the senatusconsuUs, which were more 
£ivorable to despotism than to the consti- 
tutional system. After the battle of Wa- 
terloo, he proposed, in the chamber, to 
prince Lucien, to persuade Napoleon to 
abdicate. The address of the French 
government to the French army before 
the gates of Paris, was drawn up by him, 
and carried by him, with Arnault, Garat, 
&c. on the 29th of June, to Davoust's 
head-auarters at La Villette. After the 
second restoration, Jay published his Hts- 
ioirt \hi MinisUre du Cardinai Richelieu 
(1815, 2 vols.), and was afterwards, with 
Etiemie, the editor of the Constitutionnel 
and of the Mnerve. In 1822, he was sum- 
moned with Jouy (see Jouy) to answer for 
some imprudent ex{)ressions in the Biogra- 
phze des ContemporainSf of which they were 
associate editors ; he was acquitted at the 
first trial, but Jouy was sentenced to be im- 
prisoned and fined. Both appealed, and 
the court of appeals condemned both to 
imprisonment, Jan. 29, 1823. He and Jouy 
spent the period of their imprisonment at 
St. P61agie, where they wrote the popular 
work Les Herndtes en Prison, ou Consota- 
turns dc St. PHaffie, par E, Jouy d A, Jay 
(6th ed., Paris, 1826, 2 vols.). After tlieir 
deliverance, they published also, in con- 
junction, Ijcs Hermites en Libert^ (1824). 

Jat, John, an eminent American jurist 
and statesman, was bom in the city of 
New York, Dec. 1, 1745, old style. After 
receiving the elements of education at a 
boarding-school, and under private tuition, 
he was placed, when fbuiteen years of 
a^, at Kind's (now Columbia) college, in 
his native place. Here he devoted him- 
self principally to those branches which 
he deemed most important in reference to 
the profession of the law, upon the study 
of which he entered after receiving his 



bachelor's de^ee. In 1768, he was ad- 
mitted to the oar, and in 1774 was chosen 
a delegate to the first American conmss, 
which met at Philadelphia, and was placed 
on a committee with Mr. Lee and Mr. 
Livingston, to draft an address to the 
people of Ureat Britain. It was prepared 
oy Mr. Jay, and is one of the most elo- 
quent productions of the time. In the 
two following years, he was reelected, and 
served on various important committees. 
In 1776, he was chosen president of con- 
gress. In 1777, he was a member of the 
convention which firamed the constitution 
of New York ; and the first draft of that 
instrument proceeded from his pen. The 
following year, when the government of 
New York was organized, he was appoint- 
ed chief-justice of that state. In 1779, 
we find him a^ain a nxember of congress, 
and in the chair of that body. From this, 
however, he was removed in the same 
year b^ his appointment as minister pleni- 

Jotentiary to Spain. The objects of Mr. 
ay's mission were to obtain fi^m Spain an 
acknowledgment of our independence, to 
form a treaty of alliance, and to procure pe- 
cuniary aid. With regard to the firet two 
points, no satisfiictory conclusion was ob- 
tained, and in the summer of 1782, Mr. 
Jay was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners to negotiate a peace with England, 
at the same time that he was authorized 
to continue the negotiation with Spain. 
In conjunction witli Mr. Adams and doc- 
tor FrankUn, he resolved to disobey the 
instructions' of congress to follow in all 
things the advice or the French minister, 
count de Vergennes, who was embarrBS&- 
ing the negotiation with England, in order 
to benefit France at the expense of the U. 
States, and accordingly they signed a treaty 
with theBritish minister, without his knowl- 
edge. The definitive trea^ having been 
signed in September, 1783, he soon after- 
wards resigned his commissnon as minister 
to Spain, and, in May, 1784, embarked fi)r 
the U. States. He was then placed at the 
head of the department for foreign afiSiirs, 
in which ofiice he continued until the adop- 
tion of the present constitution, when be 
was appointed chief-justice of the U. States. 
In 1787, he received a serious wound in 
the forehead fix)m a stone, when acting as 
one of a volunteer corps to preser\'e the 
peace of the city at the time of the doc- 
tors' mob. He was, in consequence, confin- 
ed to his bed for some time, a circumstance 
which obliged him to discontinue writing 
for the Federalist, to which he had already 
contributed the 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th num- 
bers. The only other number in the vol- 

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JAY-JEFFERSON. 



161 



ume from his pen is the 64th, on the treaty- 
imking power. In 1784, he was sent &s 
envoy extraordinary to Great Britain, and 
concluded the treaty which has been call- 
ed after his name. Before his return in 
1795, he iiad been elected governor of his 
native state — a post which he occupied 
until 1601. In that year, he declined a 
reelection, as well as a reappointment to 
the office of chief-justice of tne U. States, 
and retired to private life. The remain- 
der of his days was passed in devotion to 
study, pauticularly theological, and to prac- 
tical benevolence. He died May 17, 1829, 
univerBally honored and beloved. He was 
a man of inflexible firmness of mind in the 
performance of duty, of great discernment, 
extensive information, and fine talents as a 
writer. Although rather cautious with 
strangers, with friends he was affable and 
frank; economical in his expenses, he was 
at the same time generous towards every 
object worthy of his bounty. The letters 
between him and general Washington, 
various extracts of which are contained in 
the fifth volume of MarBhalPs history, ex- 
hibit the elevated place he held in the con- 
fidence and esteem of that illustrious man. 
Jeddo, Jedo, or Yedoo ; a city of Japan, 
capital of the empire, at the head of a 
\ar^ bay, at the mouth of a river, in the S. E. 
of Niphon ; 160 E. by N. of Meaco. Lon. 
140^ E. ; laL 36° 3(/ N. The population 
lias heretofore been estimated at 1,000,000. 
In 1812-13, the Japanese told to Golownin, 
that the population exceeded 10,000,000; 
tiiat in the principal streets were 280,000 
bouses, each containing from 30 to 40 per- 
sons ; and that in the city there were 
36,000 blind men. Me^co was formerly 
the capital, and is still the residence of the 
spiritual emperor ; but the civil and mili- 
tary emperor has his residence at Jeddo. 
This city is 7 miles long, 5 broad, and 20 
in cucuit. It has no walls, except those 
which surround the palace. It is said not 
to be surpassed in magnificence by any 
city in Asia, since, besides the usual ac- 
companiments of a capita], all the princes 
and great men are obliged to make it their 
residence for half of the year. It con- 
tains, thercibre, many splendid palaces, 
which stand by tliemselves, surrounded by 
large court-yards and stately gates, and, 
though built only of wood, and one story 
high, are distinguished by varnished stair- 
cases and lai'ge and finely ornamented 
apartments. The palace of the emperor 
may be properly called a great fortified 
city. It is situated m the heart of the 
general city, said to be 5 leagues in circuit, 
surrounded with walls and ditches, and 

VOL. VII. 16 



containing several fortified buildings, 
which have the appearance of castles. 
The outer part is composed of streets, 
containing many palaces, in which reside 
the princes of the blood, ministers, and 
other public functionaries. In the centra 
is the emperor's palace, the body of it 
being of only one high story, but adonied 
with a square tower raised many stories 
high. Unlike all other Japanese struc- 
tures, it is well built of fi^eestone, and is 
surrounded by a wall of the same mate- 
rial The city is intersected by branches of 
the river, and by canals. It is the seat of an 
extensive commerce, and has many flour- 
ishing manufiictures. It is greatly exposed 
to the ravages of fire. In 1658, 1(K),000 
houses were reduced to ashes in 48 hours. 
Jefferson, Thomas, the third president 
of the U. States of America, was bom 
April 2, old style, 1743, at Shadwell, in 
Albemarle county, Virginia, and was the 
eldest of eight cliUdren. His father, though 
his education had been entirely neglected 
in early life, being a man of strong mind, 
acquired, by subsequent study, considera- 
ble information. He died when the sub- 
ject of omr sketch was about twelve years 
old, having previously given him every 
means of knowledge that could be pro- 
cured, and left him a considerable estate. 
After going through a course of school 
instruction, young Jeflerson entered the 
college of William and Ma^, where he 
remained for two yeai^s. ife then com- 
menced the study of law under the guid- 
ance of the celebrated George Wythe, by 
whom, in 1767, he was introduced to its 
practice, at the bar of the general court of 
tlie colony, at which he continued until 
the revolution. In 1769, he was elected a 
member of the provincial legislature fi-om 
the county where he resided, and made a 
fruitless effort, m that body, for the eman- 
cipation of the slaves. By this lime, a 
spirit of opposition had been excited m the 
colonies to the arbitrary measures of the 
British government'; and when the gov- 
ernor of Virginia dissolved the general 
assembly, in 1769, in consequence of the 
sympathy which was displayed by the 
majority of its members with the feehngs 
which had been .-manifested in Massachu 
setts, they mety*the next day, in the public 
room of the lUleigh tavern, formed them 
selves into a convention, drow up articles 
of association against the use of any mer- 
chandise imported from Great Britain, and 
signed and recommended them to the 
people. They then repaired to their re- 
spective counties, and were all reelected, 
except those few who had declined assent- 
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182 



JEFFERSON. 



jng to their proceedings. la 1773, Mr. 
Jefferson associated hiiiiself witli sevei'al 
of the boldest and most active of his com- 

rioDS in the house (" not thinking," as 
says himself, ^' tlie old and leading 
members up to the point of forwardness 
and zeal which the times required"), and 
with them formed the system of commit- 
tees of correspondence, in a private room 
of the same Raleigh tavern. This system 
was adopted as the best instrument for 
communication between the different col- 
onies, by which they might be brought to 
a mutual understanding, and a unity of 
action produced. This end was complete- 
ly accomplished, as well as another object 
— ^diat of exciting throughout the colonies 
^ a desire for a general congress. It was 
accordingly resolved that one should be 
held, and in Virginia a convention was 
assembled for the purpose of choosing 
delegates. Of this convention Mr. Jeffer- 
son was elected a member ; but, being sud- 
denly taken ill on the road, as he was re- 
pairing to Williamsburg, its place of meet- 
mg, he sent on to its chairman, Peyton 
Randolph, a draught of instructions which 
he had prepared as proper to be given to 
the delegates who should be sent to con- 
gress, it was laid on the table for peru- 
sal ; but, though approved by many, the 
sentiments contained in it were too bold to 
be adopted by the majority : ^ tamer sen- 
timents,'! in his own words, ** wei-e pre- 
ferred, and, I beUeve, wisely preferred ; the 
leap I proposed being too long, as yet, for 
the mass of our citizetis." The position 
that he maintained was, that the relation 
between Great Britain and the colonies 
was exactly the same as that between 
England and Scodond, after the accession 
of James, and until the union, and the 
same as her relations with Hanover, hav- 
ing the same executive chief, but no other 
necessary political connexion. In this doc- 
trine, however, the only [lersbn who entire- 
ly concurred with him was George Wvthe, 
the other patriots ^ stopping at the half-way 
house of^ John Dickinson, who admitted 
that England had a right to regulate our 
commerce, and to lay duties on it for the 
purposes of regulation, but not of raising 
revenue." Though the paper was not 
adopted, the convention, neverthele8S,caus- 
ed it t6 be printed in a pamphlet form, under 
the title of a Summary View of the Rights 
of British America. Having found its way 
to England, it was taken up by the opposi- 
tion, and, with a few inteipolations of Mr. 
Burke, passed through several editions. It 
procured for its autiior considerable repu- 
-trition, and likewise the dangerous honor of 



having his name placed on a list of pro- 
scriptions, in a bill of attainder, which was 
commenced in one of the houses of par- 
liament, but was speedily suppressed. 
June 21, 1775, Mr. Jefferson took his seat 
for the first time in congress, having been 
chosen to fill the place of Peyton Ran- 
dolph, who had resigned. In this new 
capacitv, he persevered in the decided tone 
which he had assumed, always maintain- 
ing that no accommodation should be 
made between the two countries, unless 
on the broadest and most liberal basis. 
After serving on several committees, he 
was at length appointed a member of that, 
whose report nas linked the name of its 
author witii the history of American inde- 
pendence. June 7, 1776, the delegates 
from Virginia, in compliance with the in- 
structions of the convention, moved that 
congress should declare the United Colo- 
nies free and independent states. This 
eave rise to a w^ai*m and protracted debate ; 
for as yet there* were many who continued 
to cling to the hope of a peaceful adjust- 
ment In the course of the discussion,- it 
appearing that several colonies were not 
yet fully ripe for separation, it was deemed 
prudent to defer the final decision of the 
question for a short time ; and, in the mean 
while, a committee was appointed to pre- 
pare a declaration of independence, cou 
sisting of John Adams, doctor Franklhi, 
Roger Sherman, Robert R. Livingston 
and Mr. Jefferson. The last named gen- 
deman was requested to draw up the pa- 
per, which he did, and it was reported to 
the house, after receiving a few alterations 
fjpom doctor Franklin and Mr. Adams. 
On the first of July, the day selected for 
deciding upon the original motion of the 
Virginia delegates, it was carried in the 
afiirmative by a large majority, and two 
or tiiree days afterwards by a unanimous 
vote. The declaration of independence 
was then brought before the house, by 
which, though generally approved, it was. 
in some respects, modified. Those pas- 
sages, especiallv, which conveyed censure 
upon the people of England, were either 
gready softened, or entirely omitted, as 
the idea was still entertained that the col- 
onies possessed friends in England, whose 
good will it would be proper to cherish 5 
and a clause reprobating the slave-trade 
was cancelled, in compkiisance to some 
of the Southern States, who were largely 
engaged m the trafilc. The debates re- 
n>ecting the declaration occupied three 
days, on the last of which, the 4th of 
July, it was agned by eveiy member pres- 
ent, except John Dickinson, who deemed 



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JEFFERSON. 



163 



a mpture Tvith the mother country, at that 
moment, rash andpremature. September 
2, 1776, Mr. Jefferson retired from his 
Beat in congress, and, on the 7th of Octo- 
ber, took his place in the legislature of 
Virginia, of which he had b^n elected 
a member from his county. In this 
ejtuation, he was indefittigable in his labors 
to improve tl)e imperfect constitution of 
the state, which had been recently and 
hastily adopted, before a draught of one 
which he had formed on the purest prin- 
ciples of republicanism, had reached the 
convention, which was deliberating at 
Richmond. The chief service which he per- 
formed was as a member of a commission 
for revising the laws, consisting, besides 
himself, of Edmund Pendleton, George 
Wythe, George Mason and Thomas Lud- 
"well Lee, by whom no less than 126 bills 
urere prepared, from which are derived 
all the most liberal features of the existing 
laws of the commonwealth. The share 
of Mr. Jefferaon in this great task was 
prominent and laborious. June 1, 1779, 
he was chosen the successor of Mr. Henry, 
in the office of governor of the state, and 
continued in it for two years, at the end 
of which period he resigned, ''from a 
befief^" as he says, ** that, under the pres- 
sure of the invasion iiiulor which we were 
then laboring, the public would have 
more confidence in a militaiy chiefj and 
that, the military commander being in- 
vested with the civil power also, both 
nught be wielded with more energy, 
promptitude and effect, for the defence of 
the state." General Nelson was appointed 
in his stead. Two days afler his retire- 
ment from the government, he narrowly 
escaped capture by the enemy, a troop of 
horse having been despatched to Monti- 
cello, where he was residing, for the pur- 
pose of making him prisoner. He was 
break&sting, when a neighbor rode up at 
fiill speed with the intelli^nce that the 
troop was ascending a neig^hboring hill. 
He first sent off his family in a carriage, 
and, afler a short delay for some indispen- 
sable arrangements, mounted his horse, 
and, taking a course through the woods, 
joined tliem at the house of a friend — a 
flight in which it would be difficult to dis- 
cern any thing dishonorable, although it 
has been made the subject of sarcasm and 
reproach without end, by the spirit of par- 
ty. June 15, 1781, Mr. Jefferson was 
appointed minister plenipotentiary, in con- 
junction with others, to negotiate a peace 
then expected to be effected, througli the 
mediation of the empress of Russia ; but 
he declined, for the same reason that had 



induced him, in 1776, to decline also the 
appointment of a commissioner, with doc- 
tor Franklin, to go to France m order to 
negotiate treaties of alliance and com- 
merce with that government On berth 
occasions, the state of bis family was such 
that he could not leave it, and he ^ could 
not expose it to the dangers of the sea, 
and of capture by the British ships, then 
covering the ocean.** He saw, too, that 
"the laboring oar was really at home," 
especiallv at the time of his first appoint- 
ment, but in November, 1782, congress, 
having received assurances that a general 
l^eace would be concluded in the winter 
and spring, renewed the oiler which 
they had made the previous year ; and this 
time it was accepted ; but the preliminary 
articles being agreed upon beiore he len 
the country, he returned to Monticello, 
and was chosen (June 6, 1783) a member 
of congress. It was during the session at 
Annapolis, that, in consequence of Mr. 
Jefferson's proposal, an executive com- 
mittee was formed, called the commUtee of 
the states, consisting of a member firom 
each state. Previously, executive and 
legisbrdve functions were both imposed 
upon congress ; and it was to obviate the 
bad effects of this junction, that Mr. Jef- 
fprson's proposition was adopted. Suc- 
cess, however, did not attend the plan; 
the members composing the committee 
quarrelled, and, finding it impossible, on 
account of their altercations, to fulfil their 
duties, they abandoned their post, afler a 
short period, and thus left the ^vemment 
without any visible head, durmg the ad- 
journment of congress. May 7, 1784, 
congress, having resolved to appoint anoth- 
er minister, in addition to Mr. Adams and 
doctor Franklin, for negotiating treaties of 
commerce with foreign nations, selected 
Mr. Jefferson, who accordingly sailed from 
Boston July 5, and arrived in Paris Au- 
gust 6. Doctor Franklin was already 
there, and Mr. Adams having, soon after, 
joined them, they entered upon the duties 
of theu- misfflon. They were not very 
successful, however, in forming the de- 
sired commercial treaties, and, afler some 
reflection and experience, it was thouebt 
better not to urge them too strongly. But 
to leave such reflations to flow volunta- 
rily from the amicable dispositions and the 
evident interests of the several nations 
In June, 1785, Mr. Adams repaired to 
London, on beinff appointed minister 
plenipotentiary at the court of St. James, 
and, m July, doctor Franklin returned to 
America, and Mr. Jefferson was named 
his successor at Paris. In the February 



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Ik: 



184 



JEFFERSON- 



of 1786, he received a pressing letter from 
Mr. Adams, requesting him to proceed to 
London immediately, as symptoms of a 
better disposition towards America were 
beginning to appear in the British cabinet, 
than had been manifested ance the treaty 
of peace. On this account, he left Paris 
in the following March, and, on his arrival 
in London, agreed with Mr. Adams on a 
very summary form of treaty, proposing 
'<an exchange of citizenship for our citi- 
zens, our ships, and our productions gen- 
erally, except as to office.'' At the usual 
presentation, however, to the kin| and 
queen, both Mr. Adams and himself were 
received in the most ungracious manner, 
and, after a few vague and ineffectual 
confeiences, he returned to Paris. Here 
he remained, with the exception of a visit 
to HoUand, to Piedmont and the south of 
France, until the autumn of 1789, zeal- 
ously pursuing whatever was beneficial to 
bis cotmtiy. September 26 of that year, 
he left Pans for Havre, and, crossing over 
to Cowes, embarked for the U. States. 
November 23, he landed at Norfolk, Va., 
and, whilst on his way home, received a 
letter fiom president Washington, cover- 
ing the appomtment of secretaiy of state, 
imder the new constitution, which was 
just commencing its operadon. He soon 
afterwards received a seeond letter from 
the same quarter, giving him the option of 
returning to France, in his ministerial ca- 
pacity, or of accepting the secretaryship, 
out conveying a strong intimation of de- 
sire that he would choose the latter office. 
This communication was produced by a 
letter from Mr. Jeflferson to the president, 
in reply to the one first written, in which 
he had expressed a decided inclination to 
go back to the French metropolis. He 
then, however, consented to forego his 
preference, and, Maroh 21, arrived in 
New York, where congress was in session, 
and immediately entered upon the duties 
of his po0L It would be alto^ther incon- 
ristent with our limits to ffive a minute 
account of the rest of Mr. Jefferson's 
political life. This could not be done 
vnthout writing the history of the U. 
States for a certain period. We must, 
therefore, content oureelves with stating 
that he continued to fill the secretaryship 
of state, until the 31st of December, 179^ 
when he resigned. From that period un- 
til February, 1797, he lived in retirement. 
In this year he was elected vice-president 
of the U. States, and, in 1801, was chosen 
president, by a majoriw of one vote over 
nis competitor, Mr. Adams. At the expi- 
ration of eight years he again retired to 



private life, from which he never oftcr- 
wards emerged. The rest of his life was 
passed at Monticello, which was a con- 
tinued scene of the blandest and most 
liberal hospitality. Such, indeed, was the 
extent to which calls upon it were made, 
by foreigners as well as Americans, that 
the closing year of bis life was imbittered 
by distressing pecuniaiy embarrassments. 
He was fon^ to ask permission of the 
Virginia legislature to sell his estate by 
lotteiy, which was granted. Shordy after 
Mr. Jeffeison's return to Monticello, it 
havinff been proposed to form a college in 
his neighborhood, he addressed a letter to 
the trustees, in which he sketched a plan 
for the establishment of a general system 
of education in Virginia. This appeals to 
have led the way to an act of the legida- 
ture, in the year 1818, by which commis- 
sioners were appointed with authority to 
select a site and form a plan for a univer- 
sity, on a large scale. Of these commis- 
noners, Mr. Jeflferson was unanimously 
chosen the chairman, and, Aue. 4, 1818, 
he framed a report, embracing Uie princi- 
plee on which it was proposed the institu- 
tion should be formed. The situation se- 
lected for it was at Chariottesville, a town 
at the foot of the mountain on.\^ch Mr. 
Jefferson resided. He lived to see the 
univei^ity — the child of his old ago— 4n 
prosperous o})cration, and giving promise 
of extensi\'e iisefidness. He fulfilled the 
duties of its rector until a short period 
before his death, which occurred on the 
4th of July, 1836, the fiftieth anniveraaiy 
of the declaration of independence, and 
within the hour in which he had ragned 
it— In person, Mr. Jefierson was tall and 
well formed; his countenance was bland 
and expres^ve; his converaation fluent, 
imaginative, various and eloquent Few- 
men equalled him in the fiicultv of pleas- 
ing in personal intercourse, ana acquiring 
ascendency in political connexion. He 
was the acknowledged head of the repub- 
hcan party, from the period of its organi- 
zation down to that or his retirement finom 
public life. The unbounded praise and 
blame which he received as a politician, 
must be left fcr the judgment of the histo- 
rian and posterity. In the four volumes 
of his posthumous worics, edited by his 
grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph^ 
mere are abundant materials to guide 
the literaiy or historical critic in form- 
ing an estimate of his powers, acquire- 
ments, feelings and opinions. His name 
is one of the brightest in the revolutioimry 
galaxy. Mr. Jefferson was a zealous cul- 
tivator of literature and science. As early 



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JEFFERSON-JEFFREYS. 



185 



tm 17B1, he was ^vorebly known as an 
author, by his Notes on Vii^ginia. He 
published, also, various essays on political 
and philosophical subjects, and a Manual 
of Parliamentary Practice, for the Use of 
the Senate of the U. States. In the year 
1800, the French national institute chose 
Lim one of their foreign members. The 
Tolumes of posthumous works, in addition 
to an auto-biography of the author to the 
year 1790, consist principally of letters 
from the year 1775 to the time of his 
death, and embrace a great variety of sub- 
jects. 

Jeffrey of Monmouth. (See Geoffireif,) 
Jeffrkt, Francis, lord advocate oi 
Scotland, son of George Jeffrey, one of the 
deputy clerks of session in Scotland, was 
bom in Edinburgh, Oct. 23, 177a He 
received the rudiments of education at the 
high school of Edinburgh, and, in 1787, 
was entered at the university of Glasgow. 
Afler having remained at Glasgow four 
years, he removed to Oxford, and was ad- 
mitted of Queen's college, in 1791. In 
1795, he was called to the bar. His sec- 
ond wife, whom he married hi 1814, is a 
daughter of Mr. Wilkes of New York, 
and grand-niece of John Wilkes. In very 
early life, Mr. Jeffrey displayed the prom- 
ise of splendid talents, and his father 
spared no pains in his education. While 
Mr. Jefirey resided at Edinburgh, he en- 
lEaged actively in the literary societies of 
that city, and was one of the most con- 
spicuous members of the Speculative Soci- 
ety. At the bar, the success of Mr. Jeffrey 
was, however, long doubtful, and it was 
not for many years that he acc|uired ex- 
tensive practice. Yet his abilities as an 
advocate are of the first order. In acute- 
ness, prompmess and clearaess ; in the art 
of illustrating, stating and arranging ; in 
extent of legal knowledge ; in sparkling 
wit, keen satire, and strong and flowing elo- 
quence, he has few equals. But though 
Mr. Jeffiey is known at home as the head 
of the Scottish bar, it is to his literaiy 
character that he owes his general reputa- 
tion. As the editor and one of the leading 
writers in the Edinburgh review, for a 
period of 30 years (the editorship has 
lately passed to Mr. Napier), he has been 
a sort of literary despot, rendered terrible 
by his merciless sarcasm and acute criti- 
cism. His duel